The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability to the Physical Domain
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The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability to the Physical Domain Julien Chanal , Philippe Sarrazin Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Grenoble, France Herbert W. Marsh SELF Research Center and University of Western Sydney, Australia. MARC. PAUL.

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The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability to the Physical Domain

Julien Chanal , Philippe Sarrazin

Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Grenoble, France

Herbert W. Marsh

SELF Research Center and University of Western Sydney, Australia


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MARC Physical Domain

PAUL

What is the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect ?


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Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and Physical Domain

Social Comparison Theory

A frame of reference model in educational settings

Classmates abilities are used to elaborate individuals self-concept

BFLPE occurs when equally able students have lower self-concepts when they compare themselves to more able students, and higher self-concepts when they compare themselves with less able students


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Positive Effects Physical Domain

of Gymnastics

Skills on

Gymnastics

Individual

Individual

Self-concept

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

+ +

Skills

-

+ +

Negative Effects of

Class-Average

Class-Average

Gymnastics Skills on

Gymnastics

Gymnastics Self-

Skills

concept (BFLPE)

Theoritical predictions of BFLPE


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Generalizability previous works Physical Domain

Marsh and Craven (2002)

The pivotal role of frames of reference in academic self-concept: The “big-fish-little-pond” effect

Marsh and Hau (2003)

Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Academic Self-Concept

A Cross-Cultural (26 countries) Test of the Negative Effects of Academically Selective Schools


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Few investigations on moderators of the BFLPE Physical Domain

No previous study in Physical Activity or Sport Domain

Generalizability

Empirical evidences for BFLPE generalizability

in different domains and different cultures

BUT


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Potential moderator Physical Domain

Self-Determination Theory (e.g., Deci & Ryan, 2002)

« To be self-determined is to endorse one’s actions at the highest level of reflection. When self-determined, people experience a sense of freedom to do what is interesting, personally important, and vitalizing »

Self-determined individuals appeared less influenced by social comparison in situation where others perform a task near them

(Neighbours & Knee, 2003)


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The study goals Physical Domain

First goal (1)

1 a) BFLPE Generalizability to Physical Education Classes

1 b) BFLPE Generalizability across gender and level of achievement

Second goal (2)

Self-determination as a moderator


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The Study Physical Domain

Design

406 Students from 17 French Physical Education Classes

10 weeks Gymnastics Training-program

2 measurement times


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The Study Physical Domain

Measures

Time 1

Gymnastics Self-concept and Gymnastics Skills

Self-determined motivation for Gymnastics Activity

Time 2

Gymnastics Self-concept


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Time 1 Self-Concept Physical Domain

Generalizability to physical activity ?

.59

Individual

Individual

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

Skills

-.46

Class-Average

Gymnastics

Skills


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Time 2 Self-Concept Physical Domain

Generalizability to physical activity ?

.61

Individual

Individual

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

Skills

-.68

Class-Average

Gymnastics

Skills


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+ + Physical Domain

T1 Individual

T1 Individual

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

-

Self-concept

Skills

+ +

+ +

+

T1 Class-

T2 Individual

Average

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

-

Skills

Theoretical predictions for additional BFLPE from the start to the end of the program


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Generalizability to physical activity ? Physical Domain

T1 Individual

T1 Individual

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

Skills

.72

.18

T1 Class-

T2 Individual

Average

Gymnastics

Gymnastics

Self-concept

-.35

Skills


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Results (1a) Physical Domain

BFLPE appeared at Time 1 AND Time 2

BFLPE was more important at Time 2

BFLPE had effect on 10 week Self-concept change



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Results (1b) Physical Domain

No BFLPE differences

among gender and level of achievement

on Time 1 and Time 2 self-concept

and on self-concept change

Results to appear in :

Chanal J., Marsh H., Sarrazin P., & Bois, J. (Accepted for publication).The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect on Gymnastics Self-concept: Generalizability of Social Comparison Effects to a Physical Setting. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology.



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BFLPE moderation during the program ? Physical Domain

BFLPE moderation by student’s initial self-determined motivation on self-concept change


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Results (2) Physical Domain

Self-determined people were less influenced by negative effect of class-average skills level (the BFLPE) during the 10 weeks gymnastics program


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Implications Physical Domain

BFLPE can be generalized to physical activity domains

Implications for Elite Athletes Training Center and for National Teams

Implications for Educational practitioners

BFLPE moderation by Student’s self-determined motivation

Implications for future researches

Implications for Educational practitioners


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Limitations Physical Domain

Some replications in elite sport contexts are needed to broad further conclusions

Statisticals analyses implies to consider a larger sample size considering moderators effects


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Thank You !! Physical Domain


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The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect: Generalizability to the Physical Domain

Julien Chanal , Philippe Sarrazin

Laboratoire Sport et Environnement Social, Grenoble, France

Herbert W. Marsh

SELF Research Center and University of Western Sydney, Australia


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