Types of chemical bonds. Bond : Force that holds groups of two or more atoms together and makes the atoms function as a unit. Example: H-O-H Bond Energy : Energy required to break a bond. Ionic Bond : Attractions between oppositely charged ions.
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Bond: Force that holds groups of two or more atoms together and makes the atoms function as a unit.
Bond Energy: Energy required to break a bond.
Ionic Bond: Attractions between oppositely charged ions.
Example: Na+ Cl-
Ionic Compound: A compound resulting from a positive ion (usually a metal) combining with a negative ion (usually a non-metal).
Example: M+ + X- MX
Covalent Bond: Electrons are shared by nuclei.
Polar Covalent Bond: Unequal sharing of electrons by nuclei.
Hydrogen fluoride is an example of a molecule that has bond polarity.
Lewis Structure: Representation of a molecule that shows how the valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule.
Bonding involves the valence electrons of atoms.
Example: Na● H-H
Single Bond: Two atoms sharing one electron pair.
Double Bond: Two atoms sharing two pairs of electrons.
Triple Bond: Two atoms sharing three pairs of electrons.
Resonance Structures: More than one Lewis Structure can be drawn for a molecule.
Write the Lewis Structure for the following molecules:
Electronegativity: The relative ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself.
Example: Fluorine has the highest electronegativity.
For each of the following pairs of bonds, choose the bond that will be more polar.
Molecular Structure: or geometric structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms in a molecule.
Bond Angle: The angle formed between two bonds in a molecule.
The VSEPR Model: The valence shell electron pair repulsion model is useful for predicting the molecular structures of molecules formed from nonmetals.
The structure around a given atom is determined by minimizing repulsions between electron pairs.
The bonding and nonbonding electron pairs (lone pairs) around a given atom are positioned as far apart as possible.
Steps for Predicting Molecular Structure Using the VSEPR Model
1. Draw the Lewis structure for the molecule.
2. Count the electron pairs and arrange them in the way that minimizes repulsion (that is, put the lone pairs as far apart as possible).
3. Determine the positions of the atoms from the way the electron pairs are shared.
4. Determine the name of the molecular structure from the positions of the atoms.