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Thermoplastic Industrial Piping Systems Presentation. Prepared and Presented by TIPS Product Line Committee of the PPFA. All text, charts, and photos prepared and edited by Chasis Consulting, Inc.

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Thermoplastic Industrial Piping Systems Presentation

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Thermoplastic IndustrialPiping Systems Presentation

Prepared and Presented by

TIPS Product Line Committee of the PPFA

©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


All text, charts, and photos prepared and edited by Chasis Consulting, Inc.

DisclaimerThe material in this presentation/handbook has been prepared for the general information of the reader/user. The information presented is believed to be technically correct, however, the author, PPFA, PPEF, and their directors, officers, staff, and agents do not warrant the presentation/handbook or any of its contents suitable for any specific application. The presented material is published as an information guideline only. It shall be the responsibility of the reader/user to incorporate prudent and generally accepted engineering practices and meet the requirements of all involved regulatory agencies and their codes and standards.

©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


PPFA Educational Materials

  • PPFA offers a wide range of educational materials, developed to help you become more proficient in the design, installation, and use of the ultimate piping system – thermoplastics!

  • Now available:

    • Facilitated, on-site seminars (full-day, half-day, 90-minute)

    • CD-based seminars (full-day, half-day, 90-minute)

    • Workbooks

    • Online tutorials

  • For more information on these products, visit us at http://www.ppfahome.org/tips

3 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


What is the PPFA?

  • The Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association (PPFA) is composed of more than 50 companies involved in the manufacturing of products for plastic piping systems. PPFA has been a major force in educating the American market for over two decades in thermoplastic residential, commercial and industrial piping products and installations. For further information, log on to www.ppfahome.org.

4 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


What is TIPS?

  • TIPS is the acronym for Thermoplastic Industrial Piping Systems; it also is the name of a product line committee (plc) of the PPFA. TIPS/plc is made up of several prestigious manufacturers in the industry whose goals are to educate and promote to the market place the many benefits of thermoplastic industrial piping systems. For further information log on to www.ppfahome.org/tips.

5 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


What does TIPS exclude?

  • For purposes of this presentation, TIPS is all piping excluding the following applications and product groups:

    • Irrigation

    • Above-ground Fire Sprinkler Systems

    • Residential Swimming Pools

    • Gas Distribution and Transmission

    • Municipal, Commercial, and Residential Potable Water, Sewer, Drain and Vent

    • Plastic-lined Metal Piping

    • Flexible Tubing

    • Composite Piping

    • Thermosets (Glass Reinforced Resins)

6 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Presentation Objectives

  • This presentation is to provide knowledge, proficiency and a comfort level in designing, specifying, and installing TIPS. For maximum educational benefit, the joint use of the one-day PowerPoint CD and workbook is recommended.

7 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Definitions and History

©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic

  • A material that contains organic, polymeric substances of large molecular weight, is solid in its finished state, and at some stage in its manufacture or processing into a finished article, can be shaped by flow

9 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Water analogy: Thermoplastics, similar to water, can be heated and cooled repeatedly without any change in the material’s basic properties. (i.e., recyclable)

Thermoplastic

  • A plastic that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling through a temperature range characteristic of the plastic, and that in the softened state, can be shaped by flow into an article by molding or extrusion

10 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Egg analogy: Thermosets, similar to eggs, can be processed only once with changes occurring in the material’s basic properties.

Thermoset

  • A plastic that, when cured by application of heat or by chemical means, changes into a substantially infusible and product

11 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Monomer

  • A relatively simple compound that can react to form a polymer

Polymer

  • A substance consisting of molecules characterized by the repetition of one or more types of monomeric units

Copolymer

  • A polymer formed by the polymerization of two chemically different monomers

12 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic resin

Resin

  • Broadly stated, the term designates any polymer or copolymer that is the basic material for a plastic

13 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Additives

  • Chemical ingredients incorporated in the resin or added during the manufacturing process to give desired product performance characteristics. These can include the following:

    • Heat Stabilizers - Protect against thermal degradation

    • Antioxidants - Protect against oxidation

    • Ultraviolet Stabilizers - Protect against ultraviolet degradation

    • Lubricants - Improve manufacturing processing

    • Pigments - Add a distinctive color & aid in UV protection

    • Fillers - Reduce cost and may also increase stiffness

    • Property Modifiers - Enhance a particular material property

    • Processing Aids - Assist material mixing/fusion during processing

14 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic pellet andpowder compound

Compound

  • A mixture of a thermoplastic resin with other additives or ingredients

15 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Extrusion Diagram

Extruder

Extrusion

  • All thermoplastic pipe is extruded. Extrusion is a process whereby heated plastic forced through a shaping orifice becomes one continuously formed piece.

16 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection MoldingMachine

Injection Molding Diagram

Injection Molding

  • Most voluminous thermoplastic non-pipe products are injection molded. Injection molding is the process of forming a material by forcing it, under pressure, from a heated cylinder through a sprue (runner) into the cavity of a closed mold.

17 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection Molding

Mold

Sprue Bushing

Press Clamp Unit

Injection Nozzle

Reciprocating

Screw

Screw Rotation

Transmission

Reciprocating

Hydraulic Injection Unit

18 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection Molding

“Hopper”

Loading System

Screw

Movement

Material

Plasticized In Barrel

19 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Screw

Movement

Injection Molding

Stationary Platen

Moving Platen

20 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Platen Movement

Injection Molding

Mold Halves

21 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection Molding

Molded Part

22 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection Molding

Ejector Pins

23 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Platen Movement

Injection Molding

24 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Injection Molding

Screw

Movement

25 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


History of Thermoplastic Piping Materials

26 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic Piping Materials

  • Thermoplastics accounted for over 95% of an estimated 11 billion pounds of plastic that went into all pipe, conduit and fittings in 2002. The estimated TIPS Market ($) share by pipe/valves/fitting materials for Year 2002 is shown in the pie chart.

27 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Material Characteristics

©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic Material Designations

  • ASTM is the standards development organization that classifies plastic piping materials by common physical characteristics categories. Over the past decade, there has been a movement to refine the classifications in a more meaningful way; however, the old designations are still in use.

29 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic Material Designations

  • Old ASTM Designations: Material Designation

    • First Digit = Type

    • Second Digit = Grade

    • Third / Fourth Digit = Hydrostatic design stress divided by 100

  • Example: PVC 1120

30 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic Material Designations

  • New ASTM Designation Called Cell Classification

    • First Digit = Material

    • Second Digit = Impact Strength

    • Third Digit = Tensile Strength

    • Fourth Digit = Modulus of Elasticity

    • Fifth Digit = Heat Deflection Temperature

  • Example: PVC 12454 (Similar to PVC 1120)

31 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Plastic Material Designations

  • This seminar will include the following materials:*

32 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Physical Characteristics*

* The physical values listed may differ slightly due to variations of manufacturer’s resins and compounds.

©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


PE Piping Lighter than Water

Specific Gravity

  • The ratio of the density of a material to the density of water at standard temperature (ASTM D-792 Test Method). The lower the number, the lighter the weight.Note: Water= 1.0

34 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Tensile Testing Machine

Tensile Plastic Specimen Test

Tensile Strength

  • The pulling force necessary to break a specimen, divided by the cross-section area at the point of failure.(ASTM D-638 Test Method)(psi @ 73°F)

35 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Modulus of Elasticity

  • The ratio of the stress to the elongation per inch due to this stress, in a material that deforms elastically. (ASTM D-638 Test Method) (psi @ 73°F x 105)

36 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Flexural Plastic Specimen Test

Flexural Testing Machine

Flexural Strength

  • The strength of a plastic material in bending as expressed by the tensile stress ofthe outermost fibers of a bent testsample at the instant of failure.(ASTM D-790 Test Method) (psi)

37 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Izod Testing Machine

Izod Testing Machine

Izod Impact Strength

  • The resistance of a notched test specimen has to a sharp blow from a pendulum hammer. (ASTM Test D-256) (ft-lb/in) The lower the number, the lower the impact strength.

38 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

  • The fractional change in a length of a specimen due to a unit change in temperature. (ASTM D-6960 Test Method) (in./in./°F x 10-5) The lower the number, the lower the expansion rate.

39 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Thermal Conductivity via Modulated DSC

Thermal Conductivity

  • The time rate of transferring heat by conduction through a material of a given thickness and area for a given temperature difference. (ASTM C-177 Test Method)(Btu in./hr/ft2/°F) The lower the number, the less conductive.

40 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Heat Deflection Testing Machine

Heat Resistance

  • The general maximum allowable temperature of a piping system in which 20-psi working pressure or less may be used (°F)

41 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Taber Machine

Abrasion Resistance

  • Using the Taber Abrasion Test, the weight loss of a material is measured after being exposed to an abrasive wheel for 1000 cycles. (mg) The lower the number, the more abrasion resistant.Note:Stainless Steel is 50.

42 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Instrument to Test Flash Points of Materials

Flash Ignition Temperature

  • The lowest temperature of a substance at which sufficient combustible gas is evolved to be ignited by a small external flame. (°F)Note: Wood products igniteat 500°F and lower.

43 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Flammability Testing by Underwriter Laboratories

Flammability Rating

  • An Underwriter Laboratories test to measure a material’s resistance to burning, dripping, glow emission and burn-through. The 94V-0 designation is the most resistant to burning; 94HB is the least resistant to burning.

44 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Limiting Oxygen Index

  • The percentage of oxygen needed in an atmosphere to support combustion (ASTM D2863 Test Method). The higher the number, the greater the resistance to burning. (%)

45 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


Flame Spread /Smoke Development Indices

  • These material characteristics are determined by testing the surface flame spread of and smoke developed by plastic piping as compared to fixed index elements of mineral fiber cement board and red oak flooring. (ASTM E-84, NFPA 255, UL 723 and UBC 8-1) (42-1 Test Method).Note: Major building and mechanical codes require that combustible piping installed within an air plenum must have a maximum flame spread index of 25 and a maximum smoke development index of 50.

*CPVC, PP and PVC are available in specially formulated product compounds that have improved flame spread and/or smoke development characteristics.

46 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


TIPS are...

  • Environmentally sound

  • Easy and safe to install

  • Reliable

  • Long-lasting

  • Cost-effective

47 - Introduction©2003, 2004, 2005 - Plastics Pipe and Fittings Association


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