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Terminology for giving birth – “Parturition”. Cattle – calve Sheep – lamb Swine – farrow Horses – foal Dogs – whelp Cats – queen Goats – kid. Hormones of female reproduction. Hormone Source Function estrogen follicle estrus; mating behavior uterine growth, mucus

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Terminology for giving birth – “Parturition”

  • Cattle – calve

  • Sheep – lamb

  • Swine – farrow

  • Horses – foal

  • Dogs – whelp

  • Cats – queen

  • Goats – kid


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Hormones of female reproduction

Hormone Source Function

estrogen follicle estrus; mating behavior

uterine growth, mucus

progesterone corpus luteum maintain pregnancy

prostaglandin uterus kills corpus luteum

FSH pituitary follicle development

LH pituitary ovulation

formation of CL


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LH and FSH During the Estrous Cycle

LH

Progesterone

Hormone Concentration

FSH

5

10

15

Estrus

Estrus

Days Relative to Estrus


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The Estrous Cycle in Cattle

LH

2nd

1st

Progesterone

Wave

Wave

Hormone Concentration

Estradiol

FSH

5

10

15

Estrus

Estrus

Days Relative to Estrus


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Avian Reproductive Tract See Figure 11-13

Purdue University;

Avian Sciences Net


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Reproduction in Poultry

  • Female

    • Right ovary & oviduct fail to develop after hatching

    • ovulate starting at puberty starting at 20-25 weeks

    • 24+ hours from one ovulation to next


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Chicken reproductive tract

Oviduct

Ovum

Ovary

(University of Alberta & CBHEMA, 1999)


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Chicken ovary

(University of Alberta & CBHEMA, 1999)


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Oviduct:infundibulum – 30 min

– egg pickup; sperm storage, fertilization

magnum - 3 hrs

– secretes albumen

isthmus – 1.5 hrs

– adds shell membranes

Uterus – 18-20 hrs

– shell formation

New yolk is ovulated 30 min after laying egg

Purdue University; Avian Sciences Net

Fig 11-13 and 11-14 in book



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Male reproduction

  • Organs

    • Gonads – testicles

      • supported by scrotum (none in poultry)

    • Temperature regulation in testes

      • blood vessel system to exchange heat in blood – pampiniform plexus

      • muscle to raise and lower testes – cremaster muscle

      • muscles in scrotum contract and expand



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Male reproduction

  • Organs

    • Testicles-cont.

      • Produce gametes; spermatozoa

        • spermatogenesis – process of production & development of male gametes

        • occurs in seminiferous tubules

      • Produce male sex hormones (androgens)

        • testosterone by interstitial cells




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See Fig. 11-6

Bull reproductive tract

University of Kentucky; AgriPedia


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Male reproduction

  • Organs

    • Epididymis

      Concentration, storage, maturation, & transport of spermatozoa

    • Vas deferens– transport of spermatozoa from epididymis to urethra

    • Urethra – common excretory duct for urine & semen (not present in birds)

    • Accessory glands

      • add fluid volume, nutrients, and buffers to semen

      • sperm + accessory gland fluid = SEMEN

      • 3 Accessory glands:

        1 prostate gland

        2 seminal vesicles

        2 bulbourethral (Cowper’s) gland


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Male reproduction

  • Organs

    • Penis– organ of copulation

      Types include:

      • fibroelastic –

        - sigmoid flexure (S-shaped portion) straightens upon erection; allows for extension

        - bull, ram, boar

      • vascular – increased blood flow causes engorgement/erection

        - stallion



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Penis types

FIBROELASTIC

BULL

BOAR

RAM

STALLION

VASCULAR



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Reproductive management tools

  • Artificial insemination

    Why is AI used?

    • maximize genetic improvement

      • greater access to superior genetics; individual matings

    • reduce mating costs

    • control reproductive diseases

    • use of dead or injured sires

    • Safety


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Semen Collection in Males

  • Electroejaculation

  • Massage accessory glands

  • Hand pressure (boars)


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Reproductive management tools

  • Artificial insemination

    Some keys to success are:

    • detection of estrus

      • behavioral changes

      • standing to be mounted; restless

    • proper timing of insemination

      • viable sperm available at time of ovulation

      • breed ~12 hours before ovulation

    • technician skill

      • correct placement of semen in reproductive tract

      • cervix


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Reproductive management

  • Artificial insemination

    Species use of AI

    Dairy - 70% of all cows

    Poultry– 95% turkeys; difficult natural mating: chickens use natural mating

    Swine – >80%

    Horses– increasing with greater use of extended semen

    Beef - < 10% of all cows, increasing

    Sheep – increasing but limited; flocks dispersed


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AI procedures in females

Sheep

-surgical or speculum

Swine

-corkscrew

Horses

- like cattle

See Figure 11-9 in text – much better!


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Reproductive management

  • Estrous synchronization – controlling estrous cycle so females express estrus around same time

    • Reasons to use:

      1. with AI - decrease expense of time & labor for detection of estrus

      2. for success of embryo transfer

    • Methods:

      1. hormonal – induce ovulation; restart estrous cycle; suppress estrus

      2. natural – weaning (sows & beef cattle)


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Reproductive management

  • Embryo transfer (ET) – transferring fertilized embryos from one female to another

    How is ET used?

    • superovulate and inseminate donor cow

    • synchronize estrus of recipient females

    • flush embryos of donor and transfer to recipient or freeze

      Why is ET used?

      maximize use of superior genetics (females)

      - many offspring/female/year


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Figure 11–7:  Specific cleavage stages at given times after fertilization in the cow (281-day gestation) and the sow (114-day gestation). (Source: Bearden and Fuquay, 1997, p. 91. Used with permission.)


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Parturition after fertilization in the cow (281-day gestation) and the sow (114-day gestation). (

  • Initiated by the fetus – stress

    • Corticosterone from Adrenal

    • Decreased progesterone

  • Foals and lambs – like cattle

  • Piglets – either way

  • Oxytocin – contractions

  • Relaxin – birth canal expansion

  • Estrogen, Prostaglandin


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Reproductive management after fertilization in the cow (281-day gestation) and the sow (114-day gestation). (

  • Breeding Soundness Exams

    • to determine physical ability of an animal to breed

    • typically males

  • Evaluates:

  • Physical attributes

    • body condition, health,

  • Reproductive Anatomy

    • testicle size; organ abnormalities (ie. penis)

  • Semen Quality

    • semen color & volume; sperm concentration & abnormalities


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