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Heavily influenced by Spanish: prior to this time period, Cuba was a colony of Spain. ... Since Cuba is one of the poorest Latin American countries, many ...

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1. U.S. Latino/a: Cuban American

From 1900 to 1960 By: Valerie Welsh Genell Burroughs Leslie Schuller Mandy Miller and Michael Capps

Study Guide The traditions of what two groups influenced Cuban traditions? Spanish and African. What sports did Cuban American children enjoy? Baseball, boxing, volleyball, and basketball. Between 1868 and 1920, Key West became known as the _____ Center of the U.S. Cigar. Between 1930 and 1950, Cuban Americans began to make their marks in what two areas? Politics and business. Between 1959 and 1961, the first to flee the island of Cuba under Castro’s leadership were known as whom? The “Golden Exiles”. What period in history were North American teachers sent over to Cuba to teach Cuban children? U.S. occupation of Cuba (1899-1902). What was the name of the program the Cuban children participated in while in school? The City School Program. What types of games became popular in the 40’s and 50’s? Board and Card Games. What game was mentioned as being common to several cultures in the time period? El Aro (The Hoop). What are the two religions of Cuban-Americans? Santeria (Regla de Ocha) & Roman Catholic. Are children involved in the practices of Santeria? No. What is the true name of Santeria? Regla De Ocha. What is the number one conflict over the religion Santeria? Animal Sacrifice.

3. Culture & Traditions

By Michael Capps

4. Study Questions

The traditions of what two groups influenced Cuban traditions? Spanish and African. What sports did Cuban American children enjoy? Baseball, boxing, volleyball, and basketball.

5. Culture

Heavily influenced by Spanish: prior to this time period, Cuba was a colony of Spain. Also inspired by African traditions; African population as a result of slaves brought to Cuba to work the sugar plantations.

6. Quinceañera

AKA Quince Años or Quince. Celebration of female’s 15th birthday; a transition into adulthood (rite of passage). Similar to a “Sweet 16” party. Embraces religious traditions, and the virtues of family & social responsibility. The Quinceanera's court can be comprised of young girls (called a Dama), young men (called Chambelán or Escorte or Galán) or a combination of both - traditionally up to 14 persons in the court, which with the Quinceanera, would total 15 young people.

7. Cuban Youth Army

Both boys and girls. Mandatory. Age of 15. Usually a reservist until age 49. If in school, kids will practice during school holiday.

8. Holidays

Carnival (June through August): First begun in Santiago de Cuba. Introduced by slaves to ward off bad spirits. 3-day event in Havana. However, different parts of Cuba celebrate it at different times of the summer. Much music and partying. Upset about lack of Sunday observance.

9. Holidays, Continued

Nochebueña (The Good Night): Cuban New Year’s Eve. Families gather together and rejoice around the Nativity scene. Interrupted at Midnight by the ringing of the bells, calling families to “La Misa De Gallo” (Rooster’s Mass). Called this because it is said that the only time a rooster crows at Midnight was on the day Jesus was born. Most beautiful of these candlelight services is held at the monastery of Montserrat, high in the mountain near Barcelona, which is highlighted by a boy's choir describes as performing the Mass in "one pure voice.“

10. More Holidays

Dia de Los Reyes Magos (The Day of The Three Kings): Epiphany, January 6th. Leave grass in boxes to feed the Wise Men’s camels. Saint’s Days: Celebrate the day pf the saint you are named after Interview: Jorge del Castillo, celebrated San Jorge on April 23rd, receiving a small present and a small celebration.

11. Sports

Since Cuba is one of the poorest Latin American countries, many activities must cost little to nothing. Baseball: Like their fathers, Cuban boys typically love to play baseball. Boxing: Usually begin at age of 7, if they intend on going professional. Cubans have won 27 Olympic gold medals in boxing.

12. Sports, Cont.

Girls: Volleyball. Nets often set up in many strange places, such as the streets. Both Girls and Boys: Basketball. Making Music: Playing the guitar. Inexpensive and full of heritage. Many people know how to play: bonding. Listening to Music: Enhances dancing skills.

13. “Pedro Pan”

Major influx of Cuban children to the U.S. Program created by the Catholic Welfare Bureau (Catholic Charities) of Miami in December 1960 at the request of parents in Cuba to provide an opportunity for them to send their children to Miami to avoid Marxist-Leninist indoctrination. Fearing that parental authority would be taken away, parents sent over 14,000 kids to the U.S. alone.

14. Class

By Valerie Welsh

15. Study Questions

Between 1868 and 1920, Key West became known as the _____ Center of the U.S. Cigar. Between 1930 and 1950, Cuban Americans began to make their marks in what two areas? Politics and business. Between 1959 and 1961, the first to flee the island of Cuba under Castro’s leadership were known as whom? The “Golden Exiles”.

The first Cuban immigrants started to arrive in the late 1800’s; they came in what is termed as “waves.” During the time period from the late 1800’s to 1960, there were three distinct waves of Cuban immigrants: 1880 – 1920 1930 – 1950 1959 – Time Periods: Waves When the Ten Year’s War against Spain broke out in 1868, a tenth of Cuba’s population was forced to emigrate. After Cuba defeated Spain in 1878, many Cubans returned home to Cuba. But many remained in the U.S.   Many professionals, businessmen and workers established themselves in New York, Philadelphia, New Orleans, Baltimore and Key West, Florida. More than three-quarters of the workers became involved in the tobacco Industry. Cigar manufacturing had been a thriving business in Cuba; so many exiles arrived here with years of experience in the industry, as workers and entrepreneurs. Once settled in Key West they quickly turned it into the Cigar Center of the United States. Life was quite inexpensive for them. They could rent a house for one dollar a week, buy a pound of meat for less that ten cents, and a meal for a nickel. Wages ranged from 20.00 – 40.00 dollars a week. Workers lived in relative comfort. They lived in close knit communities with strong social and family ties. 1868 – 1920 From 1933-1944, Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar ruled over Cuba. While he had support of the majority, he infuriated some Cubans with his disregard for the democratic process, and how he instead ran a police state. He sent countless people who opposed him to jail, or even to death. Some rich and powerful who opposed him were forced to seek temporary refuge in the United States; this wave was in much smaller numbers. Along with the rest of the country, both new immigrants and established Cuban Americans faced The Depression. One harder hit industry was the luxury industry, including the cigar industries. Cuban American workers were hit hard. But they didn’t wait for things to get better; instead they dispersed to other areas around the country in an effort to find work. Families especially felt the effects of the depression. Entire families were unable to move easily, so many adolescent children were sent to work in factories in an effort to help support their families.   Cuban Americans proved to be very resourceful. They made use of the great opportunities which this country offered, and they achieved remarkable prosperity in the process.   During this period many Cuban Americans began to make their mark in politics, as well as in business. 1930 – 1950 Thousands fled the island after only a few months of Castro seizing control. It didn’t take long before Castro began implementing socialist reforms, including confiscation of privately owned property. Castro aligned himself with the Soviet Union both economically and politically. The first to flee were typically people with wealth, know as the “Golden Exiles.” They had little trouble blending in the American culture, where money constituted an international language. Next came the middle class: doctors, lawyers, architects and disillusioned white collar workers, some of whom lost their property to confiscation. They were soon followed by farmers, peasants, and fishermen.   Also, out of fear, thousands of unaccompanied children were sent over by their parents. In 1960, President Eisenhower made available one million dollars to be used for resettlement, and to aid such children. 1959 – 1961 These Cubans were received by the majority of society with much less prejudice than other immigrant groups. Overall, Cuban American status rose much more quickly than did many European groups’. They achieved both economical and political success, often compared to that of whites. 1961 And Beyond

21. Education

By Genell Burroughs

22. Study Questions

What period in history were North American teachers sent over to Cuba to teach Cuban children? U.S. occupation of Cuba (1899-1902).     What was the name of the program the Cuban children participated in while in school? The City School Program.

23. Education: U.S. Occupation of Cuba 1899-1902

§       North American teachers were sent over to Cuba to teach Cuban children.   §       Giving the Cuban children an education was an opportunity the North American authorities saw to develop attitudes and values compatible with North American policy objectives.   §       The organization and content of the school curriculum conformed to North American practices.   §       The subjects that were taught in the classroom were:   -        The English Language and North American Literature -        Politics -        History    

24. Education: The English Language and North American Literature

§       By having the English language taught in the classroom, North American authorities saw it as an important link to bind Cuba to the United States.   §       Children were taught that English was the language of the future, and that it would give them a better chance to understand Americans and do business with Americans in the future as adults.   §       Also, North American literature was placed into the classrooms to promote the children’s knowledge, and improve their morals. And textbooks adopted for classroom use were Spanish translations of North American books. These books transmitted culture.

25. Education: Politics

§       Cuban children participated in the “The City School Program.” The program was modeled on a system that was being used a lot in immigrant neighborhoods of New York City to promote the acculturation process.   §       The program was in civil training, a project in which the children could become familiar with North American institutions by organizing model governments and playing the roles of elected officials.   §       The City School Program sought to impress upon the children the virtues of the North American political system and warn against the vices of Latin American politics.  

26. Education: History

§       For the teaching of history, it functioned as an instrument of cultural imperialism and political hegemony. It served as one of the principal means through which to reshape the memory of the past. And the history textbooks used mostly dealt with North American history.   §       Also, Cuban history was taught briefly to the children. They learned about the Cuban revolutionary war, but the history books the children used were recorded in the North American version.  

27. Play

By Leslie Schuller “Many Cubans were born and spent their formative years in the United States. They learned to play new games and acquired a commonplace acquaintance with attitudes and customs that were wholly unfamiliar in Cuba.” On Becoming Cuban

28. Study Questions

What types of games became popular in the 40’s and 50’s? Board and Card Games. What game was mentioned as being common to several cultures in the time period? El Aro (The Hoop).

Children of working class families had little time for play.   In Ybor City, Florida, children often began working by the age of five as Messengers Delivery boys Stable hands Shoe shine boys In Grocery stores Cigar Factories Farms Cottage industries   Children had many obligations at home as well, helping with younger children, housework and home repairs. Work, Work Work… As child labor laws were passed, children had more time for play.   Popular outdoor activities:   El Palito (The Stick) Los Papalotes (The Kites) Kites were also made by children and hung in windows for sale La Carreta de Patines (The Scooter made from Roller Skates) El Aro (The Hoop) La Lata (The Can) Popular Outdoor Activities This game was described in two interviews and in a book   The game is played with two sticks – often made from Mama’s broomstick One stick 4 - 5 inches long, rounded on each end – el palito One stick about four feet long – el mocho Three or more players The batter puts el palito down on the street. The other players, fielders, are down the street, waiting to catch el palito. The batter hits the rounded end of el palito causing it to flip into the air, then hits it with el mocho, sending it flying toward the fielders. The fielder who catches el palito is the next batter. El Palito (The Stick) Kites were described in an interview and in a book.   Kites were home-made or purchased from a store or from another child To make a kite you needed: Light weight sticks – varillas – two about 16 inches, one about 10 inches – scraps from the cigar box factory were just right Paper – the corner store had colorful “papel de China” for sale Lightweight but strong string Glue Fabric for a tail Straight pins to fasten the varillas together   After you made your kite you could fly it on a breezy day. Both boys and girls enjoyed kites.   Sometimes boys would attach razor blades to the tails of their kites and have kite fights called La Fajazon, trying to cut the string of their opponent’s kite so it flew away. Los Papalotes (The Kites) Mentioned in an interview and a book   To make a scooter you need: --Scrap lumber – two 2x4s, one about 18 inches, one about 18 inches or to size for height of child, one 1x2 about 7 inches long for the handle --One old skate --Hammer and nails   Nail the skate to the bottom of the 18 inch 2x4, half at each end. Nail the handle centered on one end of the remaining 2x4 and nail the opposite end to the front of the first piece. Paint if you want to, grease the wheels and go! La Carreta de Patines (Scooter) Mentioned in a book   Hoop or steel rim – from a truck tire or a barrel Stick or wire pusher   To play with the hoop a boy or girl would roll the hoop along the ground, pushing or controlling it with the stick or wire. This was a popular pastime in many cultures in this time period. El Aro (The Hoop) Mentioned in an interview   A game for any number of players Start by balancing a can lid on its side and spinning it, then run! The player who runs the farthest from the lid when it stops spinning is the winner. La Lata (The Can) Popular indoor pastimes:   Jacks Dolls and Paper dolls Miniature metal trucks, cars and other friction toys Books and Comic books Button yo-yos Motion Pictures Board and Card games became popular in the 1940’s and 50’s Popular Indoor Pastimes Many Cuban-American families, especially after the late 1950’s, made a conscious effort to blend into ‘American’ culture and did not want to be singled out as Cuban. Play in these families closely resembles play in mainstream America. Americanization of Play

38. Religion

By Mandy Miller

39. Study Questions

What are the two religions of Cuban-Americans? Santeria (Regla de Ocha) & Roman Catholic. Are children involved in the practices of Santeria? No.   What is the true name of Santeria? Regla De Ocha.   What is the number one conflict over the religion Santeria? Animal Sacrifice.

40. Roman Catholic & Regla de Ocha (The Rule of the Orisha) Also Known as Santeria

41. Roman Catholic

Roman Catholic religion has many practices such as: Mass Communion Baptisms Confirmation and Prayer

-Wearing White The baby wears white because it is a sign of their new life White stands for purity and innocence and the rejection of sin -The priest traces a cross on the child’s forehead & the parents do the same -There is a reading from the Bible -Then there is a prayer for the child and parents -Then there is an Exorcism in which the priest holds his hand up and says: "O God, you sent your Son to cast out the power of Satan, set this child free from Original Sin" -Then there is the Anointing which is where the priest anoints the child on the chest with oil. The oil is a sign of strength and healing -Then the parents are asked to make the Promises "Do you reject Satan?" "I do" "Do you believe in God?" "I do” "Do you believe in Jesus Christ, the son of God?" "I do" "Do you believe in the Holy Spirit?" "I do" Baptism of an Infant Incudes: After the promises, water is poured over the child's head three times. The priest says the child's name and then: "I baptize you in the Name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" Baptism Children usually make their First Holy Communion at the age of 7 or 8. It is a time of great celebration when the candidates usually wear white and receive gifts to mark this special passage in their spiritual life. First Communion Santeria is a syncretistic religion, which is the joining of two beliefs.   These would be the worship of the Orisha and beliefs of the Yoruba, combined with elements of worship from Roman Catholicism . Regla de Ocha Santeria This religion began when people were forcibly transported from Africa to be slaves in Cuba   They were baptized Roman Catholic upon arrival   They kept their religion alive by equating the Orisha of their traditional religions with a corresponding Christian Saint Examples: Oggzn became St. Peter Eleggua or Elegba became St. Anthony The Beginning In the early 1900’s the African Drum was forbidden and Afro-Cuban ritual ceremonies were stopped and their musical instruments were confiscated and burned & Their annual carnivals were ultimately banned due to being seen as “savage and uncivilized” Interesting Fact Ashe Ashe is growth, the force toward completeness and divinity.   Olodumare The Owner of Heaven, the Owner of all Destinies.   Orisha Sacred patrons or "guardian angels”. Terminology Ritual Sacrifices The animal's blood is collected and offered to the Orisha Dancing is another main component of the ritual   Possession Rhythmic sounds and dancing during Santerian rituals are believed to lead to possession   Secrecy Very little information about beliefs, ritual, symbolism, and practice are released to the general public   Tradition Santeria is not a religion of a book Practices Animal Sacrifices: Chickens and other small animals are ritually sacrificed at times of serious sickness or misfortune, and at times of initiation   Santerians defend their practices by pointing out: -The animals are killed in a humane manner -They are often eaten later, just as the many of millions of animals slaughtered daily in North American commercial establishments are -Ritual sacrifice of animals was extensively practiced in ancient Israel and was only discontinued after the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in the eighth decade CE -They feel that the sacrifices must continue because their Orisha require the food -Animal sacrifices have formed a part of their religion for over one millennium -The Constitution of the United States guarantees freedom of religious expression Conflicts Over Santeria

51. Any Questions? Thank you!

52. Bibliography

Michael Capps About Cuba - The Definitive Guide to Everything in Cuba. 10 Feb. 2005 <http://www.aboutcuba.com/en/culture.asp>. Ada, Alma F. Under the Royal Palms. New York: Atheneum Books, 1998. 43-50. Antón, Alex, and Roger E. Hernández. Cubans in America. New York: Kensington Books, 2002. 99-125. Cuba: A Guide to Cuba and Cubans. 6 Feb. 2005 <http://www.cubacuban.com/kids/games.shtml>. del Castillo, Jorge. Online interview. 19 Feb. 2005. Mendieta, Ana. "Cuban Kids In Exile: Pawns of Cold War Politics." Chicago Sun-Times 24 Aug. 2003. LEXIS/NEXIS. 16 Feb. 2005 Operation Pedro Pan. 2003. Operation Pedro Pan Group, Inc. 10 Feb. 2005 <http://www.pedropan.org/>. Puerto Rican and Cuban Catholics in the U.S., 1900-1965. Ed. Jay P. Dolan, and Jaime R. Vidal. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame P, 1994. 174-188. The National Association of Hispanic Journalists. 10 Feb. 2005 <http://www.nahj.org/resourceguide/chapter_4.html>. Genell Burroughs Chaffee, Wilber A. and Gary Prevost.  Cuba: A Different America.  New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. 1989.  “Cuban Americans”. Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. 2nd Ed. 2000.  Guillermo, Grenier J. and Lisandro Perez. "Cubans."  American Immigrant Cultures.  Eds. Melvin Ember and David Levinson.  2 vols.  New York: Simon and Schuster Macmillian, 1997.  Hatchwell, Emily.  Cuba In Focus.  New York: South Sea International Press, 1995.  Perez, Louis. Cuban Studies . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991.  Perez, Louis. Essays on Cuban History: Historiography and Research. Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 1994. Valerie Welsh Ada, A.  (1998). Under the Royal Palms.  New York: Atheneum Books. Gonzalez-Pando, M.  (1998).  The Cuban Americans. Westport:  Greenwood Press. Handlin, O.  (1966).  Children of the Uprooted.  New York: George Braziller, Inc.  Hoobler, D. & Hoobler T.  (1996).  The Cuban American Family Album.  New York:  Oxford University Press. LeMay, C. (2005).  The Perennial Struggle.  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson Prentice Hall.

Leslie Schuller Barbie, Rose. “Research.” E-mail to the manager of Visitor Information Center at Centro Ybor. Bureau of Archives & Records Management. Florida State Archives Florida Memory Project. 1 February, 2005. <http://www.floridamemory.com/> CHC Digital: Online Resources for Cuban and Cuban American Studies. <http://digital.library.miami.edu> Diaz, Lalo and Lala. Personal Interview. Feb. 4, 2005 de la Fuente, Alejandro. “Cuban American childhood” E-mail to Assoc. Professor of Latin American and Caribbean History, Department of History, U of Pittsburgh. Growing Up Ybor: Toys, Games, and Childhood Pastimes in Early Ybor City. An exhibition by the Ybor City Museum Society Pamphlet. Ybor City: Ybor City Museum Society. 2002. Hargis, Peggy G. and Horan, Patrick M. “Children’s Work and Schooling in the Late Nineteenth Century Family Experience.” American Sociological Review 56 (October, 1991): 583-596. Lastra, Frank Tribin. Ybor City Games 1920 through 1940. Ybor City: Self-Published Centennial Edition 1986. Perez Jr. Louis A. On Becoming Cuban: Identity, Nationality and Culture. Chapel Hill & London: U of North Carolina Press. 1991. Visitor Information Center. Ybor City Chamber of Commerce. 1 February, 2005. <http://www.ybor.org/infocenter.asp> Young Cigarmakers at Engelhart & Co. 27 January, 1909. Picture History. 30 January, 2005 <http://www.picturehistory.com/find/start/72?c=141;p=14;start=60>. Mandy Miller Clark, Mary. Santeria. 2000. 5 Feb. 2005. http://sparta.rice.edu/~maryc/Santeria  "Communion." RE: Quest Education. Updated. 3 Feb. 2005.  Registered Charity. 5 Feb. 2005. http://www.request.org.uk/main/churches/catholic/catholic00.htm  Crawford, Sarah. Santeria. Updated 2001. 1 Feb. 2005 <http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/santer ia.html>  Frohock, Fred. The Free Exercise Of Religion: Lukumi And  Animal Sacrifice. Updated 2001. 25 Jan. 2005  http://www.miami.edu/iccas/santeria.pdf  Nodal, Robert. The Black Man In Cuban Society From Colonial  Times to the Revolution. Updated 3 March 1986. Journal  of Black Studies. Vol. 16. J Stor Database. California  State University - San Bernardino. 5 Feb. 2005. http://www.jstor.org.libproxy.lib.csusb.edu/view/002193 47/dm992984/99p0113q/0  Robinson, B.A. Santeria, A syncretistic Caribbean Religion. Updated 3 Jan. 2003.  http://www.religioustolerance.org/santeri.htm
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