THE ECONOMY OF CULTURE IN EUROPE
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THE ECONOMY OF CULTURE IN EUROPE Study prepared for the European Commission (Directorate General for Education and Culture). October 2006. The Ambition. Put a figure on creative value Consider Europe’s competitiveness in the creative sector

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THE ECONOMY OF CULTURE IN EUROPE

Study prepared for the European Commission

(Directorate General for Education and Culture)

October 2006


The Ambition

  • Put a figure on creative value

  • Consider Europe’s competitiveness in the creative sector

  • Provide evidence that the cultural and creative sector deserves support from policy makers

  • Present a strategy for a creative Europe

  • The context: the Lisbon Strategy


The Methodology and its limits

  • Scarcity of available statistics

  • No standardised data categorisation at EU level

    Developed own Methodology:

  • Eurostat/Amadeus/Unesco/EAO databases

  • Inventories of existing studies

  • Industry profiles

  • Case Studies

    Excludes: Self-employed, small companies, large parts of the public economy, electronic commerce (“new economy”)

    Results are a conservative estimate


Delineation of the cultural & creative sector


DCMS’ approach to the cultural industries

  • Creative industries include advertising, architecture, the arts and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, software and computer games, television and radio

  • DCMS’ findings for the UK in 2001:

    • Turnover: €165.43 billion

    • Value added to national GDP: €85 billion (6.8% of national GDP)

    • Exports: €15.1 billion (4.7% of total exports)

    • Employment (private sector): 1.3 million people (4.3% of total workforce)


Quantifiable socio-economic impact of the cultural and creative sector


Contribution of the European cultural and creative sector to the national economies

Source: Eurostat and AMADEUS

Data elaborated by Media Group


Contribution to European competitiveness

The unrecognised competitiveness of the sector

  • The cultural & creative sector suffers from stereotypes when it comes to assessing its economic performance

  • Culture often perceived as a non-economic activity

  • Common perceptions:

    • Individual artists

    • Heavily subsidised public organisations

    • “Cottage industry”


Assessing the competitiveness of the sector

Productivity: ratio between value added and employment costs

  • Average productivity level was 1.57 in 2003 (UK: 1.38); similar to productivity level in other service sectors (typical productivity level of service industries included between 1.2 and 1.9)

    Profitability: operating margin of companies

  • Average European level is 9% in 2003 (profit margin of 5% up to 10% considered as an indication of a healthy level of profitability for service industries)

  • UK: 8.7%

    Intangible assets: ratio on turnover

  • EU25 Average is 4.2% (by comparison, the average ratio for the Finnish ICT sector is 4.8%)

  • UK: 8.4%


Cultural Employment – Main Findings

  • A total of 5.8 million people worked in the cultural & creative sector, equivalent to 3.1% of total employed population in the EU25

  • Evolution 2002-2004: +1.85% (General trend = -0.04%)

  • Cultural employment is characterised by an inherent “flexibility” requirement and “mobility” constraint

  • The sector is overwhelmingly made up of small/micro businesses and self-employed

  • The level of qualifications is higher in the cultural and creative sector than in most of the sectors of the economy

    Cultural employment is of an “atypical” nature → frontrunner of tomorrow’s job market


Cultural and cultural tourism employment in the EU25 (2004 - in thousands)


The role of public support

  • Different levels of intervention

    • Financial (cinema – heritage – performing arts)

    • Regulatory (books, TV)

  • Difficult to compare data - definitions

  • Estimated total public expenditure (EU28) €46.6 billion (source: KEA) (UK: €5.1 billion)

  • Estimates of licence fees for public broadcasters in 2000: €16 billion

  • Public support to culture as a share of national GDPs is between 0.5% and 1% of national GDPs

  • Justification: democratic empowerment, education, promote values, reinforcement of identity, social cohesion, factor of economic progress


The indirect contribution of the cultural & creative sector to the Lisbon Agenda


Indirect contributions of the cultural & creative sector to Lisbon

  • The cultural & creative sector is crucial for the take off of ICTs

  • The cultural & creative sector has a multiple role to play in local development

    • powerful catalyst for the tourism industry

    • strategic importance for growth and employment in cities and regions (“creative cities”)

    • significant social impact (culture as a tool for urban and regional regeneration)


The interdependence between the cultural and creative sector and ICT

INCREASED GROWTH PROSPECTS FOR ICTs

Media content → key driver for ICT uptake

Examples: broadband penetration, 3G mobile phones, digital TV

GROWTH PROSPECTS FOR THE CULTURAL & CREATIVE SECTOR

Digital technology is radically transforming the production, circulation and consumption of content, leading to new supports, applications and content offerings

The Long Tail Theory


Outlook - PWC

  • New spending streams on ICT-related media (Internet, digital music, online video games, digital TV, VOD) will account for 12% of the total increase in entertainment and media spending until 2009

  • Compound annual growth for Europe is forecast at 6.5%

  • From a market valued at USD 417 billion in 2004 to USD 572 billion by 2009

    Source: Global Entertainment and Media Outlook – PWC (June 2005)


Culture as an engine for the emergence of creative hubs and local development

Three distinct roles for culture in local development:

  • Cultural activities attract tourists

  • Culture goods and services produced at a local level and benefiting from “cultural clusters”

  • Cultural activities have significant social impacts


Tourism: one of the most important industries in Europe

  • Tourism sector generates 5.5% of EU GDP (3 to 8% in individual member states) and up to 11.5% when integrating indirect impacts

  • 2 million enterprises employing more than 9 million people across Europe

  • Europe: most visited destination in the world (443.9 million international arrivals in 2005)

  • Europe: 55% market share of the global tourism industry


Culture as an engine for tourism

  • Heritage

  • Arts fairs

  • Museums and exhibitions

  • Festivals and trade fairs

  • The performing arts

  • Film tourism


Film tourism in the UK

People are interested in visiting locations in which a film or a scene was shot

  • Doubling of visitors in Alnwick Castle, location for Hogwarts School of Magic in the Harry Potter films. Overnight revenues from tourism increased to almost €13 million a year

  • Queen Elizabeth suite at the Crowne Hotel, Amersham, has been booked up a year in advance after “Four Weddings and a Funeral”

  • Rosslyn Chapel on the outskirts of Edinburgh is well-known thanks to the numerous film scenes screened there. It can easily be combined with other cultural attractions in Edinburgh


Creativity as a tool for local development (1)

“Creative cities”

London & the creative industries:

  • 6% annual growth between 1997 and 2002 (3% for the whole economy)

  • 40% of the UK’s creative capital

  • Second largest business sector (29 billion GBP annual turnover) and third largest sector of employment

    Montréal:

  • The “video games industry’s Hollywood”

  • A broad range of tax credits and local support measures

  • Multimedia companies provide 3,500 jobs (2005)


Creativity as a tool for local development (2)

A Welsh creative family enterprise: Ty Nant

  • Designed an innovative cobalt-blue bottle of mineral water

  • Won a long list of Design Awards

  • Ranks first by value in the UK (estimated turnover of around £4 million)

  • Exports 60% of its production to some 30 different countries

  • Employed 38 staff in Llanon in 2004


The role of culture in urban and regional organisation

Culture is a major tool for territorial and social cohesion

Main objectives:

  • Cultural diversity

  • Inclusiveness

  • Territorial cohesion

  • Community identity


A Welsh success: the Aberystwyth Arts Centre

  • Located within the Aberystwyth University Campus, the Centre hosts and organises a wide variety of activities including performing arts, cinema and art education.

  • The Centre is the main regional employer: 40 full time and 119 part time employees

  • Turnover: £3.3 million in 2004-2005 (71% from earned income, 29% from public grants)

  • Significant indirect impact on the local region: £5.7 million of turnover in total, £1.6 million of income, and 150 full time equivalent jobs

    → The Centre is both a driver of local demand and activity and a driver for visitors. It also fulfils essential education and enlightenment functions


A strategy for creativity: Europe, UK, Wales


A strategy for a Creative Europe/UK/Wales

  • Europe’s competitiveness rests in culture and creativity

  • Post-industrialised knowledge economy

    The challenges:

  • Europe’s global and national champions

  • Weak export potential

  • Sector is SME-driven

  • Nature of cultural products

  • Market fragmentation


The European cultural and creative sector - Strengths and weaknesses


Recommendations for a Creative Europe/UK/Wales

  • Establish a stronger quantitative evidence base for policy makers

  • Integrate the culture and creative sector into the Lisbon Agenda

  • Support the Digital Shift

  • Address chronic under-funding of cultural & creative industries

  • EU regional policy to boost creativity

  • Support cultural diversity in Europe and internationally

  • Create coherence and engage with the creative sector


Next steps

  • EC Communication on Culture (spring 2007)

  • Culture Council in Brussels (24-25 May 2007)

  • Follow-up with the Portuguese and Slovenian EU Presidencies


THANK YOU!

Download the PDF file of our study

The Economy of Culture in Europe

from the welcome page at www.keanet.eu


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