STARS--studying ancient light passing through time and space
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STARS--studying ancient light passing through time and space . The Universe is made up of islands of stars… . There of billions of these islands and inside each island there are billions of stars. Stellar Evolution. A look at the stars from their birth to their death. STELLAR SPECTRAL CLASS.

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Stellar evolution l.jpg
Stellar Evolution there are billions of stars.

A look at the stars from their birth to their death


Stellar spectral class l.jpg

STELLAR SPECTRAL CLASS there are billions of stars.

Grouping the stars based on their temperatures


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Each class of star has a unique pattern of lines (“bar code”) to identify it.

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Sodium

“Hottest”

“Coldest”


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Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram code”) to identify it.

Comparing temperature and brightness for various stars


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What color stars are hottest? Coldest? code”) to identify it.

Red Super Giants

Red Giants

MAIN SEQUENCE

COLOR AND TEMPERATURE ARE RELATED!

White Dwarfs



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Which group of stars is the HOTTEST? code”) to identify it.




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THE SUN all of us.

A

DYNAMIC NUCLEAR REACTOR



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Solar all of us.absorption spectrum for the Sun (a typical “G” star)



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SUN’S VISIBLE SURFACE color and temperature.

MAGNETIC STORMS ON THE SURFACE OF STARS CAN BE SEEN AS A COOLER, DARKER AREA


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SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD color and temperature.

ENERGY IS TRANSFERRED FROM ZONE TO ZONE BY MAGNETIC LINES OF FORCE


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Stars form in gas nebulas color and temperature.

They collect gas from their surroundings

They enter the main sequence at various points depending on how much mass they collect


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HIGH MASS STARS color and temperature.

LOW MASS STARS


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Betelgeuse color and temperature.

Orion Nebula

Rigel


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Which star is brighter? color and temperature.

They are about the same!

Which star is hotter?

RIGEL


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Orion Nebula color and temperature.


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Here is an example of a color and temperature.Red Supergiant

This is Betelgeuse, the first star after the sun whose surface was imaged in photographs


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SOLAR MASS EJECTION color and temperature.

EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS OF GAS SEND LARGE AMOUNTS OF HIGH ENERGY RADIATION AND PARTICLES INTO SPACE


Stars on the main sequence near our sun blow away their outer atmospheres to become l.jpg
Stars on the main sequence near our Sun blow away their outer atmospheres to become

White Dwarfs


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Large mass, hot stars burn fuel quickly. When they run out, there is no outward pressure to balance out gravity. Therefore, the star collapses inward. This compression rapidly heats the gases to billions of degrees. This creates a huge explosion…


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Supernova! there is no outward pressure to balance out gravity. Therefore, the star collapses inward. This compression rapidly heats the gases to billions of degrees. This creates a huge explosion…

The intense explosion forces the gases outward, away from the core…creating a NEW NEBULA


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NEUTRON STAR there is no outward pressure to balance out gravity. Therefore, the star collapses inward. This compression rapidly heats the gases to billions of degrees. This creates a huge explosion…:

Tiny and dense remains of the a star’s core. Left behind after the outer layers were blown off.


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The basic structural unit of the universe appears to be the galaxy.

A Galaxy is a collection of billions of stars an various amounts of gas and dust held together by gravity.



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Elliptical Galaxy are a few examples.


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Spiral Galaxy are a few examples.



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Spiral Galaxy (The Andromeda) are a few examples.


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Barred Spiral are a few examples.


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ROTATION OF THE SUN are a few examples.

STARS ROTATE. WE USE SURFACE FEATURES LIKE SUNSPOTS TO MEASURE THE RATE.


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