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Atomic Structure. Inner electron shell. Proton. Nucleus. Neutron. Outer electron shell. Sub Atomic Particles. 1. PROTONS - positive electrical charge, found in the NUCLEUS, or center of an atom. 2. NEUTRONS - neutral (no electrical charge), also found in the NUCLEUS.

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Atomic structure l.jpg
Atomic Structure

Inner electron shell

Proton

Nucleus

Neutron

Outer electron shell


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Sub Atomic Particles

  • 1. PROTONS- positive electrical charge, found in the NUCLEUS, or center of an atom.

  • 2. NEUTRONS- neutral (no electrical charge), also found in the NUCLEUS.

  • 3. ELECTRONS- negative electrical charge, found moving around the nucleus in the ELECTRON CLOUD


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Friendly electrons

  • Electrons like to travel in pairs, when they can find another electron to travel with.

  • Different layers within the electron cloud are called ENERGY LEVELS or SHELLS


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Friendly electrons

  • Electrons like to travel in pairs, when they can find another electron to travel with.

  • Different layers within the electron cloud are called ENERGY LEVELS or SHELLS


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Atomic Number?

How many bonds will this form?

How many Protons?


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Electron shells

  • The first shell can hold 2 electrons.

  • The second shell can hold 8 electrons.

  • The third shell also holds 8 electrons.


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Electrons exist in shells around the nucleus.

H 1 p+ (1 e-)

He 2 p+ (2 e-)

Li 3 p+ (3 e-)

C 6 p+ (6 e-)

N 7 p+ (7 e-)

O 8 p+ (8 e-)


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How to find atomic structure

  • ATOMIC NUMBER = protons in the nucleus

  • Each different atomic number is a new ELEMENT, or pure substance that cannot be broken down


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How to find atomic structure

  • ATOMIC MASS = protons PLUS neutrons in the nucleus

  • Atomic Mass- Atomic Number = neutrons


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Periodic Table

Alkali Metals

Halogens

Noble Gases


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Information in the Table

47

Atomic number

Name of the element

Elemental Symbol

Silver

Ag

107.87

Atomic mass (weight)


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  • 109 elements are currently known:

  • (Don’t need to know this!)

    • 87 are metals

    • 26 are radioactive

    • 16 are man made (all radioactive)

    • 11 occur as gases

    • 2 occur as liquids


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Navigating the Periodic Table

  • The rows are the “periods”

    • Each period starts a new shell of electrons

    • The periods are numbered starting with 1 at the top

  • The columns are the “groups”

    • Each group has similar chemical properties

    • The groups are numbered starting with 1 at the left

    • Elements with similar properties have the same number of electrons in the outermost shell


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Chemical Families

  • Chemical Families

    • Group 1 are called alkali metals because the react with water to from an alkaline solution, very soft metals.

    • Group 7 are the halogens

      • These need only one electron to fill their outer shell

      • They are very reactive.( disinfectants, bleach, headlights)

    • Group 0 are the noble gases as they have completely filled outer shells

      • They are almost non reactive.


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