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Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Demonstration Panel October 12, 2007. Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Pervious Pavement Section. Underdrains. Inlet Detail.

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specifications and testing for pervious concrete
Specifications and Testing forPervious Concrete
  • Rod Meyers, P.E., CDT, BASF
  • Matt Cockerham, North Star
specifications and testing for pervious concrete11
Specifications and Testing forPervious Concrete
  • Desired Plastic Properties
  • Desired In Place Properties
  • Common Specification Provisions
desired plastic properties batching consistency
Desired Plastic PropertiesBatching Consistency

ASTM C 143,

Slump Test,

does not apply

desired plastic properties stable paste
Desired Plastic PropertiesStable Paste
  • Improves

permeability

  • Improves abrasion resistance
  • Improves cold weather durability
desired plastic properties workability
Desired Plastic PropertiesWorkability
  • Maintains w/cm
  • Permits timely unloading, placement, finishing, and curing
desired in place properties percolation
Desired In Place PropertiesPercolation

3 to 5 gal/ft2/min

= 288 in./hr to

480 in./hr

= 4.8 in./min to

3.2 in/min

desired in place properties percolation16
Desired In Place PropertiesPercolation
  • ASTM developing test method to measure percolation
  • Constant head method
measuring voids testing fresh density
Measuring VoidsTesting Fresh Density
  • Sample in accordance with ASTM C 172
  • Sample every 100 cubic yards
  • Within +/- 5 lb/ft3 of specified density
testing fresh density astm c1688 density and void content of freshly mixed pervious concrete
Testing Fresh DensityASTM C1688 Density and Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete
  • 0.25 ft3 measure (standard air pot)
  • Standard Proctor Hammer
  • Fill in two lifts
  • Drop hammer 20 times/lift
testing fresh density alternate methods
Testing Fresh DensityAlternate Methods
  • ASTM C29 Jigging Procedure
  • ASTM C138 Rodding Procedure
  • Filling an empty unit weight bucket
usable voids vrs gravimetric voids effective porosity vrs total voids
Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric VoidsEffective Porosity vrs. Total Voids

Usable Voids, % =

0.898 *

(Gravimetric Voids, %)

– 3.1

usable voids vrs gravimetric voids
Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric Voids

A 4 inch thick pervious pavement with 15% usable

(effective) voids will store 0.60 inches of rainwater

(4” * 0.15 = 0.60”)

desired in place properties mechanical strength
Desired In Place PropertiesMechanical Strength
  • Rigid Pavement
  • Flexural Strength
flexural strength vrs void content
Flexural Strength vrs. Void Content

Flexural Strength, Fmr = 832.8 – 20.3 * (void content, %), psi

pavement serviceability
Pavement Serviceability
  • AASHTO Road Test
  • Relationship between serviceability and load repetitions
estimating flexural stress
Estimating Flexural Stress

ACI 330 Guide for

The Design and

Construction of

Concrete

Parking Lots

desired in place properties abrasion resistance
Desired In Place PropertiesAbrasion Resistance
  • Strong, dense surface
  • Good curing
frost heave
Frost Heave
  • Frost Penetration Depth in MD = 30”
  • FAA recommends 65% of the frost depth contain non-frost-susceptible material
  • For 30” FPD, depth of pervious material (concrete plus base) shall be 20 inches
cold weather durability
Cold Weather Durability
  • ASTM C 666 testing has indicated low durability
  • Field service says otherwise
slide34

Mix Design Development for Pervious Concrete in Cold WeatherSponsored by:Iowa Department of Transportation National Concrete Technology Pavement Technology CenterIowa Concrete Paving Association

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Failure due to freeze-thaw cycles are the result of aggregate deterioration or cement paste matrix failure
  • Sand, latex and air entrainment admixture improved freeze-thaw durability
slide36

The Effect of Coarse Aggregate on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of Pervious ConcreteJohn T Kevern, University of Missouri-Kansas CityKejin Wang, Iowa State UniversityVernon R Schaefer, Iowa State University

conclusion and recommendations
Conclusion and Recommendations

Aggregate absorption has the greatest effect on freeze-thaw durability

suggested methods to improve cold weather durability
Suggested Methods to Improve Cold Weather Durability
  • Use 8” to 24” of Open Graded Base
  • Use Sound Aggregates
  • Use Air Entraining Admixture
  • Use 5 to 10% Fine Aggregate
  • Place perforated PVC pipe in base to capture and remove water
contractor qualifications options on site
Contractor QualificationsOptions – On Site
  • 1 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Craftsman
  • 3 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Installers
  • 5 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Technicians
pre paving conference
Pre-paving Conference
  • Within two weeks of first placement
  • In attendance:

Owner’s Representative

Contractor

Concrete Supplier

Concrete Foreman

Testing Agency

test panel
Test Panel
  • Minimum 225 ft2
  • Use proposed mix design and materials
  • Use proposed placement equipment
  • Include at least one typical joint
test panel44
Test Panel
  • Fresh density: with +/- 5.0 lb/ft3
  • Three cores: average thickness not more than ¼” less or 1.5” more than specified thickness
  • Single core: not more than ½” less than

specified thickness

testing thickness
Testing Thickness
  • Average of three cores more than 1-1/2” greater than specified thickness
  • No single core more than ½” less than specified thickness
testing thickness46
Testing Thickness
  • Three cores per 5,000 ft2
  • Average of three cores not more than ¼” less than specified thickness
testing in place density
Testing In Place Density
  • Three cores per 5,000 ft2
  • Minimum nominal diameter of 4 inches
  • Measure density in accordance with ASTM C140
  • Hardened density shall be within +/- 5% of approved hardened density from test panels
subgrade preparation
Subgrade Preparation
  • Maintain final subgrade elevation
  • Permeability testing: Portland Cement Association recommends:

Soils with a percolation rates of ½ in/hr.

ASTM D 3385, Double-ring Infiltrometer

testing

  • Subgrade support: minimum density of 92% maximum dry density
  • Subgrade in moist condition within 3% of optimum moisture content
base materials
Base Materials
  • Open graded aggregate
  • 30% to 40% void content
  • Elevation of base shall be maintained during placement of concrete.
concrete materials
Concrete Materials
  • Comply with ASTM C 94
  • Aggregates – Max. size 1/3” thickness
  • Aggregates – Use 3/8” maximum size
  • Admixtures for controlling hydration may be used and facilitate handling of plastic concrete
isolation joint materials
Isolation Joint Materials
  • ASTM D994, D1751, D1752
curing material
Curing Material
  • Clear 6 mil or thicker polyethylene
  • Not acceptable:

Woven materials,

such as burlap

and geotextile

fabric

Wax-based curing

compounds

forms
Forms
  • Height equal to the thickness of the pavement
  • Held in place by stakes and braced to prohibit movement from pressure of concrete and thrust of machinery
setting formwork
Setting Formwork
  • Utilize form release agent
  • May use previously placed pavement
  • Limit placement width to 20 feet
batching and mixing
Batching and Mixing
  • Comply with ASTM C 94
  • Discharge completed within 60 minutes of introduction of water to cement.
placing and finishing
Placing and Finishing
  • Deposit concrete on prewetted material
  • Spread using come-along, square-ended tools, rakes.
  • Water may be added to obtain required consistency. Minimum 30 mixer revolutions.
placing and finishing57
Placing and Finishing

Strike off with vibrating screed.

placing and finishing58
Placing and Finishing

Strike off with paving machine

placing and finishing59
Placing and Finishing
  • Compactive effort: 10 psi, minimum
  • Do not use steel trowels, power finishing equipment
final surface texture
Final Surface Texture

Cross-roll to compact concrete to dense, pervious surface

final surface texture61
Final Surface Texture
  • Compact slab edges with hand tools
  • Compact concrete to dense, pervious surface
  • Edging – radius of not less than 1/4 “
tolerances
Tolerances
  • Elevation: +3/4”, -0”
  • Thickness: + 1-1/2” , - ¼”
  • Contraction joint depth: +1/4”, - 0”
contraction joints
Contraction Joints
  • Joints as shown on plans or as approved
  • ¼ to 1/3 pavement thickness
  • Early-entry dry-cut saw: 1” minimum
contraction joints64
Contraction Joints
  • Spacing not exceed 20 feet
  • Aspect ratio: 125% maximum
contraction joints65
Contraction Joints
  • Angle at intersections: 80o to 100o
  • Intersect free edges at 90o, 1.5’ lap
contraction joints66
Contraction Joints
  • Align with curb joints within ¼”
curing
Curing
  • Begin curing with 20 minutes of concrete discharge
  • Cover surface with 6 mil minimum polyethylene
  • Cover exposed edges
  • Cure for uninterrupted 7 days minimum
good references
Good References
  • ACI 522.1-08 Specification for Pervious Concrete Pavement
  • County of Fairfax, Letter 08-01
  • Ohio Ready Mixed Concrete Association
  • Carolinas Ready Mixed Concrete Association
  • Tennessee Ready Mixed Concrete Association
  • Georgia Concrete Promotion Association
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