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Unit One - Computers and Information Society. Basic technology background - literacy Hardware Software Networking Users and Experts that use technology Communication of information – PC skills File management E-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) use Word processing Desktop publishing.

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unit one computers and information society
Unit One - Computers and Information Society
  • Basic technology background - literacy
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Networking
    • Users and Experts that use technology
  • Communication of information – PC skills
    • File management
    • E-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) use
    • Word processing
    • Desktop publishing
introduction
Introduction
  • Card (front)
    • Name & section/row/seat
    • Current date
    • Special interest (optional)
    • Career interest
    • Computer background
  • Card (back)
    • Expectations (paragraph)
    • Special concerns
introduction3
Introduction
  • Course Goals (Objectives)
    • Technology & computing literacy - various levels
    • Develop problem solving skills - think logically
    • Computer as a tool - think of the computer as a tool to help you solve problems, similar to a calculator
  • Tactics to do well in the course
    • Prepare for class/exams (read text/study notes)
    • Participate in class (attend/take notes/ask questions)
    • Time on the computer
introduction4
Introduction
  • Information Society
    • What is it?
      • Compared to Agriculture Society Industrial Society
      • Jobs that use information
    • What is a computer?
    • What is a computer system?
    • What is data / information?
data and information
Data and Information
  • Input --> Process --> Output
  • Save (data/information)
    • Data is converted (processed) into information, raw facts to organized facts.
    • Typically store data - used to produce information
computer systems
Computer Systems
  • Hardware (Equipment)
  • Software (Instructions)
  • User/Experts (People)
networks
Networks
  • What is a network?
  • LAN (local area network)
  • WAN (wide area network) Global Village
    • Internet & Information Services
      • on-line & off-line
      • download & upload
    • Private WAN
networks8
Networks
  • Physical connection (ex: NIACC network - basics)
  • Communication software
  • Electronic Mail (E-mail)
software
Software
  • What is software? What are programs?
  • Two general categories of software
  • System
    • Operating System
    • Utilities
  • Applications
    • Packaged programs
    • Productivity packages
    • Designed software
    • Games
    • Others
hardware of a computer system
Hardware of a computer system
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • System Unit
    • Processor (CPU)
    • Memory (main memory or primary memory)
    • RAM (random access memory)
    • ROM (read only memory)
    • Electronic Bus (Relationship between processor and memory)
    • Expansion slots
    • Ports (peripheral devices)
hardware of a computer system11
Hardware of a computer system
  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • System Unit
  • Storage
    • Hard drive (drive c: usually)
    • Floppy drive (drive a: or b: usually)
    • CD-ROM drive (drive d: usually)
files storage of computer data and programs
Files (storage of computer data and programs)
  • Data files
  • Program files
  • How files are stored (disk storage)
    • Format disk – prepare it to store files
    • Tracks and sectors
    • Directory and subdirectory (folders)
    • File name, extension, size, date, time, attributes, address
files storage of computer data and programs13
Files (storage of computer data and programs)
  • Manage files
    • Created and updated by software packages
    • Copy
    • Delete
    • Attributes (read only)
    • Organize in sub directories (folders)
hardware networks
Hardware (networks)
  • Nodes
  • Hubs
  • Server
  • Client / Server environment
    • What is a client?
    • What is a server?
    • How used?
      • Store software
      • Store data files – drives e, f, g … z
hardware networks15
Hardware (networks)
  • Why do we use networks?
  • Share resources
    • Hardware
    • Software
    • Data / Information
  • Which shared resource is the most important?
users experts
Users / Experts
  • Data workers
  • Knowledge workers
  • Users
  • Programmers / System analyst
  • Workgroups (groupware)
  • Information Technology (IT)
categories of computer systems
Categories of Computer Systems
  • Microcomputer (PC – Personal Computer)(based on the microprocessor)
    • Processor, single chip
    • Basically a single user machine
    • Growing in use - Companies are downsizing and individual use is increasing
  • Minicomputers / Midrange
  • Mainframe
  • Supercomputer
computer capabilities why computers
Computer Capabilities (why computers?)
  • Speed - process data very quickly
    • milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds , picoseconds
  • Accurate - if data is entered correctly and instructions are correct, the machine can consistently process and give a correct answer.
  • Quantity - memory and storage capacity is large, the machine is capable of working with a large amount of data.
    • Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte
  • Reliability - Computers have become very reliable, uptime vs downtime ratio is high.
where and how computers are used
Where and how computers are used.
  • Information Systems
  • Personal Computing
  • Science and Research
  • Process Control
  • Education and Training
  • AI (Artificial Intelligence)
    • Robotics, Expert systems
  • Communication
  • Computer-Aided Design
  • Entertainment and Edutainment
  • Other …
hardware specifics
Hardware specifics
  • How a computer works (bits/bytes/machine cycle)
  • Hardware configuration
on off states within a computer
On – Off states within a computer
  • Data representation, encoding systems
    • Binary Digits (bits)
    • Bytes
    • EBCDIC and ASCII encoding systems
    • Octal Digits (base 8)
    • Hexadecimal Digits (base 16)
  • Movement of bits within machine
    • Processor
    • Electronic bus
    • Expansion slots, Storage, and Ports
how a computer works
How a computer works
  • Machine Language
    • Programming languages
    • Source code (High level programming language)
    • Compiler
    • Object code to executable code (Machine Language)
  • Machine Cycle
    • Instruction cycle (I-time)
      • Fetch instruction
      • Decode instruction
    • Execution Cycle (E-time)
      • Execute instruction
      • Send results back to RAM
hardware configuration pc system unit processor
Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor
  • Two basic units within the processor
    • Control Unit
    • Arithmetic/Logic Unit
  • Word length (32 bits)
  • Data path (32 bits)
  • Clock speed (MHz)
  • Registers within processor
    • Instruction register
    • Program / Address register
    • Accumulator
    • Others
hardware configuration pc system unit processor24
Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor
  • History of Intel Processors
    • 8088 / 8086
    • 80286
    • 80386 SX / 80386 DX
    • 80486 SX / 80486 DX / 80486 DX2
    • Pentium (80586)
    • Pentium Pro (80686)
  • Other processor manufactures
    • Motorola (used in Macintosh & Sun Workstations)
      • 68000 / 68020 / 68030 / 68040 / 68060
      • PowerPC
    • Cyrix / AMD / …
pc system unit system board motherboard
PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

Electronic Bus

  • Open vs closed architecture
  • Types of standard architectures
      • ISA
      • EISA & MCA
      • PCMCIA (laptops and notebooks)
  • Video Local Bus architectures
      • PCI
      • VESA - VL Bus (not used)
  • SCSI buses architecture
pc system unit system board motherboard26
PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

Expansion slots

    • Match architecture
    • Add-on cards/boards
    • Plug-and-play

Memory

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)
    • CMOS
    • DRAM, SRAM, & SIMMs
    • SDRAM & DIMM
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • Cache Memory
  • Flash Memory
pc system unit system board motherboard27
PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

Ports

  • Keyboard
  • Mouse
  • Video
  • Parallel port (parallel transmission)
  • Serial port (serial transmission)
  • Game
pc system unit throughput
PC System Unit - Throughput
  • Determined by the best combination of
    • Processor (word length, data path, clock speed)
    • Bus architecture
    • Amount of cache memory
    • Amount of RAM memory
    • Access time to disk drive
  • MIPS
  • FLOPS
  • GFLOPS
software specifics
Software specifics
  • System software
  • Applications
system software
System Software
  • Operating Systems (OS)
  • Network Operating System (NOS)
  • Communication
  • Device Drivers
  • Utility Software
  • Others
operating system
Operating System
  • Kernel or Supervisor
  • Multitasking
    • foreground
    • background
  • User Interfaces
    • Text based
    • GUI
      • user friendly
      • icons
      • shell
  • Virtual Memory
  • Virtual Machine
platforms
Platforms
  • PC platforms
    • PC compatibles with MS-DOS
    • PC compatibles with MS-DOS and Windows 3.xx
    • PC compatibles with Windows 95
    • PC compatibles with OS/2
    • PC compatibles with Windows NT
    • PC compatibles with UNIX
    • Macintosh finder Ver 7
  • Midrange/mainframe
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Computer Programs
  • Programming languages
  • Compilers
    • source code
    • object code
  • Syntax and logic errors
programming languages34
Programming Languages
  • Generation of Programming Languages
    • Natural languages
    • Visual programming language
    • Fourth generation language
    • Object oriented languages
    • Procedure oriented languages
    • Assembler languages
    • Machine languages
  • Macros
  • Current trends
word processing
Word Processing
  • Representing information in document form.
  • Why use word processing?
  • Importance of expressing ideas/information in text form.
    • Words on paper
    • Words in an electronic form
word processing process
Word Processing - Process
  • Access software
  • Create or open a file (document)
  • Enter & Edit text (get it to say what you want it to say)
    • Insertion point
    • Word wrap
    • Insert mode vs overtype mode
    • Full screen editing
    • Cut/Copy and Paste
    • Find and replace
    • Spell check, thesaurus, grammar check, …
    • WYSIWYG
word processing process37
Word Processing - Process
  • Save document
    • Save often
    • Location of document
word processing process38
Word Processing - Process
  • Formatting a document (get it to look the way you want it to look)
    • Spacing & alignment (vertical / horizontal)
      • Paragraph - Whole document – Section
      • Indents and tabs
      • Alignment of text – left, center, right, and justified
      • Margins
      • Spacing
    • Character attributes
      • Font
        • Type face
        • Size
        • Weight
      • Spacing
    • Graphics
word processing process39
Word Processing - Process
  • Printing or posting
    • Print preview first!!
    • Select printer
    • Print only needed copies
    • Posting electronicly
  • Fax document
word processing other features
Word Processing - Other features
  • Tables
  • Columns
  • Merging
  • Hypertext Links
  • Sharing word processing documents
    • ASCII or ANSI file
    • document conversion feature
dtp desktop publishing
DTP (Desktop Publishing)
  • What is DTP?
  • Publishing using a print shop
    • Process
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • Publishing using DTP
    • Process in general
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
requirements for dtp
Requirements for DTP
  • Hardware
    • PC
    • Page printer
    • Image scanner
  • Software
    • Page Composition Software
    • Illustration or Graphic Software
    • Word Processor Software
  • Other
    • clip art
    • typefaces and fonts
dtp process
DTP - process
  • Process
    • Create text
    • Create images
    • Create layout
    • Merge all together
    • Use tags to format
  • Understanding documents layout
    • Basic layout
    • Type of audience
    • Distribution (paper form / Web page / Electronic distribution / etc.)
    • Artistic skills
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