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FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS . Grains. By Melissa Bess Nutrition and Health Education Specialist. 02/2007. Introduction. Gluten Gluten sensitivities Whole grains Protein/amino acids 16 different grains/breads. Gluten.

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grains

FNEP STAFF TRAINING ONLY, DO NOT USE WITH FNEP PARTICIPANTS

Grains

By Melissa Bess

Nutrition and Health Education Specialist

02/2007

introduction
Introduction
  • Gluten
  • Gluten sensitivities
  • Whole grains
  • Protein/amino acids
  • 16 different grains/breads
gluten
Gluten
  • Gluten is a protein in wheat, rye, barley, and oat products
  • Gives cohesiveness to dough
  • Now food labels must list wheat under allergy info, if gluten is in the product
gluten sensitivity
Gluten sensitivity
  • Immune system is intolerant of gluten
    • Not an allergy
    • Symptoms – bloating, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, etc
    • Celiac disease – damage to small intestine, impaired ability to absorb nutrients, can cause malnutrition
    • Often misdiagnosed, thought to be in 1 in 133 people
    • Genetic disorder
whole grains
Whole grains
  • Contains entire grain kernel
    • Bran
    • Germ
    • Endosperm
  • Visible on label
amino acids
Amino acids
  • Building blocks of protein
  • 9 essential – can only get from diet
  • 11 non-essential – body can make
  • 20 total
amaranth
Amaranth
  • Aztec culture to Asia
  • In South America, popped like popcorn
  • Gluten-free
  • Ancient whole grain
  • Carb, protein, polyunsaturated fat
  • One of best sources of vegetable protein
  • Calcium, iron, fiber, vitamins A and C, amino acids
  • More iron and fiber than wheat, 2x as much calcium as milk
  • Eat as cereal, mix with other grains, add to stir-fry or soups
barley
Barley
  • Contains gluten
  • Egypt and England
  • One of the oldest cultivated grains
  • Highly adaptable, grown from north of the Arctic and in Africa
  • Hulled – more whole grain nutrients, very slow cooking
  • Pearled – not technically a whole grain, but full of fiber
buckwheat
Buckwheat
  • Gluten-free
  • Cousin of rhubarb, not technically a grain and not wheat
  • Nutrients, nutty flavor, and appearance led to adoption by grain group
  • Often used to make pancakes
  • Contains antioxidant called rutin, which may prevent bad cholesterol from blocking blood vessels
bulgur
Bulgur
  • When wheat kernels are

boiled, cracked, and sorted

  • Often made from durum wheat (made into pasta or bread, hardest of all wheats)
  • Nutritious fast cooking food (10 mins to boil), common use in tabbouleh (minty grain and vegetable salad)
kashi cereals
Kashi cereals
  • Contains whole grains
    • Whole oats, brown rice, whole rye, triticale, buckwheat, barley, sesame seeds
  • No artificial sweeteners, preservatives, colors, or flavors
millet
Millet
  • Gluten-free
  • Ancient whole grain mentioned in Bible
  • High in protein, fiber, B-vitamins, amino acids, phytochemicals, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium
  • Grain found in bird feeders in U.S. but very popular in India, China, and South America
  • Has mild flavor, mixed with other grains
muesli
Muesli
  • Dry - Contains organic rolled oats, rye flakes, dried nuts, dried fruits, and seeds
  • Fresh – rolled oats soaked in water or fruit juice, includes chopped fresh fruits, ground nuts or seeds, milk products (yogurt, cream, cottage cheese, etc), or lemon juice
  • Fresh - not to be mixed with fresh milk, it coagulates from acids in lemon or apple juice
slide15
Oats
  • Inherently gluten-free
  • Frequently contaminated with wheat during growing or processing
polenta
Polenta
  • Made from cornmeal
  • Alternative to rice, pasta, potatoes
popcorn
Popcorn
  • Gluten-free
  • Ancient whole grain (5,600 yrs old)
  • Choose low-fat without trans fat
quinoa
Quinoa
  • Gluten-free
  • Ancient whole grain (5,000 yrs old) comes from Incas
  • Protein, carb, polyunsaturated fat
  • Complete protein, best sources of vegetable protein (all 9 essential amino acids)
  • Fiber, iron, magnesium, riboflavin
  • Eat as cereal, infant cereal, in salads, or can substitute for any grain in almost any recipe
sorghum
Sorghum
  • Gluten-free
  • From farmers in Great Plains, thrives during droughts
  • In U.S., most goes to animal consumption, made into wallboard, or for packing materials
  • Worldwide, 50% goes to human consumption
  • Eaten like popcorn, ground into flour for baked goods, or brewed into beer
spelt bread
Spelt bread
  • Ancient whole grain
  • 8,000 yrs old, one of original seven grains mentioned in Bible
  • Contains 8 of the 9 essential amino acids
  • High in fiber, excellent source of vitamin B2
  • Alternative to wheat
sprouted grain bread
Sprouted grain bread
  • Made from sprouted wheat, rye, and other grains
  • Sprouted wheat – actually allow wheat berries to sprout or grow, then grind into dough
  • Contains no flour
  • Easier to digest, simple sugars
triticale
Triticale
  • Contains gluten
  • Hybrid of durum wheat and rye
  • Been around for 35 years
  • 80% grown in Europe
  • Grows easily without pesticides or fertilizers
  • Nutty flavored, more protein and less gluten than wheat alone
wild rice
Wild rice
  • Gluten-free
  • Higher in protein, iron, fiber, and B vitamins than brown rice but less calcium and iron
  • Not technically rice, but a seed
  • Whole grain
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