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Evaluation of Broadcast Media. © 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Coverage and Cost Effectiveness. Coverage and Cost Effectiveness. Captivity and Attention. Captivity and Attention. Selectivity and Flexibility. Television Advantages. Creativity and Impact.

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Presentation Transcript
evaluation of broadcast media
Evaluation of Broadcast Media

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

television advantages

Coverage and Cost Effectiveness

Coverage and Cost Effectiveness

Captivity and Attention

Captivity and Attention

Selectivity and Flexibility

Television Advantages

Creativity and Impact

Creativity and Impact

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

television disadvantages

Fleeting

Message

Cost

Limited

Attention

Low

Selectivity

Zipping

Clutter

Zapping

Negative

Evaluation

Distrust

Television Disadvantages

Fleeting

Message

Cost

Limited

Attention

Low

Selectivity

Negative

Factors

Zipping

Clutter

Negative

Evaluation

Distrust

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

tv advertising works best when

The Media Budget Is Sufficient to Generate and Sustain the Number of Exposures Needed.

The Media Budget Is Sufficient to Generate and Sustain the Number of Exposures Needed.

The Market Is Large Enough and Reachable Efficiently Through a Specific Network, Station, or Program.

The Market Is Large Enough and Reachable Efficiently Through a Specific Network, Station, or Program.

There’s a Genuine Need for a Medium With High Creative Potential to Exert a Strong Impact.

TV Advertising Works Best When…

The Budget Is Large Enough to Produce High Quality Commercials.

The Budget Is Large Enough to Produce High Quality Commercials.

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

network versus spot

Affiliated Stations Are Linked

Purchase Transactions Are Simplified

Commercials Shown on Local Stations

May Be Local or “National Spot” Commercials

Network Versus Spot

Affiliated Stations Are Linked

Network

Purchase Transactions Are Simplified

Commercials Shown on Local Stations

Spot &

Local

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

syndicated programs

Off-network Syndication Are “Reruns”

Programs Sold to Stations in Return for Air Time

First-run Syndications Are Also Featured

Syndicated Programs

Off-network Syndication Are “Reruns”

Sold and Distributed Station by Station

First-run Syndications Are Also Featured

Advertiser-supported or bartered

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

methods of buying time

Sponsorship

Participations

Spot Announcements

1. Advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and perhaps content

2. Sponsor has control and can capitalize on the prestige associated with a show

1. Participating sponsors share the cost

2. May participate regularly or sporadically

3. Advertiser isn’t responsible for production

4. Participants lack control over content

1. May be purchased by daypart or adjacency

Methods of Buying Time

Sponsorship

Participations

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

three tv buying decisions

Network Versus Spot

Network Versus Spot

Reach Is the Primary Consideration but Ease of Purchase Is Important.

Reach Is the Primary Consideration but Ease of Purchase Is Important.

National Versus Local Spot

National Versus Local Spot

Spots Purchased by National Advertisers Are Known As National Spot.

Spots Purchased by National Advertisers Are Known As National Spot.

Sponsor, Participate, or Spot

Sponsor, Participate, or Spot

Method of Buying Affects Cost, Commitment, and Identification.

Method of Buying Affects Cost, Commitment, and Identification.

Specific Daypart and Weeks

Scheduling Depends on Reach and Frequency Requirements.

Three TV Buying Decisions

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

common television dayparts

Prime Time

Morning

Late News

Daytime

Early Fringe

Late Fringe

Prime Time Access

Late Night

Common Television Dayparts

12

12

1

1

11

11

2

2

10

10

PM

AM

9

3

9

3

8

4

8

4

7

5

7

5

6

6

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

other tv vehicles

Cable

Cable

Delivers signals through fiber or coaxial wire rather than the airways

Delivers signals through fiber or coaxial wire rather than the airways

Superstations

Superstations

Independent local stations that broadcast nationally via satellite through CATV

Independent local stations that broadcast nationally via satellite through CATV

PVRs

Digitally record TV shows and store them on hard drive giving viewer control

Other TV Vehicles

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

cable television catv

Characteristics

Advantages

Limitations

  • National, regional, and local available.
  • Targets specific geographic areas.
  • Highly selective “narrowcasting.”
  • Reaches specialized markets.
  • Low cost and flexibility.
  • Overshadowed by major networks.
  • Audience is fragmented.
  • Lacks penetration in major markets.
Cable Television (CATV)

Characteristics

Advantages

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

measuring tv audiences

Television Households

Audience Measures

Program Rating

Share of Audience

Households Using TV

Measuring TV Audiences

Television Households

Audience Measures

Program Rating

Households Using TV

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

tv audience measures

Program Rating

Program Rating

HH tuned to show

HH tuned to show

Rating =

Rating =

Total U.S. HH

Total U.S. HH

Share of Audience

HH tuned to show

Share =

U.S. HH using TV

TV Audience Measures

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

sweeps periods are used to measure tv audiences
Sweeps Periods Are Used To Measure TV Audiences

+

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

radio and tv similarities

Are time oriented media

Are sold in time segments

Have some network affiliates

Have some independents

Use the public airway

Are regulated by the F.C.C.

Are externally paced media

Are passive, low-involvement

Radio and TV Similarities

Are time oriented media

Are sold in time segments

Have some network affiliates

Both Media…

Have some independents

Use the public airway

Are regulated by the F.C.C.

Are externally paced media

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

radio differs from tv

Is More Limited Communication.

Offers Only an Audio Message.

Costs Much Less to Produce.

Has Less Status and Prestige.

Costs Much Less to Purchase.

Radio Differs from TV

Is More Limited Communication.

Offers Only an Audio Message.

Costs Much Less to Produce.

Costs Much Less to Purchase.

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

radio formats by age group

Adult contemporary

News/talk

Top 40

Country

Urban

Album rock

Spanish

Oldies

Classic rock

Modern rock

Urban AC

NAC/smooth jazz

Religious

Classical

Remaining formats

MOR/big band

Radio Formats by Age Group

18-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

advantages and limitations of radio
Advantages and Limitations of Radio

Advantages

Disadvantages

Cost and Efficiency

Cost and Efficiency

Creative Limitations

Creative Limitations

Audience Fragmentation

Audience Fragmentation

Selectivity

Selectivity

Chaotic Buying

Flexibility

Flexibility

Chaotic Buying

Limited Research Data

Limited Research Data

Mental Imagery

Mental Imagery

Limited Listener Attention

Limited Listener Attention

Integrated Marketing

Integrated Marketing

Clutter

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

dayparts for radio

Nighttime

Morning Drive Time

Daytime

All Night

Afternoon/Evening Drive Time

Dayparts for Radio

12

12

1

1

11

11

2

2

10

10

PM

AM

9

3

9

3

8

4

8

4

7

5

7

5

6

6

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

buying radio time

Three National Networks

  • Over 100 Regional/Area Networks
  • A Multitude of Syndicated Programs
  • About 20% of All Spots
  • Allows Great Flexibility, Targeting
  • Purchase Transaction Can Be Difficult
  • Nearly 80% of Advertisers Are Local
  • Local CATV Is Becoming Competitive
Buying Radio Time
  • Three National Networks

Network Radio

  • Over 100 Regional/Area Networks
  • A Multitude of Syndicated Programs
  • About 20% of All Spots

National Spot

  • Allows Great Flexibility, Targeting
  • Purchase Transaction Can Be Difficult

Local Radio

  • Nearly 80% of Advertisers Are Local

© 2003 McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., McGraw-Hill/Irwin

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