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The Brookings Institution. Metropolitan Policy Program Audrey Singer, Immigration Fellow. The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways: Metropolitan Washington in Context. National Equal Opportunity Conference U.S. Department of Labor and the National Association of Workforce Boards August 11-13, 2004.

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Metropolitan Policy Program Audrey Singer, Immigration Fellow

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The Brookings Institution

Metropolitan Policy ProgramAudrey Singer, Immigration Fellow

The Rise of New Immigrant Gateways:

Metropolitan Washington in Context

National Equal Opportunity Conference

U.S. Department of Labor and the National Association of Workforce Boards

August 11-13, 2004


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Immigration Headlines from Census 2000

More immigrants entered the United States in the 1990s than in any previous decade

Immigrants are settling in many new places with little history of immigration

The challenges of incorporating immigrants will be a growing issue in many places in the United States


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The nation’s primary Gateway States are shifting

From Northeast

and Southwest

To Southeast

and Mountain West


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The share of the U.S. population that is foreign-born is lower at the end of the 20th century than at the start

Number of foreign-born and share of population, United States,

1900-2000

Source: Lindsay and Singer, “Changing Faces: Immigrants and Diversity

in the Twenty-First Century,” June 2003


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Source countries have reversed—from primarily European to primarily non-European

1900-1920

1980-2000


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Few cities maintained their status as gateways throughout the 20th century

1900

2000


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Former Gateways attracted large numbers of immigrants in the early 1900s but no longer do


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Continuous Gateways are long-established and continuing destinations for immigrants


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Post-World War II Gateways began attracting immigrants during the second half of the 20th century


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Emerging Gateways experienced rapid immigrant growth over the past 20 years


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Re-emerging Gateways waned as destinations in the middle part of the century, but have rebounded recently


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Three factors help classify metropolitan gateways for immigration:

SIZE of the metropolitan area and of the foreign-born population

RATE of GROWTH and PERCENT foreign-born population

DOMINANCE, PERSISTANCE, and HISTORY of the settlement of the foreign born


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Five types of metropolitan immigrant gateways in 2000

Former (8)

Baltimore

Buffalo

Cleveland

Detroit

Milwaukee

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

St. Louis

Continuous (9)

Boston

Chicago

Jersey City

Newark

New York

Bergen-Passaic NJ

Middlesex-Somerset NJ

Nassau-Suffolk, NY

San Francisco

Re-Emerging (9)

Denver

Minneapolis-St. Paul

Oakland

Philadelphia

Phoenix

Portland

Sacramento

San Jose

Seattle

Tampa

Emerging (7)

Atlanta

Dallas

Fort Worth

Las Vegas

Orlando

Washington, DC

West Palm Beach

Post-WWII (7)

Fort Lauderdale

Houston

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside-San Bernardino

San Diego

Miami


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Five types of metropolitan immigrant gateways in 2000 (plus one more)

Continuous (9)

Boston

Chicago

Jersey City

Newark

New York

Bergen Passaic NJ

Middlesex-Somerset NJ

Nassau-Suffolk, NY

San Francisco

Former (8)

Baltimore

Buffalo

Cleveland

Detroit

Milwaukee

Philadelphia

Pittsburgh

St. Louis

Pre-emerging (5)

Austin

Charlotte

Greensboro-Winston Salem

Raleigh-Durham

Salt Lake City

Re-Emerging (9)

Denver

Minneapolis-St. Paul

Oakland

Philadelphia

Phoenix

Portland

Sacramento

San Jose

Seattle

Tampa

Emerging (7)

Atlanta

Dallas

Fort Worth

Las Vegas

Orlando

Washington, DC

West Palm Beach

Post-WWII (7)

Fort Lauderdale

Houston

Los Angeles

Orange County

Riverside-San Bernardino

San Diego

Miami


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Continuous and Post-WWII Gateways still dominate, but Emerging and Re-Emerging are growing faster


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Population growth in Continuous and Post-WWII Gateways depends more on immigration than in Emerging Gateways


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Immigrant residence in the 1980s and 1990s favored suburban areas

Foreign Born in Cities and Suburbs, 45 metro areas (in millions)


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Immigrants in Emerging Gateways are more likely to live in the suburbs

Emerging

Former

Post-WWII

Re-emerging

Pre-emerging

Continuous


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Metropolitan Washington ranks 7th in number of

foreign-born residents

Top Ten Immigrant Populations by Metropolitan Area, 2000

Source: US Census Bureau


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Metropolitan Washington’s foreign-born population grew by 70 percent in the 1990s, or nearly 350,000 immigrants

Immigrants in the Washington Metropolitan Region 1970-2000

1970

1980

1990

2000


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Washington Metropolitan Area in 2000

FREDERICK

BERKELEY

JEFFERSON

MONTGOMERY

CLARKE

LOUDOUN

DC

WARREN

PRINCE

GEORGE'S

FAIRFAX

FAUQUIER

PRINCE

WILLIAM

CALVERT

CHARLES

CULPEPER

STAFFORD

KING

GEORGE

SPOTSYLVANIA

ARLINGTON

ALEXANDRIA


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The District’s share of the foreign born in Metropolitan Washington has declined from 26% to 9%, while suburban shares have grown

1970

Total Foreign Born 127,579

2000

Total Foreign Born 832,016

Share of Foreign Born by Jurisdiction, 1970 and 2000


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In 1990, immigrants resided close to the core of the region…

Source: US Census Bureau


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…by 2000, the core of the region became more densely settled, while the suburban areas increased their shares

Source: US Census Bureau


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More than one-quarter of the population of Arlington, Alexandria and Montgomery counties are foreign born

Share Foreign Born by Jurisdiction, Washington Metropolitan Area, 2000

Source: US Census Bureau


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Washington has the second largest Salvadoran community in the United States, however, they constitute only 13 percent of the region’s immigrants in 2000

Source: US Census Bureau


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Many neighborhoods across the region have high shares of immigrant residents

Largest Share Foreign-Born, by Selected Place, 2000


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Percent of the Total Population that is Foreign Born in Selected Places, 2000

SILVER SPRING (35.2%)

El Salvador 22.5

Ethiopia 5.6

Vietnam 5.4

Other Western Africa 3.8

Guatemala 3.7

LOGAN CIRCLE/SHAW (23.9%)

El Salvador 25.2

Guatemala 11.6

Mexico 10.1

China 7.4

Vietnam 4.0

ANNANDALE (34.5%)

Vietnam15.6

Korea15.2

Bolivia 8.4

El Salvador 7.9

India 4.0

Source: US Census Bureau


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Compared with other immigrant gateways, Washington’s

poverty rates for foreign-born residents is lower

Source: US Census Bureau

The Brookings Institution


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The share of poor immigrants varies across jurisdictions; the

core has higher shares, inner suburbs have larger numbers

Source: US Census Bureau

The Brookings Institution


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Six Implications for Local Leaders

Understand local immigration dynamics

Encourage civic engagement

Bring cultural and language sensitivity to service delivery

Build English language capacity

Provide workforce support

Create linkages to mainstream institutions


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www.brookings.edu/metro


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