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Terminology for giving birth – “Parturition”. Cattle – calve Sheep – lamb Swine – farrow Horses – foal Dogs – whelp Cats – queen Goats – kid. Hormones of female reproduction. Hormone Source Function estrogen follicle estrus; mating behavior uterine growth, mucus

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terminology for giving birth parturition
Terminology for giving birth – “Parturition”
  • Cattle – calve
  • Sheep – lamb
  • Swine – farrow
  • Horses – foal
  • Dogs – whelp
  • Cats – queen
  • Goats – kid
hormones of female reproduction
Hormones of female reproduction

Hormone Source Function

estrogen follicle estrus; mating behavior

uterine growth, mucus

progesterone corpus luteum maintain pregnancy

prostaglandin uterus kills corpus luteum

FSH pituitary follicle development

LH pituitary ovulation

formation of CL

lh and fsh during the estrous cycle
LH and FSH During the Estrous Cycle

LH

Progesterone

Hormone Concentration

FSH

5

10

15

Estrus

Estrus

Days Relative to Estrus

the estrous cycle in cattle
The Estrous Cycle in Cattle

LH

2nd

1st

Progesterone

Wave

Wave

Hormone Concentration

Estradiol

FSH

5

10

15

Estrus

Estrus

Days Relative to Estrus

avian reproductive tract see figure 11 13
Avian Reproductive Tract See Figure 11-13

Purdue University;

Avian Sciences Net

reproduction in poultry
Reproduction in Poultry
  • Female
    • Right ovary & oviduct fail to develop after hatching
    • ovulate starting at puberty starting at 20-25 weeks
    • 24+ hours from one ovulation to next
chicken reproductive tract
Chicken reproductive tract

Oviduct

Ovum

Ovary

(University of Alberta & CBHEMA, 1999)

chicken ovary
Chicken ovary

(University of Alberta & CBHEMA, 1999)

slide9

Oviduct:infundibulum – 30 min

– egg pickup; sperm storage, fertilization

magnum - 3 hrs

– secretes albumen

isthmus – 1.5 hrs

– adds shell membranes

Uterus – 18-20 hrs

– shell formation

New yolk is ovulated 30 min after laying egg

Purdue University; Avian Sciences Net

Fig 11-13 and 11-14 in book

male reproduction
Male reproduction
  • Organs
    • Gonads – testicles
        • supported by scrotum (none in poultry)
      • Temperature regulation in testes
        • blood vessel system to exchange heat in blood – pampiniform plexus
        • muscle to raise and lower testes – cremaster muscle
        • muscles in scrotum contract and expand
male reproduction13
Male reproduction
  • Organs
    • Testicles-cont.
      • Produce gametes; spermatozoa
        • spermatogenesis – process of production & development of male gametes
        • occurs in seminiferous tubules
      • Produce male sex hormones (androgens)
        • testosterone by interstitial cells
bull reproductive tract

See Fig. 11-6

Bull reproductive tract

University of Kentucky; AgriPedia

male reproduction17
Male reproduction
  • Organs
    • Epididymis

Concentration, storage, maturation, & transport of spermatozoa

    • Vas deferens– transport of spermatozoa from epididymis to urethra
    • Urethra – common excretory duct for urine & semen (not present in birds)
    • Accessory glands
      • add fluid volume, nutrients, and buffers to semen
      • sperm + accessory gland fluid = SEMEN
      • 3 Accessory glands:

1 prostate gland

2 seminal vesicles

2 bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland

male reproduction18
Male reproduction
  • Organs
    • Penis– organ of copulation

Types include:

      • fibroelastic –

- sigmoid flexure (S-shaped portion) straightens upon erection; allows for extension

- bull, ram, boar

      • vascular – increased blood flow causes engorgement/erection

- stallion

penis types
Penis types

FIBROELASTIC

BULL

BOAR

RAM

STALLION

VASCULAR

reproductive management tools
Reproductive management tools
  • Artificial insemination

Why is AI used?

      • maximize genetic improvement
        • greater access to superior genetics; individual matings
      • reduce mating costs
      • control reproductive diseases
      • use of dead or injured sires
      • Safety
semen collection in males
Semen Collection in Males
  • Electroejaculation
  • Massage accessory glands
  • Hand pressure (boars)
reproductive management tools24
Reproductive management tools
  • Artificial insemination

Some keys to success are:

      • detection of estrus
        • behavioral changes
        • standing to be mounted; restless
      • proper timing of insemination
        • viable sperm available at time of ovulation
        • breed ~12 hours before ovulation
      • technician skill
        • correct placement of semen in reproductive tract
        • cervix
reproductive management
Reproductive management
  • Artificial insemination

Species use of AI

Dairy - 70% of all cows

Poultry– 95% turkeys; difficult natural mating: chickens use natural mating

Swine – >80%

Horses– increasing with greater use of extended semen

Beef - < 10% of all cows, increasing

Sheep – increasing but limited; flocks dispersed

ai procedures in females
AI procedures in females

Sheep

-surgical or speculum

Swine

-corkscrew

Horses

- like cattle

See Figure 11-9 in text – much better!

reproductive management27
Reproductive management
  • Estrous synchronization – controlling estrous cycle so females express estrus around same time
    • Reasons to use:

1. with AI - decrease expense of time & labor for detection of estrus

2. for success of embryo transfer

    • Methods:

1. hormonal – induce ovulation; restart estrous cycle; suppress estrus

2. natural – weaning (sows & beef cattle)

reproductive management28
Reproductive management
  • Embryo transfer (ET) – transferring fertilized embryos from one female to another

How is ET used?

    • superovulate and inseminate donor cow
    • synchronize estrus of recipient females
    • flush embryos of donor and transfer to recipient or freeze

Why is ET used?

maximize use of superior genetics (females)

- many offspring/female/year

slide29

Figure 11–7:  Specific cleavage stages at given times after fertilization in the cow (281-day gestation) and the sow (114-day gestation). (Source: Bearden and Fuquay, 1997, p. 91. Used with permission.)

parturition
Parturition
  • Initiated by the fetus – stress
    • Corticosterone from Adrenal
    • Decreased progesterone
  • Foals and lambs – like cattle
  • Piglets – either way
  • Oxytocin – contractions
  • Relaxin – birth canal expansion
  • Estrogen, Prostaglandin
reproductive management32
Reproductive management
  • Breeding Soundness Exams
      • to determine physical ability of an animal to breed
      • typically males
    • Evaluates:
    • Physical attributes
      • body condition, health,
    • Reproductive Anatomy
      • testicle size; organ abnormalities (ie. penis)
    • Semen Quality
      • semen color & volume; sperm concentration & abnormalities
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