Water chapters 13 and 20 living in the environment 11 th edition miller
Download
1 / 92

Water - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 207 Views
  • Updated On :

Water Chapters 13 and 20 Living in the Environment , 11 th Edition, Miller. Advanced Placement Environmental Science La Canada High School Dr. E. Key H 2 0 Characteristics. Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Water ' - Sharon_Dale


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Water chapters 13 and 20 living in the environment 11 th edition miller l.jpg

WaterChapters 13 and 20Living in the Environment, 11th Edition, Miller

Advanced Placement Environmental Science

La Canada High School

Dr. E


Key h 2 0 characteristics l.jpg
Key H20 Characteristics

  • Water is the prime constituent of all living organisms.

  • Water moves easily-from one physical state to another, and from one place to another.

  • Water slowly absorbs and releases large quantities of energy.

  • Water is a superior solvent.

  • Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

(Source: Wright & Nebel 2002)


Importance of water properties l.jpg
Importance of Water Properties

Running water can quickly erode topsoil rendering farmland infertile and streams contaminated.

Lack of access to clean water supplies can quickly lead to dehydration and death.

Chemical spills, excess nutrients & acids dissolved in H20 can lead to massive die offs.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Slide4 l.jpg

  • Water

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Available water l.jpg
Available Water

  • Total = 326 million cubic miles

  • 97% of Earth’s water is in oceans

  • 2.997% is locked up in ice caps and glaciers

  • 0.003% is easily accessible

    • Soil moisture

    • Groundwater

    • Water vapor

    • Lakes

    • Streams


Slide6 l.jpg

Water Supply & Use

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.html


Water cycle l.jpg
Water Cycle

www.athensclarkecounty.com/~stormwater/ SW%20Management.htm


Hydrologic cycle l.jpg
Hydrologic Cycle

  • Powered by solar energy and gravity

  • Evaporation and precipitation

  • Continuous recycling of water

    • Runoff

    • Infiltration

    • Evaporation

    • Temporary storage as snow and ice

    • Temporary storage in lakes

    • Temporary storage in plants (transpiration) and animals

    • Chemical reactions with rocks and minerals

    • Volcanism also causes melting of snow caps and mudflows as melted water mixes with ash

    • Source of additional water? volcanism (steam)


Surface water l.jpg
Surface Water

  • Surface runoff flows into streams, lakes, wetlands and reservoirs

  • A watershed or drainage basin

    • Region that drains into a streams, lakes, wetlands or reservoirs

www.canaanvi.org/assistance/ watershed.asp


Groundwater l.jpg
Groundwater

  • As precipitation infiltrates and percolates through voids in soil and rock

    • Pores, fractures, crevices, etc.

  • Shallow rock has little moisture

  • Zone of saturation is at a depth were ground is filled with water

  • Top of this zone is water table

    • Falls in dry weather

    • Rises in wet weather


Slide11 l.jpg

HOW RIVERS WORK: the role of groundwater

www.elmhurst.edu/.../chm110/ outlines/groundwater.html


Aquifers l.jpg
Aquifers

  • Porous, water-saturated layers of sand, gravel or bedrock through which groundwater flows

  • Area of land that supplies water to aquifer is called the recharge area

  • Natural recharge is when water percolates downward, but sometimes lateral recharge occurs


Groundwater movement l.jpg
Groundwater Movement

  • Groundwater moves from recharge area through an aquifer and out a discharge area

    • well, spring, lake, geyser, artesian well, steam, ocean

  • Normally moves downhill at only a meter per year

  • Some aquifers get little recharge and were formed thousands of years ago

  • Removal from these nonrenewable resources is called water mining


Slide15 l.jpg

Use of Fresh Water

  • United States

  • 41% agriculture

  • 38% power plant cooling

  • 11% industry

  • 10% public

  • China

  • 87% agriculture

  • 7% industry

  • 6% public


Water use globally people and planet l.jpg
Water Use Globally People and Planet

  • 70 per cent of all water withdrawn for human use on an annual basis is soaked up by agriculture (mostly in the form of irrigation)

  • Industry accounts for 23 per cent

  • Domestic use (household, drinking water, sanitation) accounts for about 7 per cent


Water use people and planet l.jpg
Water Use People and Planet

  • The average person needs a minimum of five litres (1.3 gallons) of water per day to survive in a moderate climate at an average activity level, according to UN figures.

  • The minimum amount of water needed for drinking and cooking, bathing and sanitation is 50 litres (13 gallons).


Water use minimum 13 gallons people and planet l.jpg
Water Use - (minimum 13 gallons) People and Planet

  • The average person in the United States uses between 250 to 300 litres of water (65-78 gallons) per day for drinking, cooking bathing, and watering their yard.

  • The average person in the Netherlands uses 104 litres per day (27 gallons).

  • The average person in the African nation of Gambia uses 4.5 litres per day (1.2 gallons of water).


Water use united states l.jpg
Water Use - United States

  • In 1990, about 408,000 million gallons (Mgal/d) of water were used each day

  • Of that, about 339,000 Mgal/d was fresh water and about 69,400 Mgal/d was saline water

  • California used the most water, about 46,800 Mgal/d, with most of that going towards irrigation

  • The state with the second-highest water use was Texas, with about 25,200 Mgal/d, mostly for use in the power-production industries and for irrigation


Slide20 l.jpg

  • Some conversions:

  • 1 Mgal/d = 1.547 cubic feet per second

  • 1 Mgal/d = 0.6944 thousand gallons per minute

  • 1 Mgal/d = 1,121 thousand acre-feet per year

  • 1 million gallons = 3.07 acre feet

http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/wateruse.html


Slide21 l.jpg

  • Water

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Too little water l.jpg
Too Little Water

  • Causes

    • Dry climate

    • Drought - a period in which precipitation is much lower and evaporation is much higher

    • Desiccation - drying of soil because of such activities as deforestation and overgrazing

    • Water stress - low per capita availability of water caused by overpopulation


Slide23 l.jpg

Precipitation Varies Greatly

  • US cities vary in their precipitation from an average of less than 8 to 60 inches a year.

  • Globally, the extreme is even greater – averages of less than 1 inch to more than 70 inches per year.

  • However, this masks variations between years.

  • Some locations may get ten times more, or less than 1/10 of their annual average from year to year.

  • Meeting demands for water when precipitation is so highly varied creates many challenges.


Slide24 l.jpg

www.geocities.com/seafloormapping2/ atmos.htm

whyfiles.org/131fresh_water/ 2.html


Global precipitation patterns l.jpg
Global Precipitation Patterns

Wright and Nebel, 2002.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Slide26 l.jpg

http://www.peopleandplanet.net/graphs/Freshwateravailability.jpghttp://www.peopleandplanet.net/graphs/Freshwateravailability.jpg


Slide27 l.jpg


Drought may spark food price hike tuesday november 12 2002 l.jpg
Drought may spark food price hike transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficitTuesday, November 12, 2002

SYDNEY, Australia -- All but one percent of Australia's most populous state, New South Wales, has been bit by the country's worst drought in a century, with retailers warning that if rain does not fall soon, the country will likely face massive food price hikes.


Slide29 l.jpg

  • Water transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficit

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs and

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Water and civilization l.jpg
Water and Civilization transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficit

  • Many anthropologists and historians believe the need to manage water played a major role in the development of early systems of government.

  • In Mesopotamia, the Fertile Crescent where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers come together, water allowed the rise of irrigation-based agriculture, but this required coordination and rules to permit equitable access to water downstream.

  • Proto-laws and governments were thus developed some 4,400 years BP

  • Ancient communities that prospered were those that generally well managed their water supplies.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Examples of water management l.jpg
Examples of Water Management transpiration and evaporation is in excess of precipitation, which causes a net moisture deficit

  • Many civilizations built impressive water management systems – to bring water to places where people wanted to be or where crops could be grown, but where it was naturally insufficient.

  • Egyptians built dykes, canals and water lifts to extend agricultural limits.

  • Middle East and North African nomads built qanats (underground chain wells).

  • Nabateans built runoff harvesting systems – cisterns and flood terraces.

  • Incas built canals to catch snowmelt from the Andes to the coastal desert, and terraces to flood for farming.

  • Romans built municipal aqueducts and sewers to serve burgeoning settlements.

  • For a good, fun site on water history go here.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Slide32 l.jpg

Egyptians perfected the shadouf to draw water from canals and the river to the adjacent bank and into ditches.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies

Nomadic herders and, later, sedentary civilizations developed chains of wells – qanats, karez, foggaras, falaj – to route water across miles of desert from distant aquifers.


Water for power l.jpg
Water for Power and the river to the adjacent bank and into ditches.

  • In addition to its uses for municipal purposes (drinking, sanitation, etc.) and for farming, moving water also has tremendous power to do work.

  • This too has been harnessed for millennia – first to lift water out of the river itself, then to grind grain and turn gears for machinery like looms, and then for electricity.

  • Water wheels have been in use for more than 2,000 years and were thought to have been a major factor in the advancement of European societies in the middle ages, as labor was freed for other purposes than farming.

  • Following the discovery of electricity and the pioneering of electric light by Edison, in the 1880s hydropower systems were built to generate electricity to send through transmission lines to homes and businesses.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Slide34 l.jpg

Example of noria – water driven wheels lifting water into irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

Slaters Mill in Rhode Island, one of the earliest American water powered industrial systems.

Artists impression of the Three Gorges Project, Yangtze River, China – world’s biggest hydropower project 19 m kW.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


Increasing water supplies l.jpg
Increasing Water Supplies irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

  • Build dams and reservoirs to store runoff

  • Bring in surface water from another area

  • Withdraw groundwater

  • Convert salt water to fresh water (desalination)

  • Improve the efficiency of water use


Slide36 l.jpg

Aswan Dam, Egypt irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

Chinese Dam

Fish Bypass System

Earthen Dam

Hoover Dam

www.wvic.com/res-main.htm


Large dams pros l.jpg
Large Dams - Pros irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

  • Collect and store water from rain and snow

  • Produce electricity

  • Irrigate land below the dam

  • Control flooding

  • Provide water to cities, towns and rural areas

  • Provide recreational activities such as swimming, boating, fishing


Large dams cons l.jpg
Large Dams - Cons irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

  • Enormous loss of water due to evaporation

  • Mass of water can cause earthquakes

  • Flooded land destroys forests or cropland and displaces people

  • Danger of Dam collapse

  • Downstream areas deprived of nutrient-rich soil, which will eventually clog the reservoir

  • Migration and spawning of fish disrupted

  • Expensive to build


Case study l.jpg

Case Study: irrigation ditches or elevated aqueducts (This is in Vietnam)

California

CSU HaywardDept. Geography and Environmental StudiesGEOG 4350 Fall 2001 Class 6

isis.csuhayward.edu/alss/geography/ mlee/geog4350/4350c6f01.ppt


Slide40 l.jpg

Most of the land in Nevada and southern California is desert shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter


California s water l.jpg
California’s Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Water Law

  • California’s Water Projects

    • Los Angeles Aqueduct

    • Hetch-Hetchy

    • Salton Sea

    • Colorado Aqueduct

    • Central Valley Project


Water law l.jpg
Water Law shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Riparian Rights (Sharing)

    • from English Common Law

    • applies to surface waters

    • owner of waterfront land to use amounts correlated with other riparian owners.

    • Works well in areas with water surplus

  • Prior Appropriation (1st come, first served)

    • from Spanish law

    • no preference given to those adjoining water course

    • water rights based on use; earliest has rights

    • use protected as long as it is continuous and “reasonable”


Water law43 l.jpg
Water Law shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Correlative Rights

    • applies to ground water

    • about 40% of all California water (not a sustainable withdraw)

    • Overlying landowners entitled to “reasonable” use. Rights are correlated with other landowners overlying the aquifer

  • The California Doctrine

    • 1928 amendment to California Constitution

    • “Most reasonable beneficial use”

    • Blend of riparian and appropriation rights

    • Problem: California water geography is unbalanced. Plenty of water in the north. Most people in the south.


California water code l.jpg
California Water Code shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Highest priority for domestic use

  • Second priority goes to irrigation

  • Applications by municipalities for use of water by residents given priority over most other uses.

  • Water Board determines allocation to serve public interest. Board must work within state water plans.

  • Owens Valley issue highlights how contentious this process can be.


Los angeles aqueduct dwp eastern sierra l.jpg
Los Angeles Aqueduct (DWP) shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterEastern Sierra

  • Started in 1908 by William Mulholland

  • appropriated water feeding Owens Valley

  • taps surface flow from Eastern Sierra south

  • 250 miles, cost $25,000,000 and took five years

  • pipe and flume, tunnel, and trench

  • gravity feed, no pumping

  • generates hydroelectric power

  • L.A. purchased riparian land, used appropriation rights to get away with this. Ranchers in Owens Valley fought back with dynamite and guns - California’s only range war.


Slide46 l.jpg

LA Aqueduct is shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter


Mono lake l.jpg
Mono Lake shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • In 1941, L.A. DWP started diverting Mono Basin streams to add to L.A. Aqueduct.

  • Mono Lake’s volume halved while salinity doubled. The simple ecosystem began to fail and threatened migrating birds and nesting gulls.

  • The state and courts now mandate raising the level of the lake 17 feet. It will take about 20 years.


Hetch hetchy san francisco water l.jpg
Hetch Hetchy: shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterSan Francisco Water

  • Hetch Hetchy Valley, in Yosemite National Park, damned. Completed in 1931.

  • 175 mile aqueduct and O’Shawnasy Dam, powerhouse, provide cheap power to the city of San Francisco.

  • 95 mile Mokelumne aqueduct, starts at Pardee Dam and reservoir.

  • Together they provide about 1/3 of Bay Area water.

  • Controversy helped to strengthen John Muir’s Sierra Club.


Slide51 l.jpg

The Salton Sea shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Man-made by accident in 1905.

  • Irrigation in Imperial Valley had flooded an ancient overflow channel of the Colorado River.

  • Unusually heavy spring runoff and lack of control gates caused a two-year flood into the Salton Sink.

  • The Southern Pacific Railroad had to move its tracks five times that season to higher ground.

  • Eventually the S.P.R.R. took control and put the river back but by then the Salton Sea was created.

  • Hoover Dam now controls Colorado and prevents delivery of sediment to Yuma and the delta.

www.westernlaw.org/fischer/ 7_6text.html


Colorado river aqueduct l.jpg
Colorado River Aqueduct shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Established 1928 to bring water to L.A. and rest of Southern California

  • First delivery in 1940; serves 15 million people

  • Lawsuit from Arizona (1953) finally began to be implemented in 1985 - amount will decrease and this amount will be replaced by State Water Project water.

  • Five pumping stations

  • Diversions for agriculture


The state water project the california aqueduct l.jpg
The State Water Project: shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterThe California Aqueduct

  • Constructed beginning in the 1960s.

  • About 1/2 for irrigation, about 1/2 for domestic use.

  • Domestic use supply helps offset that lost to Arizona in 1985 court case.

  • Includes the huge Oroville Dam on Feather River in Sierra foothills.

  • Pumps at Tracy lift water, then it flows by gravity to the Tehachapi Mountains.


Slide57 l.jpg

California Aqueduct shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter


Dams and global river degradation l.jpg
Dams and Global River Degradation shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Shasta Dam, CA

Aswan Dam, Egypt Lake Nasser


The geography of large dams l.jpg
The Geography of Large Dams shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Over 39,000 large dams by 1986


World reservoir inundation l.jpg
World Reservoir Inundation shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Area submerged

  • size California


Upstream of dams negative impact l.jpg
Upstream of Dams - Negative Impact shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Environment

    • Loss of terrestrial/riparian habitat and species

    • Creation of artificial lacustrine (lakes) system

    • exotic species introductions

    • Reservoir/storage for contaminants

  • Cultural / social

    • Loss of cultural resources

    • Displacement of families (villages, regions)

    • Water quality hazard

  • Economic

    • Shift in land use / economy

    • Water loss via evaporation

    • Water loss via seepage

  • Aesthetic

    • landscape inundated


Upstream impact of dams l.jpg
Upstream Impact of Dams shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Built 1956-1966.

  • Aesthetics: Glen Canyon, Colorado River


Downstream impacts of dams l.jpg
Downstream shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterImpacts of Dams

  • Altered hydrology - no seasonality

  • Altered water quality/character

  • Modify nutrient cycling

  • Reduce sediment supply

  • Channel adjustments

  • Habitat modification

  • Species impacts

  • River fragmentation


The dam balance l.jpg
The ‘Dam’ Balance shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Some dam removal (small dams) or operational changes (larger dams)

  • Bruce Babbit (Secretary of the Interior) oversaw the creative destruction of two California dams in 2000

    • Saelzer Dam on Clear Creek near Redding, for Salmon

    • Matilija Dam in Southern California

  • Dams continue to be built until good sites are gone, or it is not economic to build them.

  • Global numbers? We do not know


Three gorges dam l.jpg
Three Gorges Dam shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • World's largest hydroelectric dam, Three Gorges, Yangtze River.

  • 1.2 - 1.9 million people will be displaced.

  • The entire project is to be completed in 2009.


Summary of california water systems l.jpg
Summary of California Water Systems shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Very complicated.

  • Politically controversial - Owens Valley, Dams, Habitat changes, reduced flushing of SF Bay Delta.

  • California has the most advanced and expensive water delivery system in the world.

  • Most of the water (about 80%) is used by agriculture; essential to California’s huge farm industry.

Michael D. Lee Ph.D. Geography and Environmental Studies


New alaskan pipeline l.jpg
New Alaskan Pipeline shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • A coastal, subsea pipeline has been proposed

    • 2000 mile long from one or more rivers in Alaska to Shasta lake where it would join present system

    • $110 billion estimate in 1990

    • no leakage or loss due to evaporation from 14-foot diameter pipeline

    • 4 million acre-feet of water transported per year

    • 36 million acre-feet of water needed per year in 2010


Slide68 l.jpg

  • Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Tapping groundwater l.jpg
Tapping Groundwater shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • About half of the drinking water in the United States is pumped from aquifers

  • Roughly 40% of the water in streams/river is from groundwater

  • The number one removal of water from aquifers is for irrigation for farming


Groundwater problems l.jpg
Groundwater Problems shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Aquifer depletion

    • more water is removed than is naturally refreshed

  • Aquifer subsidence

    • land sinks due to withdrawal of groundwater (Mexico City)

  • Intrusion of salt water into aquifers

  • Contamination from multiple sources


Groundwater d epletion l.jpg
Groundwater D shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterepletion

  • Aquifer Depletion

    • 95% of water removed from Ogallala Aquifer is for irrigation and the removal rate is greater than the refreshing rate

    • Saudi Arabia, China, northern Africa, southern Europe, Middle East, Thailand, India

www.npwd.org/Ogallala.htm


Aquifer subsidence l.jpg

Well casing projecting from the ground (40 years) shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Aquifer Subsidence

  • Mexico City’s aquifer has shrunk enough that land has dropped up to 7.5 m

http://www.geotimes.org/july01/sinking_titanic_city.html

http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/earth/waton/mexfig2.html


Salt water intrusion l.jpg
Salt Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterIntrusion

  • “One-third of the water supply for coastal areas of Greater Los Angeles comes from local ground-water sources.

  • Saltwater has penetrated a part of the supply, and a significant part of the remaining supply is at risk.”

  • U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 030–02


Desalination l.jpg
Desalination shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Removal of salts from ocean water

    • distillation

      • first land-based desalination plant was established in 1928 in the Netherlands

www.oas.org/usde/publications/ Unit/oea59e/ch21.htm


Desalination75 l.jpg
Desalination shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

http://urila.tripod.com/

  • Removal of salts from ocean water

    • reverse osmosis

      using high pressure

  • The Santa Barbara facility began operation in March 1992

    http://www.tampabaywater.org/MWP/MWP_Projects/Desal/Desal.htm


Slide76 l.jpg

  • Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Reducing water waste l.jpg
Reducing Water Waste shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Up 70% of water is lost through evaporation & leaks

    • repair leaky pipes/canals

    • recycling

      • use of gray water (i.e. from shower) for irrigation etc.

    • water conservation

      • efficient toilets, faucets, & shower heads

    • irrigation efficiency (only 40% reaches crops)

      • drip irrigation, central–pivot, computer monitoring


Slide78 l.jpg

Types of Benefits shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Possible benefits of canal replacement with pipeline:

  • reduction in seepage losses

  • improvement of head and on-farm water delivery

  • better operation of distribution network

  • reduction in maintenance costs


Direct potable water reuse l.jpg
Direct Potable Water Reuse shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Drinking Water

Wastewater

Treatment


Direct potable water reuse80 l.jpg
Direct shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatterPotable Water Reuse

  • Case Studies:

    • Windhoek, Namibia

    • Denver, Colorado

  • Health concerns

  • Public perception


Windhoek namibia l.jpg
Windhoek, Namibia shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Population: 220,000

  • Severe water shortage

  • First and only city using direct potable water reuse (Since 1968)


Windhoek namibia82 l.jpg
Windhoek, Namibia shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • 40% of water demand returned as wastewater

  • 2,000 m3/day of reclaimed water

  • Basic public acceptance

  • No significant epidemiological trends

    • Data consistent with WHO health trends


Denver colorado l.jpg
Denver, Colorado shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Direct Potable Reuse demonstration project (1985-1992)

  • Drinking water influent is secondary treated wastewater

  • Several barriers of treatment

    • Standard Drinking Water Treatment

    • Carbon Adsorption

    • Ultraviolet Irradiation

    • Reverse Osmosis/Ultrafiltration

    • Air Stripping

    • Disinfection (ozonation and chlorination)


Denver colorado84 l.jpg
Denver, Colorado shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • High water quality (meets all EPA standards)

  • No adverse health effects

    • Tested on animals

    • Carcinogenic and reproductive tests

  • Public awareness and education programs

    • Majority of acceptance if sufficient need exists


Specific uses for recycled water l.jpg
Specific Uses for Recycled Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Toilet flushing

  • Subsurface drip irrigation

    • Safer

      • Non-aerosolizing of water and pathogens

    • More prone to clogging

      • Requires more maintenance

    • More efficient

      • Less evaporative water loss

      • Feeds roots of plants/grass directly


Slide88 l.jpg

  • Water shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

    • Supply, Renewal and Use

    • Too little Water

    • Dams and Reservoirs

    • Transferring water

    • Groundwater and Saltwater

    • Efficiency

    • Too Much Water

  • Water Pollution


Slide89 l.jpg

Too Much Water: Floods shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Natural flooding is caused primarily by heavy rain or rapid melting snow.

  • This causes water in a stream to overflow it normal channel & flood the adjacent area, called a floodplain.

  • Floodplains, which include highly productive wetlands, help to:

    • Provide natural flood & erosion control

    • Maintain high water quality

    • Recharge groundwater

  • When the floodwater recede, deposits of silt are left behind, creating a nutrient-rich soil.


Slide90 l.jpg

Too Much Water: Floods shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • People have been settling in floodplains for several reasons:

  • Fertile soil

  • Sufficient water for irrigation

  • Flat land suitable for agriculture

  • Use of nearby rivers for transportations

  • However, each year floods (“natural disasters”) kill thousands of people & cause tens of billons of dollar in property damage. Human activities have contributed to the sharp rice in flood frequencies which dramatically increased flood deaths & damages.


Slide91 l.jpg

Flooding shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

  • Human activities that increase flooding:

    • removing vegetation

    • logging

    • overgrazing

    • forest fires

    • mining

    • destruction of wetlands

    • building on floodplains

    • urbanization

© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP


Slide92 l.jpg

Too Much Water: Floods shrubland, because these areas receive little precipitation. By contrast, wetter areas of central and northern California are forested where mountainous and developed as farmland and urban areas are flatter

Reservoir

Dam

Levee

Flood

wall

Floodplain

Natural phenomena

Aggravated by human activities

Renew and replenish


ad