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Accessing information from a different point of view Giovanni Ciaffoni – Giovanni Cellucci C.I.S.A.D. C entro I nformatico S perimentazione A usili D idattici c/o Istituto dei ciechi “Francesco Cavazza” Via Castiglione, 71 - 40124 Bologna

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Accessing information from a different point of view l.jpg

Accessing information from a different point of view

Giovanni Ciaffoni – Giovanni Cellucci

C.I.S.A.D.Centro Informatico Sperimentazione Ausili Didattici

c/o Istituto dei ciechi “Francesco Cavazza”

Via Castiglione, 71 - 40124 Bologna

e-mail: [email protected] - [email protected]


Typical ways of writing and reading for blind people l.jpg
Typical ways of writing and reading for blind people

  • Tablet and punch

  • Braille typewriter

  • Books in braille


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Typical ways of writing and reading for partially sighted people

  • Exercise book with rules and squares in relief

  • Proper tools for writing (felt-tip pen)

  • Textbooks written using enlarged fonts


Hardware and software aids for blind people l.jpg
Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Input

  • A teaching methodology could consider the use of an electronic braille keyboard (e.g. BREAK)

  • Normal (-ly excellent!) use of a QWERTY keyboard.

    “A good typist is a blind one”


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Preliminary remark

  • Typical braille character: 26=64 possible schemes (characters)

  • Computer braille character 28=256 possible schemes (characters)

    Braille code  Binary code

    Braille character  Byte

    Braille dot  bit


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Output

BRAILLE DISPLAY

  • Connected to the pc it works as a monitor in braille and gives the blind person an easy way to access the information, except for pictures. It shows a small portion of the screen.

  • It is composed of a row of eight dots piezoelectric characters (normally 40).

  • Each character is written and erased million of times thanks to the peculiar electronic components which provide a rapid, soundless and efficient movement.


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Output

Vocal synthesizer

  • Analogous to the braille display.

  • It makes the interaction between the blind person and the computer easier. Without moving the hands the blind can read and have an immediate feedback when writing.


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Output

SCREEN READER

  • The “screen reader” must go through the graphic and textual components of the software and try to translate everything in a comprehensible form for the braille display or the speech.

  • It works using the graphic card information.

  • Speech synthesizer and braille display are coordinated by the screen reader and are able to work together on a same machine in order to give the blind the most of the information available.

    Screen reader and braille display and/or speech synthesizer constitute the screen for a blind person.


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Input/output

SCANNER AND OCR

  • Every input/output device can be handled by a blind person using the screen reader. The scanner is one of the most important devices for a blind person.

  • Using a scanner and an OCR (Optical character Recognition) program, a blind person can get all the information available in a textual format unless it is handwritten.


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Hardware and software aids for blind people people

Output

BRAILLE EMBOSSER AND DEDICATED SOFTWARE

  • Any digital information can be printed. A text, can be printed, using specific commands, through a braille embosser, on a board, getting as a result braille text in high-relief.

  • A conversion must be carried out, in order to obtain six dots braille from the digital text, which normally would lead to eight dots braille.


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Aids for partially sighted people people

Hardware screen magnifier

They’re system made up of a video camera which sends the signal directly to a screen.

  • Fixed devices;

  • Portable devices;

  • That can be connected to a tv or computer screen;

  • Hardware mounted on glasses.


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Aids for partially sighted people people

Software screen magnifiers

  • They let the user enlarge the screen content, application windows, menus, etc. from 2 up to 16 times their normal size and can follow the movements of the mouse.

  • They normally provide a speech syntesis too.

  • They can highlight words and sentences when reading.


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Aids for dyslexic people people

Software programs which help people who have difficulties in reading and writing.

Main peculiarities:

  • Predective text;

  • Speech synthesizer with phonetic spelling;

  • Virtual keyboard;

  • Pictures in sentences

Anastasis - Bologna


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Digital books people

  • Writer work

  • Publisher work

  • Digital version

    (e.g.: PDF) and printed

    publication


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PDF Accessibility people

  • Totally inaccessible (graphic);

  • Totally inaccessible (textual but use of non common fonts);

  • Accessible but blocks of text ordered in a non logic sequence;

  • Totally accessible.

    A quick demonstration is following


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Scientific books people

  • Main problem:

    • Translation of the formulas from a bidimensional form to a linear form

Latex?

XML(MathML)?


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