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Baroque Instrumental Music. This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music. For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental music. Baroque Instrumental Practice.

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Baroque Instrumental Music

  • This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music.

  • For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental music


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Baroque Instrumental Practice

  • There were no ‘classics’, so contemporary composers were very prolific

  • Modulations and chromatic harmonies and melodies.

  • Virtuosity (music that shows off the technical skills of the performer)


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Baroque Instrumental Evolution

  • Early Baroque Instrumental music uplifted musical line rather than blend. Late Baroque music will focus more on the idea of blend and refined orchestration.


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Keyboard Music

  • Equal tempered tuning


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Keyboard Instruments

  • Three main instruments

    • Organ: sacred venues and some home chapels

      • Tracker Action

      • Great, positive, and portative organ

    • Harpsichord: basso continuo for orchestra and dance music. Solo instrument. Strings plucked by a Plectrum.

    • Clavichord: strings struck by hammers made originally from bone. Precursor to the piano.




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Harpsichord

Harpsichord, ca. 1675Made by Michele TodiniRome, Italy



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Improvisatory style

Toccata

Prelude

Fantasia

Existing melody

Chorale prelude

Theme & Variations

Fugal style

Ricercare

Fantasia

Capriccio

Fugue

Dances

Types of Instrumental Music


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Toccata

  • From Italian verb toccare (to touch)

  • A work with very fast monophonic melodies with chromatic harmonies;

  • Free, irregular metres and rhythms;

  • Often improvised on the organ


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The Chorale Prelude

  • Originally, an introduction to a hymn (chorale); Bach was the preeminent composer of Chorale Preludes

  • Later written down as a composition (a single variation on a chorale)



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The Baroque Suite

  • Instrumental dance music from the Renaissance period now refined in a new style of sound and compositional technique.

  • Pastiche of different international styles of dance forms.

  • First function was dancing at social functions.

  • Other functions: dinner music.


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Order of the Dance Suite

Overture (Optional)Allemande Germany 4/4 time Moderate Courante French 3/4 time Moderate Sarabande Spain 3/4 time Slow Other Dances (Optional)Minuet Gavotte BourreeGigue England 6/8 time Fast



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the founder of the French harspichord school

not the first, but the first with “celebrity”

Jacques Champion Chambonnieres (1601-1672)


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Jacques Champion de Chambonnières (c.1601-1672)

  • influenced Couperin and Rameau

  • Chambonnieres, D’Anglebert, and de la Guerre were important early clavecinists

    “clavecin” is French for “harpsichord”




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He was known as Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of his musically talented family.

François Couperin 1668-1733


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L’art de toucherle clavecin


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Innovations

  • Instrument building families

    • Stradivarius, Guarneri, and Amati

  • Strings

    • Cat gut

    • Slightly different playing technique….bowing

  • Woodwinds: mellow sound as opposed to a more brassy sound in modern times.


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Innovations

  • Brass

    • Originally a military instrument for signals

    • Without valves

    • Key changes made by inserting longer or shorter crooks in the horn.


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The Sonata

  • Evolved from the Renaissance canzona, which had several contrasting sections

  • Early in the 17th century, “sonata” referred to any piece for instruments

  • Later, “sonata” meant a piece for 1 or 2 melody instruments with basso continuo


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The Sonata

  • Chamber Sonata:Sonata da Camera

    • A group of dances.

    • Number of movements vary

  • Church Sonata:Sonata da Chiesa

    • Serious collection of pieces

    • Containing polyphonic/contrapuntal texture.

    • Often 4 movements SFSF


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The Baroque Sonata Form

  • Four Movements

    • SLOW

    • FAST

    • SLOW

    • FAST


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The Sonata

  • Trio Sonata: sonata for any combination of two instruments and basso continuo. (which means 4 players)


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Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713)

  • Studied in Bologna-center of violin playing in Northern Italy.

  • Worked in Rome under the patronage of several wealthy benefactors.


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The Concerto

  • A three movement piece (FSF) music that is created from two masses or bodies of sound.

  • Concertare– to contend with or to compete with.


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The Two Masses of Sound

  • Concertino: small group.

  • Tutti or ripieno: large group (orchestra)

    tutti (all) ripieno (full)


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Three types of concerto

  • Solo concerto: A concerto featuring a soloist contending with an orchestra.

  • Concerto Grosso: A concerto featuring a small group contending with a larger group.

  • Concerto ripieno: A concerto in which all take part; no long solos


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Concerto

  • Several contrasting movements

    • 1st movement uses ritornello form

  • Contrast between performing groups is VIMP

vs

  • Orchestra (aka tutti)

    • 15-25 strings + harpsichord

    • louder dynamics

    • simpler music

  • Soloist(s)

    • 1 to 5 players

    • may feature woodwinds, brass

    • softer dynamics

    • technical, virtuosic


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Movement 1fast, energetic, ritornello form

Ritornello form a way of arranging musical ideas (melodies?) in a piece


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Ritornello Form

Ritornello sections

played by tutti

recurring theme or part of it

Solo sections

played by soloist(s)

new material

Contrast between sections is VIMPRitornello provides unity “musical glue”

U

U

U

U

R1S1R2S2R3S3R4S4 etc RX

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C

C


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