Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers 1 st agricultural revolution – domestication (10-12,000 years ago) plants, animals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Agriculture. Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers 1 st agricultural revolution – domestication (10-12,000 years ago) plants, animals. C. Hearth areas 1. Vegetative Southeast Asia, West Africa South America 2. Seeds India / Fertile Crescent East China, Mesoamerica .

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Origins of agriculture Hunters and gatherers 1 st agricultural revolution – domestication (10-12,000 years ago) plants, animals

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Agriculture

  • Origins of agriculture

  • Hunters and gatherers

  • 1st agricultural revolution –

    domestication (10-12,000 years ago)

    plants, animals


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C. Hearth areas

1. Vegetative

Southeast Asia, West Africa

South America

2. Seeds

India / Fertile Crescent

East China, Mesoamerica


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  • II. Impact of domestication

  • Social

  • 1. Settlements

  • Social stratification

  • social evolution

  • 3. Writing

  • B. Economic

  • 1. Division of labor

  • Accumulation of material goods (wealth)

  • Wealth = need for security, army


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  • Demographic

  • Population growth

  • Sanitation

  • Epidemics (proximity)

  • Diet

  • D. Environmental -

  • Deforestation

  • Desertification, salinization

  • More hours of labor


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III. Second agricultural revolution

III. Second agricultural revolution

  • III. Second agricultural revolution

  • When

  • Climate

  • C. Innovations- techniques, technologies

  • D. Hearth area, diffusion

  • E. Impact

D

New techniques

New technologies

C. Hearth area, diffusion

D. Impact


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IV. Third - "Green Revolution"

A. When

B. Innovations

C. Diffusion

C. Impact - Moral economy


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World Agriculture Regions


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V. Agriculture in LDCs

A. Shifting agr (swidden, slash and burn)

B. Pastoral nomadism

  • Intensive subsistence agr (rice)

    mulberry, fish, rice system

    D. Plantations


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Labor Force in Agriculture, 2005

Fig. 10-3: A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.


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VI. Agr in MDCs

  • Mixed crop and livestock

  • Dairy farming

    C. Grain farming

    D. Livestock ranching


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World Corn Production, 2005

Fig. 10-7: The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.


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  • VII. Von Thunen Isolated State Model

  • distance and transport costs

  • Assumptions

  • Concentric zones

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.


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  • VII. Global food supply

  • A. Distribution

  • Actual v. relative scarcity

  • B. International policies

  • Agricultural monopolies

  • Biofuels

  • Political instability

  • Urbanization

  • Environmental issues

  • D. Local instability


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Undernourished Proportion

Fig. 10-16: The proportion of under-nourished population has declined in most LDCs, but is much higher in sub-Saharan Africa than in other areas of the world.


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Farmland Loss in Maryland

Fig. 10-1.1: Overlaps of soil quality, environmental & cultural features, and population growth may show areas of greatest threat of farmland loss in Maryland.


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http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/26/AR2008042602041_3.html?sid=ST2008042602333


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