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Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Demonstration Panel October 12, 2007. Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland. Pervious Pavement Section. Underdrains. Inlet Detail.

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Pervious Concrete Pavement 4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

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Pervious concrete pavement 4825 butler road glyndon maryland l.jpg

Pervious Concrete Pavement4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland


Demonstration panel october 12 2007 l.jpg

Demonstration PanelOctober 12, 2007


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Pervious Concrete Pavement4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland


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Pervious Concrete Pavement4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland


Pervious pavement section l.jpg

Pervious Pavement Section


Underdrains l.jpg

Underdrains


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Inlet Detail


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Observation Wells


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Pervious Concrete Pavement4825 Butler Road, Glyndon Maryland

Work

In

Progress


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Specifications and Testing forPervious Concrete

  • Rod Meyers, P.E., CDT, BASF

  • Matt Cockerham, North Star


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Specifications and Testing forPervious Concrete

  • Desired Plastic Properties

  • Desired In Place Properties

  • Common Specification Provisions


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Desired Plastic PropertiesBatching Consistency

ASTM C 143,

Slump Test,

does not apply


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Desired Plastic PropertiesStable Paste

  • Improves

    permeability

  • Improves abrasion resistance

  • Improves cold weather durability


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Desired Plastic PropertiesWorkability

  • Maintains w/cm

  • Permits timely unloading, placement, finishing, and curing


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Desired In Place PropertiesPercolation

3 to 5 gal/ft2/min

= 288 in./hr to

480 in./hr

= 4.8 in./min to

3.2 in/min


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Desired In Place PropertiesPercolation

  • ASTM developing test method to measure percolation

  • Constant head method


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Percolation as a Function of Void Content


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Measuring VoidsTesting Fresh Density

  • Sample in accordance with ASTM C 172

  • Sample every 100 cubic yards

  • Within +/- 5 lb/ft3 of specified density


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Testing Fresh DensityASTM C1688 Density and Void Content of Freshly Mixed Pervious Concrete

  • 0.25 ft3 measure (standard air pot)

  • Standard Proctor Hammer

  • Fill in two lifts

  • Drop hammer 20 times/lift


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Testing Fresh DensityAlternate Methods

  • ASTM C29 Jigging Procedure

  • ASTM C138 Rodding Procedure

  • Filling an empty unit weight bucket


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Testing Fresh DensityComparing Methods


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Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric VoidsEffective Porosity vrs. Total Voids

Usable Voids, % =

0.898 *

(Gravimetric Voids, %)

– 3.1


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Usable Voids vrs. Gravimetric Voids

A 4 inch thick pervious pavement with 15% usable

(effective) voids will store 0.60 inches of rainwater

(4” * 0.15 = 0.60”)


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Desired In Place PropertiesMechanical Strength

  • Rigid Pavement

  • Flexural Strength


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Compressive Strength vrs. Void Content


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Flexural Strength vrs. Void Content

Flexural Strength, Fmr = 832.8 – 20.3 * (void content, %), psi


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Pavement Serviceability

  • AASHTO Road Test

  • Relationship between serviceability and load repetitions


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Designing Pavements to Account for Fatigue


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Estimating Flexural Stress

ACI 330 Guide for

The Design and

Construction of

Concrete

Parking Lots


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Desired In Place PropertiesAbrasion Resistance

  • Strong, dense surface

  • Good curing


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Desired In Place PropertiesCold Weather Durability

  • Freeze-thaw Durability

  • Frost Heave


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Frost Heave

  • Frost Penetration Depth in MD = 30”

  • FAA recommends 65% of the frost depth contain non-frost-susceptible material

  • For 30” FPD, depth of pervious material (concrete plus base) shall be 20 inches


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Cold Weather Durability

  • ASTM C 666 testing has indicated low durability

  • Field service says otherwise


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Mix Design Development for Pervious Concrete in Cold WeatherSponsored by:Iowa Department of Transportation National Concrete Technology Pavement Technology CenterIowa Concrete Paving Association


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Conclusions

  • Failure due to freeze-thaw cycles are the result of aggregate deterioration or cement paste matrix failure

  • Sand, latex and air entrainment admixture improved freeze-thaw durability


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The Effect of Coarse Aggregate on the Freeze-Thaw Durability of Pervious ConcreteJohn T Kevern, University of Missouri-Kansas CityKejin Wang, Iowa State UniversityVernon R Schaefer, Iowa State University


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Conclusion and Recommendations

Aggregate absorption has the greatest effect on freeze-thaw durability


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Review of Maryland Aggregates


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Suggested Methods to Improve Cold Weather Durability

  • Use 8” to 24” of Open Graded Base

  • Use Sound Aggregates

  • Use Air Entraining Admixture

  • Use 5 to 10% Fine Aggregate

  • Place perforated PVC pipe in base to capture and remove water


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SpecificationsCommon Provisions


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Contractor QualificationsOptions – On Site

  • 1 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Craftsman

  • 3 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Installers

  • 5 NRMCA Certified Pervious Concrete Technicians


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Pre-paving Conference

  • Within two weeks of first placement

  • In attendance:

    Owner’s Representative

    Contractor

    Concrete Supplier

    Concrete Foreman

    Testing Agency


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Test Panel

  • Minimum 225 ft2

  • Use proposed mix design and materials

  • Use proposed placement equipment

  • Include at least one typical joint


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Test Panel

  • Fresh density: with +/- 5.0 lb/ft3

  • Three cores: average thickness not more than ¼” less or 1.5” more than specified thickness

  • Single core: not more than ½” less than

    specified thickness


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Testing Thickness

  • Average of three cores more than 1-1/2” greater than specified thickness

  • No single core more than ½” less than specified thickness


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Testing Thickness

  • Three cores per 5,000 ft2

  • Average of three cores not more than ¼” less than specified thickness


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Testing In Place Density

  • Three cores per 5,000 ft2

  • Minimum nominal diameter of 4 inches

  • Measure density in accordance with ASTM C140

  • Hardened density shall be within +/- 5% of approved hardened density from test panels


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Subgrade Preparation

  • Maintain final subgrade elevation

  • Permeability testing: Portland Cement Association recommends:

    Soils with a percolation rates of ½ in/hr.

    ASTM D 3385, Double-ring Infiltrometer

    testing

  • Subgrade support: minimum density of 92% maximum dry density

  • Subgrade in moist condition within 3% of optimum moisture content


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Base Materials

  • Open graded aggregate

  • 30% to 40% void content

  • Elevation of base shall be maintained during placement of concrete.


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Concrete Materials

  • Comply with ASTM C 94

  • Aggregates – Max. size 1/3” thickness

  • Aggregates – Use 3/8” maximum size

  • Admixtures for controlling hydration may be used and facilitate handling of plastic concrete


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Isolation Joint Materials

  • ASTM D994, D1751, D1752


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Curing Material

  • Clear 6 mil or thicker polyethylene

  • Not acceptable:

    Woven materials,

    such as burlap

    and geotextile

    fabric

    Wax-based curing

    compounds


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Forms

  • Height equal to the thickness of the pavement

  • Held in place by stakes and braced to prohibit movement from pressure of concrete and thrust of machinery


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Setting Formwork

  • Utilize form release agent

  • May use previously placed pavement

  • Limit placement width to 20 feet


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Batching and Mixing

  • Comply with ASTM C 94

  • Discharge completed within 60 minutes of introduction of water to cement.


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Placing and Finishing

  • Deposit concrete on prewetted material

  • Spread using come-along, square-ended tools, rakes.

  • Water may be added to obtain required consistency. Minimum 30 mixer revolutions.


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Placing and Finishing

Strike off with vibrating screed.


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Placing and Finishing

Strike off with paving machine


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Placing and Finishing

  • Compactive effort: 10 psi, minimum

  • Do not use steel trowels, power finishing equipment


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Final Surface Texture

Cross-roll to compact concrete to dense, pervious surface


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Final Surface Texture

  • Compact slab edges with hand tools

  • Compact concrete to dense, pervious surface

  • Edging – radius of not less than 1/4 “


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Tolerances

  • Elevation: +3/4”, -0”

  • Thickness: + 1-1/2” , - ¼”

  • Contraction joint depth: +1/4”, - 0”


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Contraction Joints

  • Joints as shown on plans or as approved

  • ¼ to 1/3 pavement thickness

  • Early-entry dry-cut saw: 1” minimum


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Contraction Joints

  • Spacing not exceed 20 feet

  • Aspect ratio: 125% maximum


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Contraction Joints

  • Angle at intersections: 80o to 100o

  • Intersect free edges at 90o, 1.5’ lap


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Contraction Joints

  • Align with curb joints within ¼”


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Curing

  • Begin curing with 20 minutes of concrete discharge

  • Cover surface with 6 mil minimum polyethylene

  • Cover exposed edges

  • Cure for uninterrupted 7 days minimum


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Good References

  • ACI 522.1-08 Specification for Pervious Concrete Pavement

  • County of Fairfax, Letter 08-01

  • Ohio Ready Mixed Concrete Association

  • Carolinas Ready Mixed Concrete Association

  • Tennessee Ready Mixed Concrete Association

  • Georgia Concrete Promotion Association


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Thank you


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