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Myers PSYCHOLOGY (9th Edition in Modules). Module 1 The Story of Psychology. Psychology’s Roots. Prescientific Psychology

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Myers PSYCHOLOGY (9th Edition in Modules)

Module 1

The Story of Psychology


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Psychology’s Roots

Prescientific Psychology

  • Is the mind connected to the body or distinct? Ancient Greeks speculated about the source of human knowledge, the nature of the mind and soul, the relationship of mind to body, and the possibility of scientifically studying these things.

  • Are ideas inborn or is the mind a blank slate filled by experience?


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Empiricism

  • knowledge comes from experience via the senses

  • Empiricists like John Locke challenged the idea of the “tabula rasa.” Plato and Descartes believed in the “blank slate.” (1600s)

  • science flourishes through observation and experiment


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Wilhelm Wundt

  • Wilhelm Wundt opened the first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig (c. 1879).

  • Wundt believed Psychology should study consciousness and focused on structuralism, the structure of the human mind.


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Structuralism

  • Structuralism used introspection (looking in) to explore the elemental structure of the human mind


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Functionalism

  • Functionalism focused on how behavioral processes function- how they enable organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

  • William James suggested considering the function of thoughts and feelings rather than the structure. For example, smelling is what the nose does and smelling developed because it is adaptive.


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Early Psychologists

  • Sigmund Freud: (1856-1939): Discovered the unconscious mind and developed Psychodynamic theory, a theory of development and a theory of personality.

  • John B. Watson: Felt the study of consciousness or the unconscious mind was a waste of time and that psychology should only study overt behavior. B.F. Skinner developed operant conditioning and the functional analysis of behavior.


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Psychology’s Roots

British Psychological Society membership


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Psychology is currently defined as:

A. the study of individual experience.

B. the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

C. the study of mental life.

D. the scientific study of observable behavior.


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Contemporary Psychology

  • Psychology

    • the science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts, beliefs, and feelings)


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Nature vs. Nurture

  • Nature-Nurture Controversy

    • the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to development of psychological traits and behaviors


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Human Diversity and Psychology

  • Women hold 44% Psychological doctorate degrees, and earn 67% of new doctorates each year.

  • Sociocultural variables such as social identity, ethnicity, gender, social class and culture are considered important in the study of psychology and the treatment of individuals.

    • Individualist vs. Collectivist Cultures

  • Gilbert Haven Jones: African American who received his Ph.D. in psych. In Germany 1909

  • J. Henry Alston: Engaged in research on perception of heat and cold and was the first African American psychologist to be published in a major psych journal (1920).

  • Mary Whiton Calkins: Refused a degree from Radcliffe (Harvard’s University for women) when she graduated Harvard with a doctoral degree in the late 1800s. First female President of the APA in 1905.

  • Margaret Washburn: Left Columbia University because of discrimination and became the first woman to earn a doctorate in Psycholgy from Cornell.



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John B. Watson is most likely to say:

A. “A person needs unconditional love and acceptance in order to reach her true potential.”

B. “A person’s behavior reflects unconscious conflicts and emotions that result from early childhood experiences.”

C. “Emotional responses reflect biological processes such as hormones and brain chemistry.

D. “Science must be rooted in observation of behavior, rather than introspective processes.”


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Subfields of psychology

  • There are three categories of jobs in Psychology:

    • Applied: Use principles of psychology to improve schools, organizations and industry.

    • Therapeutic: Meet with clients to help improve psychological functioning

    • Research/Experimental: Conduct research on any topic in psychology.

      • Pure research: for its own sake

      • Applied research: intended to address a specific problem


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Applied subfields of Psychology:

  • Community: work to obtain services for underserved client groups and prevent psychological problems by working for changes in social systems.

  • Industrial-Organizational: Help improve the performance of people in business and organizations.

  • Sports : Help improve the performance of people in sports.

  • Educational: Develop programs to improve learning for entire schools or school systems.

  • Engineering (Human factors): Make technical systems more user-friendly

  • Health: Use behavioral principles to improve health

  • Forensic: Work with the criminal justice system

  • Consumer: Study the behavior of shoppers


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Therapeutic Subfields of Psychology

  • Clinical: Ph.D.: Treat people with psychological disorders

  • Counseling: MA or Ph.D.: Treat people with adjustment problems and relationship issues.

  • Psychiatric: MD: Can prescribe medication. Treat people with psychological disorders

  • School: Work with individual children to improve learning.


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Experimental Subfields of Psychology

  • Research can be conducted on any topic in psychology. Examples include:

    • Cognitive: thinking and mental processes

    • Biological: physiological, neuroscientists

    • Personality

    • Developmental

    • Quantitative: Develop statistical methods for analyzing psychological data

    • Social: Study the behavior of people in social situations


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Dr. Frye conducts research investigations on memory, with the intent of contributing to what is known about human memory processes. Dr. Frye conducts:

A. professional service.

B. applied research.

C. basic research.

D. psychiatry.


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Tips for Studying Psychology the intent of contributing to what is known about human memory processes. Dr. Frye conducts:

  • SQ3R

    • survey - Take a look at the module before you begin to study it.  Notice how it is organized.

    • question -Form a question that you will answer by studying the module or section of the book.

    • read -Search for the answer to your question.  Don't read more than you can absorb in a single sitting.

    • rehearse - in your own words, what you have read. 

    • review -re-read your notes and review the module or section.


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How To Succeed in Dr. Piercy’s Class: the intent of contributing to what is known about human memory processes. Dr. Frye conducts:

  • ATTEND CLASS EVERY DAY!

  • Learn to think critically – Think while you learn by analyzing and questioning what you are being asked to believe.

  • In class, listen actively - Do the reading  -BEFORE you come to class.  PRINT OUT THE NOTES AND USE THEM AS A GUIDE WHILE YOU READ.  Rely on the notes during lecture so you can actively participate in class.

  • Overlearn – Most people over-estimate their learning.

  • Distribute your time (Don't wait until the night before a test to begin studying)

  • Be a smart test-taker – Don’t use too much time on one question. RELAX – remember that a single test is unlikely to make or break your grade.


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