Changes in Automatic Fare Collection. by Aaron Berkovich for Prof. Kopec’s CIS-763 Spring “03. AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTION. Changes noticed as soon as they come Used to be focused on single operators Currently focused to meet regional mobility. Brief history of fare control in New York City.
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by Aaron Berkovich for Prof. Kopec’s CIS-763
Changes noticed as soon as they come
Used to be focused on single operators
Currently focused to meet regional mobility
1994 – Introduction of MetroCard at
selected subway stations and buses.
May 15, 1997 – MetroCard
is accepted all over the
NYC Transit system.
July 4, 1997 – Free bus-subway
and subway-bus transfers are introduced.
January 1, 1998 – Introduction of the one-fare bonus for each $15 spent on a card.
July 4, 1998 – Unlimited ride MetroCards are introduced.
TOKEN: nice to passengers, headache to TA
In face of a coming fare hike, passengers could save money by purchasing tokens in advance, unless TA introduced new tokens as happened in 1995.
METROCARD: nice to TA, not as nice to passengers:
AFC system can be reprogrammed as soon as the new fare is effective. No reason to change cards. No way to save money by advanced purchase.Dealing with fare hikes
Used in Credit, Debit, ATM cards
Data are recorded to, read or erased from the magnetic stripe, similar to sound or video recording.
Stripe has particles; each particle is given a magnetic polarity
Data are recorded in tracks. The more tracks a stripe has, the more data it can store. ATM cards usually have three tracks.
Standards are established for materials from which a card or a stripe is made, stripe locations, track locations, and data encoding methods
8-bit chip microprocessor embedded in a card
available for either or both contact or proximity (non-contact) reading
Card as active participant in “conversation”
1 kilobyte of RAM, 24 kilobytes of ROM, 16 kilobytes of programmable ROM, and an 8-bit microprocessor running at 5 MHz
Widely used in Europe, but not so much in America
Relatively high data density
Security against casual counterfeiting
Initial cost per card
Potential magnetic damage to low coercivity stripes
Large memory allows to “personalize” each card for its user
Multi-application use is possible (though not so widespread in the U.S., but widely used this way by many European transit systems)
potential for physical damageMagnetic Stripe vs. Smart Card: advantages and limitations
First smart card AFC system in the U.S., started in 1999
Based on GO CARD® System, developed by Cubic Transportation Systems
Number of cards in use exceeded 100 in year 2000
used in place of a Metrorail paper farecard
earns a 10% bonus value when $20 or more is added using cash, credit or ATM card
maximum value of $180 (plus bonus) can be added onto a SmarTrip card
Completely replaced tokens by 1999
$1 bonus for each $10 spent
Unlimited-ride cards also available
Started in 2000 with Smart Card pilot program
Costs $5 even if has no money on it
A card can hold any amount from $0.05 to $100
Permanent store-value card, unlike the magnetic-stripe Transit Cards, which has expiration date
Chicago Card contains no magnetic material and therefore cannot be demagnetizedCTA: Transit Card vs. Chicago Card
Involved in mass transportation market since 1971
The only company still in business since those times: all its competitors came and left this business
Designs different kinds of AFC systems: magnetic stripe, smart card, automated ticketing
Designed AFC systems worldwide: New York, Chicago, Sydney, Singapore, and many others
UK/European operations are the largest part
In December ’01, Governor Pataki approved the first step toward the adoption of an integrated region-wide transit fare payment system. The new $51 million fare collection system, approved by the Board on Thursday, will ensure that the PATH system accepts both "smart cards" and MTA MetroCards. Using this technology, PATH riders, and eventually riders of other regional transit systems, will be able to deduct transit fare purchases against user accounts that can be linked to a credit card, as is done with E-Z Pass accounts. Riders who use both PATH and NYCTA subways and buses will also be able to use MetroCards in both systems, marking the first integration of MetroCards into other transit systems. The new smart card fare collection system, expected to be in place on PATH within two years, is designed to be accepted eventually on subway, bus and rail lines throughout the region.