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Chapter 9: Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery. Chapter 9: Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery OR Deuteronomy: The Second Telling. Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery. I. Recapitulation of Concepts Some Wind and Current Fundamentals El Nino History of the Anchoveta Fishery V.Managing the Anchoveta Fishery.

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Chapter 9: Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery

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Chapter 9:

Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery


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Chapter 9:

Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery

OR

Deuteronomy:

The Second Telling


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Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery

I. Recapitulation of Concepts

Some Wind and Current Fundamentals

El Nino

History of the Anchoveta Fishery

V.Managing the Anchoveta Fishery


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Recapitulation of Concepts

I. Fishery Resources are NOT inexhaustible

Nutritional Value of Fish

III. Light and Nutrient Limitations

IV. Nutrient Cycling

V. Upwelling


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Some Wind and Current Fundamentals

Effect of Differential Heating on Atmospheric

Circulation

The Coriolis Effect

Trade Winds and Westerlies

Air-Sea Interactions

El Nino


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Some effects of atmospheric circulation cells

Dry climate and high pressure in the vicinity of 30o latitude

Wet climate and low pressure in the vicinity of the equator and 60o latitude


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Peruvian Anchoveta Fishery

I. The Physical Setting

The Upwelling Ecosystem

Anchoveta Ecology

History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Managing the Anchoveta Fishery


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Surface current system off the coast of Peru. Dashed line marks the approximate boundary between the Peru coastal current and the Peru oceanic current (Humboldt Current). The shaded area is the approximate area of the coastal current system occupied by the Peruvian anchovy stocks.


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The Upwelling Ecosystem

Nutrient-rich waters from beneath the nutricline fertilize the

euphotic zone with nitrate and phosphate

High nitrate and phosphate enables high primary productivity

by phytoplankton

Anchoveta graze this nutritional resource

Anchoveta are then eaten by mackerel (from below) and

guano birds (from above)


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XXXXXXXXXX

UREP


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XXXXXXXXXX

PERU


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Up to 20 cm in length


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Anchoveta Ecology

  • Population is confined to the Peru Coastal Current system

  • Feed low on the food chain

  • 4-year lifespan

  • Spawning year-round, with peaks in Sept-Oct and Feb-Mar

  • Recruited to the fishery at 5 months of age


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Anchoveta Ecology

V. Recruited to the fishery at 5 months of age

Sexual maturity at 12 months of age

Very high fecundity:

15,000 eggs/spawn, 24 spawns/year

VIII. Very high mortality prior to recruitment: > 99%

After recruitment, mortality is ~ 16%

A modest drop in population size enhances recruitment


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Mortality


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Recruitment

Sexual Maturity


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

BACKGROUND

  • Artisanal fishing prevails from pre-colonial times to ~1900

  • Guano mining becomes Peru’s major export industry

    during the 1800s into the 1900s

  • Compania Administradora de Guano stifles attempts to

    expand and industrialize fishing in 1910s and 1920s

  • First fish processing plant built in the 1930s

  • As guano supplies are depleted, CAdG shows a slight

    interest in fishmeal


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Development

  • 1940s - WWII cuts off flow of European fisheries

    products to the USA

  • By 1945, there are 23 fish processing plants in Peru,

    and fisheries products account for 1% of exports

  • In 1948, the Peruvian government decides to develop

    the export potential of its fisheries

  • World-wide application of power and technology to

    fisheries in the years following WWII


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POST-WAR TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS

  • Bigger Ships

  • Echo Locators

  • Nylon Nets

  • Power Blocks

  • Vacuum Pumps


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Development

  • 1950 - The collapse of the California sardine fishery

  • Increasing demand for fish meal as feed components

    for the growing US livestock industry

  • Transfer of reduction fisheries infrastructure from

    California to Peru

  • Both the government and commercial banks support

    the development of the Anchoveta reduction fishery


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Development

  • 1950s - Number of fishmeal plants grows to 49

    - Fishmeal production grows from <1,000

    metric tons to 117,000 metric tons

    - Fishmeal value grows from $100,000

    to $11,300,000


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Development

  • 1950s - Number of fishmeal plants grows to 49

    - Fishmeal production grows from <1,000

    metric tons to 117,000 metric tons

    - Fishmeal value grows from $100,000

    to $11,300,000

  • 1960s - Number of fishmeal plants grows to 154

    - Fishmeal production grows to 1,622,000

    metric tons

    - Fishmeal value grows to $183,200,000


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History of the Anchoveta Fishery

Trouble

  • 1960s - Biology

    - Weather

    - Overcapitalization

    - Science vs. Politics


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Some facts about the Peruvian anchovy fishery

Since 1960, the catch of Peruvian anchovies (anchoveta) has accounted for about 10% of the total capture fisheries production.

During the same time, the anchoveta catch has exceeded the U.S. catch of all species by about 60%. However, the economic value of the U.S. catch is much greater.

In 2001, a typical year, the U.S. and Peruvian capture fisheries harvests were 4.9 and 8.0 Mt, respectively. In that year, 74% of the value of Peruvian fishery exports was accounted for by fishmeal, which was worth about $430/tonne. In the same year 64% of the value of U.S. fishery exports was accounted for by fresh, chilled, or frozen fish, which was worth about $2,500/tonne. Overall U.S. and Peruvian fishery exports were worth $3.3 and $1.1 billion, respectively.


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Virtually all the anchovies are converted to fishmeal, which is marketed in developed countries such the United States as a component of feed for animals like pigs and chickens, and cultured fish.

The sale of this fishmeal accounted for 25-30% of Peru’s foreign exchange in the 1970s. Only the Peruvian copper industry rivaled it as a source of foreign revenue.

The anchovy fishery employs about 12,000 people, 10,000 in full-time fishing and the remainder as factory workers. (By way of comparison, Disney World employs 30,000 people).

Why does Peru convert almost all of its anchovy catch to fishmeal rather than using the fish to feed its people? The answer is that when the anchovies are converted to fishmeal, the value of the catch increases by about 300%. From a strictly economic standpoint it makes more sense to feed the catch to chickens and pigs than to humans. There are also distribution problems. Many of Peru’s malnourished people live in mountainous regions or in slums and do not buy their food at commercial markets. Introducing anchovies into their diets would be difficult. If the entire anchovy catch were fed to humans, it would on average provide the minimum protein requirement for 37 million people.


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Catch of anchoveta has been highly variable. In the decade between 1962 and 1971, annual yields averaged 9.7 Mt, but the catch dropped dramatically in 1972 and averaged only 1.3 Mt in the decade between 1976 and 1985.


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El Niño

One cause of the large fluctuations in anchovy catch is El Niño, an intrusion of warm, nutrient-poor water from the vicinity of the equator southward along the coast of Peru. The water is transported by the Peru Countercurrent, and in extreme cases may extend as far as 12oS latitude. The intruding water is less dense than the Peru Coastal Current, both because it is warmer (sometimes by as much as 10oC) and because it is less saline (contains a lower concentration of dissolved salts). This lighter water overrides the Coastal Current water in a nutrient-poor layer up to 30 meters deep.

During El Niño the coastal wind system sometimes slackens, and upwelling may cease. Alternatively, the coastal wind system and upwelling may continue as usual, but because the nutrient-poor upper layer is so much deeper than usual, the upwelled water comes from above the nutricline and is therefore low in nutrients. From a biological standpoint, upwelling has become ineffective. El Niño conditions have been known to persist for as long as 12 to 18 months. These events usually begin during the Christmas season; hence the name El Niño, which means “The Child” in Spanish.


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Biological effects

During El Niño there is a dramatic drop in photosynthetic rates in the coastal current system, in extreme cases by more than an order of magnitude. This decline in photosynthesis impacts the food supply of virtually all organisms in the coastal current ecosystem. However, not all scientists agree on the impact of El Niño events on the anchovy population. Some scientists feel that the anchovy schools do not die but simply disperse, i.e., the anchovies swim farther offshore and/or into deeper water, beyond the reach of the fishing nets. Either way, fewer fish are caught during El Niño events.

Fish-eating birds are significant and highly visible predators of the anchovy. These birds, regionally known as guano birds, sometimes number in the millions and live on islands off the coast of Peru. Their droppings, or guano, are used as fertilizer. Guano birds include cormorants, gannets or boobies, and pelicans. Anchovies account for 95% of the cormorants’ diet and 80% of the diets of gannets and pelicans.


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Guano birds have a limited ability to fish at depth, so when El Niño occurs, the guano bird population is seriously impacted. The weaker swimmers and divers are unable to find food even if the schools of fish do nothing more than disperse into deeper water. Census data confirm that weak, immature guano birds are decimated by El Niño. In mild or moderate El Niño events, the adult guano birds are still able to find enough food for themselves but not enough to sustain their young as well. They abandon their nests, and their nestlings starve. In severe El Niño events, significant numbers of adult guano birds die as well.


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Catch


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Catch


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Catch

1958:Severe El Niño. No negative effects, because the catch is low.

1965: Moderate El Niño. Catch still good, but guano bird population

crashes.

1965-72: Fishery grows and management efforts begin

1972:Strong El Niño. Fishery collapses.

1976: Moderate El Niño.

1982:Strong El Niño. Fishery essentially closed.

1987:Strong El Niño. Catch declines by 50%.

1991: Strong El Niño. Catch declines.

1993:Moderate El Niño. No severe effects.

1994:Moderate El Niño. No severe effects.

1998:Strongest El Niño of the century. Catch plummets, fishing restricted. Catch subsequently recovers.

2002:Moderate El Niño.


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Effects of El Niño on Guano Birds, Anchoveta Predators

Remember -

Prior to the postwar development of the Anchoveta

fishery, the elite of Peruvian society [the equivalent

of the Big Five (Missionaries) in Hawaii, the

Forty Thieves (Pirates and Slave and Salt Traders)

in Bermuda], made their money from guano (bird shit).


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Effects of El Niño on Guano Birds, Anchoveta Predators

Remember -

Prior to the postwar development of the Anchoveta

fishery, the elite of Peruvian society [the equivalent

of the Big Five (Missionaries) in Hawaii, the

Forty Thieves (Pirates and Slave and Salt Traders)

in Bermuda], made their money from guano.

Talk About a Reduction Fishery!


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Catch


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After the severe El Niño of 1957 the guano bird population, then estimated to be about 27 million, dropped to 6 million. Millions of dead birds washed up on the Peruvian coast. The population gradually recovered in subsequent years and had reached 17 million just prior to the El Niño of 1965 (Figure 6). The population dropped to fewer than 5 million in 1966 and to a few hundred thousand after the 1972-73 El Niño. The population slowly increased to a peak of 6.8 million in 1996, but the birds were decimated by the very strong El Niño of 1997-98. As of 2002 the population stood at 1.8 million individuals.

Effects of El Niño on Guano

Birds, Anchoveta Predators


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Recruitment

Record of recruitment to the anchoveta stock from 1953 through April of 1982.


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Biomass

Anchoveta biomass (millions of tonnes) from 1953 through 1985. Continuous line is based on model calculations. Dots are estimates from field surveys.


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Effects of El Niño on Anchoveta Biomass

In the 70s, managers thought that taking 7 million tonnes from this stock was a reasonable sustainable yield. What do we think now?


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Impact of El Niño on Peruvian anchovies

Possible impacts:

anchovies starve

poor recruitment

changes in predation

Response of anchovies

concentrate in cold water nearer the coastline

move into deeper water and disperse


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History of management

1964 – precursor of the Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE) established

1965 – first closed season

1965 – IMARPE estimates msy to be 7.5 Mt


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History of management

1970 – IMARPE MSY estimate upped to 9.5 MT

1970 – Government overrules; sets harvest at 12.4 MT

1971 – 10.5 MT harvested

1972 – Collapse!


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Fishing at 15% of MSY

Fishing at 75% of MSY

Fishing at 100% of MSY


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1970 – 1,450 purse seiners in the fleet, enough to harvest 13 Mt of anchovies in 175 days.

1970 – Even greater excess capacity in fish meal plants. 7.5 Mt could have been converted to fishmeal in less than 40 days if the fishmeal plants were operated 24 hours a day.

1973 – Peruvian government nationalizes the fishing industry following the 1972 El Niño. The number of fishing boats was reduced from about 1,500 to 800; the number of fishmeal plants was cut from 100 to 50; the number of persons employed in the industry was reduced from 25,000 to 12,000.

1976 – fishery is de-nationalized

1982 – very strong El Niño

1987 – very strong El Niño

1991-92 – very strong El Niño

1997-98 – strongest El Niño of the century

2000 – catches of anchoveta during the 1990s averages 7.6 Mt


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Ecological Summary

Advantages:

  • An Extraordinary Combination of Nutritional Resources

    and an r-Selected Fish

  • Short Food Chain

  • “Simple” Sources of Mortality

    Problems:

  • Complex Biological-Meteorological Interactions

  • Variable Recruitment


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Management Summary

Advantages:

  • An Extraordinary Combination of Nutritional Resources

    and an r-Selected Fish

  • Fishery within the Peruvian EEZ

  • National and International Fisheries Scientists Involved

    Problems:

  • Complex Biological-Meteorological Interactions

  • Harvesting Prior to Sexual Maturity

  • Overcapitalization and Socio-Political Pressures

  • MSY as a target


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Regime Shift

Modeling

  • Hindcasting

  • Forecasting


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1940

1960

1980

2000


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