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Batteries. Physics. Power Cell. Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed. Battery. More than one power cell working together. 9 V battery. Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row. Parts of a Power Cell.

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Batteries l.jpg

Batteries

Physics


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Power Cell

  • Device for storing chemical energy and then releasing it in the form of electricity when current is needed


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Battery

  • More than

    one power

    cell working

    together


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9 V battery

Inside a 9 V are 6-1.5 V power cells connected in a row.


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Parts of a Power Cell

1. Anode

  • Metal

  • High affinity for oxygen

  • Draw oxygen from cathode to become oxidized


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Parts of a Cell

2. Cathode

  • Metallic oxide

  • Lower affinity for oxygen

  • Becomes reduced when oxygen is taken


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Parts of a Cell

3.Separator

  • Insulator

  • Keeps cathode separated from anode to control reaction


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Parts of a Cell

4.Current Collector

  • Connected to anode and cathode

  • Good conductor

    5.Electrolyte

  • Usually liquid (ionized water, acid/base)

  • “Domino Effect” of oxygen from cathode to anode


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Operation of Power Cell

  • As anode becomes oxidized, an electron must be given up

  • Electron flows through anode’s current collector  through circuit (outside of battery) as electrical current  back to cathode’s current collector


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Carbon-Zinc (C-Zn)

  • 1.5 volts

  • Works well if using 100 mA or less

  • Low capacity

  • 3 year shelf life


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Alkaline

  • 1.5 V: lose voltage gradually

  • High Capacity (electrical energy)

    • Last longer

  • 5 year shelf-life

  • Better in high drain devices than C-Zn


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Lithium

  • Started off as button cell

  • Anode: lithium

  • Cathode: magnesium dioxide

  • 3 V: Takes up less space with more voltage


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Lithium

  • High Capacity

  • Low Drain Rate

  • Toxic: Special disposal

  • Light Weight


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Button Cell

  • Anode: Zinc or Lithium

  • Cathode: Silver or Mercury Oxide

  • Compact

  • Large Life


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Recharging Batteries

  • A current from an outside source is pushed through the cell in the opposite direction from the original current

  • Oxygen goes from anode to cathode


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Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd)

  • 1.2 Volts

  • Low capacity

  • Memory effect (Rechargeable)

    • If you re-charge the battery too soon, you lower its capacity


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Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH)

  • 1.2 V

  • Best rechargeable battery

  • High Capacity

  • Good for high drainage devices


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Lithium-Ion

  • 3.6 V

  • Slow-loss of charge (5% per month)

  • Best energy to weight ratio

  • No memory effect

  • Popular for portable electronics (cell phones, IPod)


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Diode

  • Made of semi-conducting material

  • Only permits current to pass in one direction

  • L.E.D.: light emitting diode

    • Longer leg must be connected to positive side of circuit (cathode)


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