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Unit One - Computers and Information Society. Basic technology background - literacy Hardware Software Networking Users and Experts that use technology Communication of information – PC skills File management E-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) use Word processing Desktop publishing.

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Unit One - Computers and Information Society

  • Basic technology background - literacy

    • Hardware

    • Software

    • Networking

    • Users and Experts that use technology

  • Communication of information – PC skills

    • File management

    • E-mail and World Wide Web (WWW) use

    • Word processing

    • Desktop publishing


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Introduction

  • Card (front)

    • Name & section/row/seat

    • Current date

    • Special interest (optional)

    • Career interest

    • Computer background

  • Card (back)

    • Expectations (paragraph)

    • Special concerns


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Introduction

  • Course Goals (Objectives)

    • Technology & computing literacy - various levels

    • Develop problem solving skills - think logically

    • Computer as a tool - think of the computer as a tool to help you solve problems, similar to a calculator

  • Tactics to do well in the course

    • Prepare for class/exams (read text/study notes)

    • Participate in class (attend/take notes/ask questions)

    • Time on the computer


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Introduction

  • Information Society

    • What is it?

      • Compared to Agriculture Society Industrial Society

      • Jobs that use information

    • What is a computer?

    • What is a computer system?

    • What is data / information?


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Data and Information

  • Input --> Process --> Output

  • Save (data/information)

    • Data is converted (processed) into information, raw facts to organized facts.

    • Typically store data - used to produce information


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Computer Systems

  • Hardware (Equipment)

  • Software (Instructions)

  • User/Experts (People)


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Networks

  • What is a network?

  • LAN (local area network)

  • WAN (wide area network) Global Village

    • Internet & Information Services

      • on-line & off-line

      • download & upload

    • Private WAN


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Networks

  • Physical connection (ex: NIACC network - basics)

  • Communication software

  • Electronic Mail (E-mail)


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Software

  • What is software? What are programs?

  • Two general categories of software

  • System

    • Operating System

    • Utilities

  • Applications

    • Packaged programs

    • Productivity packages

    • Designed software

    • Games

    • Others


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Hardware of a computer system

  • Input Devices

  • Output Devices

  • System Unit

    • Processor (CPU)

    • Memory (main memory or primary memory)

    • RAM (random access memory)

    • ROM (read only memory)

    • Electronic Bus (Relationship between processor and memory)

    • Expansion slots

    • Ports (peripheral devices)


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Hardware of a computer system

  • Input Devices

  • Output Devices

  • System Unit

  • Storage

    • Hard drive (drive c: usually)

    • Floppy drive (drive a: or b: usually)

    • CD-ROM drive (drive d: usually)


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Files (storage of computer data and programs)

  • Data files

  • Program files

  • How files are stored (disk storage)

    • Format disk – prepare it to store files

    • Tracks and sectors

    • Directory and subdirectory (folders)

    • File name, extension, size, date, time, attributes, address


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Files (storage of computer data and programs)

  • Manage files

    • Created and updated by software packages

    • Copy

    • Delete

    • Attributes (read only)

    • Organize in sub directories (folders)


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Hardware (networks)

  • Nodes

  • Hubs

  • Server

  • Client / Server environment

    • What is a client?

    • What is a server?

    • How used?

      • Store software

      • Store data files – drives e, f, g … z


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Hardware (networks)

  • Why do we use networks?

  • Share resources

    • Hardware

    • Software

    • Data / Information

  • Which shared resource is the most important?


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Users / Experts

  • Data workers

  • Knowledge workers

  • Users

  • Programmers / System analyst

  • Workgroups (groupware)

  • Information Technology (IT)


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Categories of Computer Systems

  • Microcomputer (PC – Personal Computer)(based on the microprocessor)

    • Processor, single chip

    • Basically a single user machine

    • Growing in use - Companies are downsizing and individual use is increasing

  • Minicomputers / Midrange

  • Mainframe

  • Supercomputer


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Computer Capabilities (why computers?)

  • Speed - process data very quickly

    • milliseconds, microseconds, nanoseconds , picoseconds

  • Accurate - if data is entered correctly and instructions are correct, the machine can consistently process and give a correct answer.

  • Quantity - memory and storage capacity is large, the machine is capable of working with a large amount of data.

    • Kilobyte, Megabyte, Gigabyte

  • Reliability - Computers have become very reliable, uptime vs downtime ratio is high.


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Where and how computers are used.

  • Information Systems

  • Personal Computing

  • Science and Research

  • Process Control

  • Education and Training

  • AI (Artificial Intelligence)

    • Robotics, Expert systems

  • Communication

  • Computer-Aided Design

  • Entertainment and Edutainment

  • Other …


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Hardware specifics

  • How a computer works (bits/bytes/machine cycle)

  • Hardware configuration


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On – Off states within a computer

  • Data representation, encoding systems

    • Binary Digits (bits)

    • Bytes

    • EBCDIC and ASCII encoding systems

    • Octal Digits (base 8)

    • Hexadecimal Digits (base 16)

  • Movement of bits within machine

    • Processor

    • Electronic bus

    • Expansion slots, Storage, and Ports


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How a computer works

  • Machine Language

    • Programming languages

    • Source code (High level programming language)

    • Compiler

    • Object code to executable code (Machine Language)

  • Machine Cycle

    • Instruction cycle (I-time)

      • Fetch instruction

      • Decode instruction

    • Execution Cycle (E-time)

      • Execute instruction

      • Send results back to RAM


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Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor

  • Two basic units within the processor

    • Control Unit

    • Arithmetic/Logic Unit

  • Word length (32 bits)

  • Data path (32 bits)

  • Clock speed (MHz)

  • Registers within processor

    • Instruction register

    • Program / Address register

    • Accumulator

    • Others


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Hardware ConfigurationPC System Unit - Processor

  • History of Intel Processors

    • 8088 / 8086

    • 80286

    • 80386 SX / 80386 DX

    • 80486 SX / 80486 DX / 80486 DX2

    • Pentium (80586)

    • Pentium Pro (80686)

  • Other processor manufactures

    • Motorola (used in Macintosh & Sun Workstations)

      • 68000 / 68020 / 68030 / 68040 / 68060

      • PowerPC

    • Cyrix / AMD / …


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PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

Electronic Bus

  • Open vs closed architecture

  • Types of standard architectures

    • ISA

    • EISA & MCA

    • PCMCIA (laptops and notebooks)

  • Video Local Bus architectures

    • PCI

    • VESA - VL Bus (not used)

  • SCSI buses architecture


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    PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

    Expansion slots

    • Match architecture

    • Add-on cards/boards

    • Plug-and-play

      Memory

  • RAM (Random Access Memory)

    • CMOS

    • DRAM, SRAM, & SIMMs

    • SDRAM & DIMM

  • ROM (Read Only Memory)

  • Cache Memory

  • Flash Memory


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    PC System Unit – System Board (motherboard)

    Ports

    • Keyboard

    • Mouse

    • Video

    • Parallel port (parallel transmission)

    • Serial port (serial transmission)

    • Game


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    PC System Unit - Throughput

    • Determined by the best combination of

      • Processor (word length, data path, clock speed)

      • Bus architecture

      • Amount of cache memory

      • Amount of RAM memory

      • Access time to disk drive

    • MIPS

    • FLOPS

    • GFLOPS


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    Software specifics

    • System software

    • Applications


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    System Software

    • Operating Systems (OS)

    • Network Operating System (NOS)

    • Communication

    • Device Drivers

    • Utility Software

    • Others


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    Operating System

    • Kernel or Supervisor

    • Multitasking

      • foreground

      • background

    • User Interfaces

      • Text based

      • GUI

        • user friendly

        • icons

        • shell

    • Virtual Memory

    • Virtual Machine


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    Platforms

    • PC platforms

      • PC compatibles with MS-DOS

      • PC compatibles with MS-DOS and Windows 3.xx

      • PC compatibles with Windows 95

      • PC compatibles with OS/2

      • PC compatibles with Windows NT

      • PC compatibles with UNIX

      • Macintosh finder Ver 7

    • Midrange/mainframe


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    Programming Languages

    • Computer Programs

    • Programming languages

    • Compilers

      • source code

      • object code

    • Syntax and logic errors


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    Programming Languages

    • Generation of Programming Languages

      • Natural languages

      • Visual programming language

      • Fourth generation language

      • Object oriented languages

      • Procedure oriented languages

      • Assembler languages

      • Machine languages

    • Macros

    • Current trends


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    Word Processing

    • Representing information in document form.

    • Why use word processing?

    • Importance of expressing ideas/information in text form.

      • Words on paper

      • Words in an electronic form


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    Word Processing - Process

    • Access software

    • Create or open a file (document)

    • Enter & Edit text (get it to say what you want it to say)

      • Insertion point

      • Word wrap

      • Insert mode vs overtype mode

      • Full screen editing

      • Cut/Copy and Paste

      • Find and replace

      • Spell check, thesaurus, grammar check, …

      • WYSIWYG


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    Word Processing - Process

    • Save document

      • Save often

      • Location of document


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    Word Processing - Process

    • Formatting a document (get it to look the way you want it to look)

      • Spacing & alignment (vertical / horizontal)

        • Paragraph - Whole document – Section

        • Indents and tabs

        • Alignment of text – left, center, right, and justified

        • Margins

        • Spacing

      • Character attributes

        • Font

          • Type face

          • Size

          • Weight

        • Spacing

      • Graphics


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    Word Processing - Process

    • Printing or posting

      • Print preview first!!

      • Select printer

      • Print only needed copies

      • Posting electronicly

    • Fax document


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    Word Processing - Other features

    • Tables

    • Columns

    • Merging

    • Hypertext Links

    • Sharing word processing documents

      • ASCII or ANSI file

      • document conversion feature


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    DTP (Desktop Publishing)

    • What is DTP?

    • Publishing using a print shop

      • Process

      • Advantages

      • Disadvantages

    • Publishing using DTP

      • Process in general

      • Advantages

      • Disadvantages


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    Requirements for DTP

    • Hardware

      • PC

      • Page printer

      • Image scanner

    • Software

      • Page Composition Software

      • Illustration or Graphic Software

      • Word Processor Software

    • Other

      • clip art

      • typefaces and fonts


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    DTP - process

    • Process

      • Create text

      • Create images

      • Create layout

      • Merge all together

      • Use tags to format

    • Understanding documents layout

      • Basic layout

      • Type of audience

      • Distribution (paper form / Web page / Electronic distribution / etc.)

      • Artistic skills




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