What to do with daily milk data advanced epidemiology
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What to do with daily milk data - advanced epidemiology. R Shephard 1 and MA Stevenson 2 1 Gippsland Herd Improvement 2 Foster St Maffra, Victoria, Australia 2 EpiCentre, IVABS, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. Roadmap. Lactation curves Shewart charts

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What to do with daily milk data advanced epidemiology l.jpg

What to do with daily milk data - advanced epidemiology

R Shephard1 and MA Stevenson2

1 Gippsland Herd Improvement 2 Foster St Maffra, Victoria, Australia

2 EpiCentre, IVABS, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand


Roadmap l.jpg
Roadmap

  • Lactation curves

  • Shewart charts

  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms

  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots


Lactation curves l.jpg
Lactation curves

  • Herd test data

    • rank cows in order of productive merit

    • dry off and culling decisions

    • somatic cell counts  dry cow therapy decisions


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Lactation curves

  • Lactation curves

    •  herd test milk volumevs days in milk at date of herd test

    • an additional (objective) way to assess a herd’s feeding program



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Good producers

(abortions?)

Peak yield

Persistency

Crook?

Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW


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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW

Peak yield = 28.5 litres at 50 DIM

 0.04 litres per day

  1.2 litres per month

 1.2 28.5 ~ 4.2% per month



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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North Kiama NSW

Peak yield = 25.7 litres at 50 DIM

 0.07 litres per day

  2.1 litres per month

 2.1  25.7 ~ 8.2% per month



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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Masterton Kiama NSW

Peak yield = 15.4 litres at 50 DIM

 0.03 litres per day

  0.9 litres per month

 0.9  15.4 ~ 5.8% per month


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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kangaloon NSW

Peak yield = 26.9 litres at 50 DIM

 0.03 litres per day

  0.9 litres per month

 0.9  26.9 ~ 3.3% per month


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Lactation curves Kangaloon NSW


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Lactation curves Kangaloon NSW

  • Fat to protein ratio vs DIM


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Low protein relative to fat Kangaloon NSW

- low energy intake?

Low fat relative to protein

- insufficient dietary fibre?

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North



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Low protein relative to fat Kangaloon NSW

- low energy intake?

Low fat relative to protein

- insufficient dietary fibre?

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North


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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North Kangaloon NSW

Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Masterton


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Roadmap Kangaloon NSW

  • Lactation curves

  • Shewart charts

  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms

  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots


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Shewart charts Kangaloon NSW

  • Common to monitor aspects of herd performance as a function of time:

    • bulk milk tank volume

    • successful inseminations

    • bulk milk tank somatic cell counts

  • How many abnormal values do we need to accumulate before blowing the whistle?



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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Define what is ‘normal’ and an acceptable level of variability:


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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Define what is ‘normal’ and an acceptable level of variability:


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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW

Test 1: a single point outside of control limits

Test 2: 3 out of 4 consecutive points closer to the control limit than to the centre line

Test 3: 8 or more successive points on one side of the centre line


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Roadmap Vale NSW

  • Lactation curves

  • Shewart charts

  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms

  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots


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ICSCC frequency histograms Vale NSW

  • Bin ICSCCs:

    • 0 - 100,000 cells/mL

    • 100,000 - 200,000 cells/mL

    • etc

  • Count up the number that fall into each group and plot as bar charts

  • See Ryan (1991)


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Good mastitis control: Vale NSW

high numbers in 0 - 100,000 cells/mL category

low numbers in 500,000 - 1,000,000 cells/mL category


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Poor mastitis control: Vale NSW

lower numbers in 0 - 100,000 cells/mL category

higher numbers in 500,000 - 1,000,000 cells/mL category


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Ineffective teat dip: Vale NSW

large numbers 100,000 - 200,000 cells/mL category

A.bovis  udder ‘irritant’


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ICSCC frequency histograms Vale NSW

  • How can we use ICSCC histograms?

    • effective way to monitor responses to suggested mastitis controls

      • ICSCC frequency histograms change relatively quickly after implementation of a mastitis control program

      • BMSCCs, in contrast, change more slowly



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Start of control Vale NSW

Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Moss Vale NSW


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Roadmap Vale NSW

  • Lactation curves

  • Shewart charts

  • Individual somatic cell count frequency histograms

  • Individual somatic cell count scatter plots


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ICSCC scatter plots Vale NSW

  • Clarify patterns of subclinical mastitis from one herd test to the next

    • take two [consecutive] herd tests

    • plot first herd test ICSCC value (x axis) vs second herd test ICSCC value (y axis)


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Non-seasonally calving, pasture + concentrate fed herd: Kiama NSW

New infections

Chronics

Clear

Cured


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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North Kiama NSW

New infections

Chronics

Clear

Cured


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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Palmerston North Kiama NSW

New infections

Chronics

Clear

Cured


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Scatter plots - continued Kiama NSW

  • Loeffler et al. (1999)

    • study of 9369 lactations evaluated effect of milk components on dairy cow fertility

    • increase in fat-protein ratio a possible risk for reproductive failure


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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Kiama NSWPalmerston North

Low - High

High - High

Low - Low

High - Low


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Seasonally calving, pasture fed herd: Kiama NSWMasterton

Low - High

High - High

Low - Low

High - Low


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Lactation curves … Kiama NSW

quantify herd production characteristics

Roadmap


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Lactation curves … Kiama NSW

Shewart charts …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

Roadmap


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Lactation curves … Kiama NSW

Shewart charts …

ICSCC frequency histograms …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

monitor response to controls

Roadmap


Roadmap47 l.jpg

Lactation curves … Kiama NSW

Shewart charts …

ICSCC frequency histograms …

ICSCC scatter plots …

quantify herd production characteristics

help to decide when to blow the whistle

monitor response to controls

identify infection patterns

Roadmap


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