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Sexual Behavior. Introduction to reproductive activities. Requires : Processes of maturation Stimulation. Abilitation of reproductive behavior. Dependent on a wide range of factors : neural mechanism hormones, pheromones and the sensory ceception of a variety of stimuli.

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Sexual Behavior

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Sexual Behavior


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Introduction to reproductive activities

  • Requires :

    • Processes of maturation

    • Stimulation


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Abilitation of reproductive behavior

  • Dependent on a wide range of factors :

    • neural mechanism

    • hormones, pheromones

    • and the sensory ceception of a variety of stimuli


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Sensory factors

  • Olfaction :

    • odor -- a stimulatory value in arousing the male sex drive

    • odorous substances are “pheromones”

    • “pheromone’’produced by the submaxillary gld, preputial fluid in the boar


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Sensory factors

  • Visual stimuli and photoperiodism :

    • visual recognition -- the secondary means of mutual identification

    • the length of each day -- determining breeding behavior


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Sensory factors

  • Photoperiodism operates in 2 principal ways :

    • long day breeder:exhibit their reproductive activities during the daily light period is long: horse, donkey

    • short day breeder:confine their breeding behavior -- a minimum amount of daily light:sheep, goat


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Sensory factors

  • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation:

    • behavior depend on -- stimulation by estrogen (female) and androgen (male)

    • reproductive behavior associated with : courtship, mounting, and coital action (male) and courtship, soliciting and coital acceptance (female)


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Sensory factors

  • Hormonal and pheromonal facilitation: (cont)

    • “critical period (during epigenesis” -- determination of sexual behavior

    • sexual behavior display : result of the degree of hormone or other stimulation applied to elicit it


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Sensory factors

  • Seasonal +climatic breeding response :

    • the newborn is provided with enviroment favouring its survival to puberty

    • temperature effects :

      • ambient temperature -- difficult for animal to dissipate heat (hyperthermia)

      • change with climate - able to effect reproductive behavior


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Sensory factors

  • Inherent rhythm :

    • environmental factor -- only create the capacity for a rhythm which is endogenous >environment acting as a “zeitgeber” or “time-giver”


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Reproductive activities

  • Classified animal by seasonal influence :

    • seasonal breeding animal : horse, sheep, goat, donkey

    • non-seasonal breeding animal : dog, swine, cattle.


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Genetic sex :

    • determined at the moment of conception

  • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences

    • castrated dog at birth : underdeveloped external genitalia

    • show receptive behavior to other male when treated with estrogen as adult


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Organizational perinatal hormonal influences (cont)

    • puppies treated with androgen in utero and neonatally -- markedly alter anatomically (no vagina, small phalluses)

    • cattle + sheep : defeminezed by their neonatal androgen (feemartin)


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Activational : adult hormonal influence

    • hormones have a permissive role : require a certain level for normal behavior , higher not increase libido or receptivity

    • hormonal treatment : not cure a deficiency of sexual behavior

    • male sexual behavior--depend on the activational action of testosterone


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Social and Sexual Experience

    • total lack of experience, homosexual experience, overused for breeding : lead to sexual abnormalities

    • lack of socialization : dog reared without physical contact with other dog from age of 3 wks -- normal libido to estrous bitches but very poor at orientation

    • negative sexual experience


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Adult hormonal and anatomical status

    • ovarian hormones : result in an attraction to males and receptivity to male mounting

    • some species (cat, pig) : complete pattern of estrous behavior -- elicited by estrogen alone

    • other, sheep + dog, progesterone must be administered


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • In ungulates, the behavioral action of estrogen -- facilitated by rapid preovulatory fall in progesterone, where in dogs a rise in progesterone is important

  • ovariectomy -- abolish estrous behavior in female

  • castration -- abolish sexual behavior in male

  • anatomical factors


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • Attractiveness of potential mate

    • higher mammals -- the sexual partner are influenced by attractiveness as well as by their hormonal levels

    • the attractivity of estrous bitch’s urine -- depends on her hormonal state


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Physiological bases of sexual behavior

  • External environment

    • too many human spectors or slippery floor -- may inhibit sexual behavior

    • male generally are more influenced by the environment than female


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Estrous Cycle

  • Estrous cycle :

    • proestrus, estrus, metestrus, diestrus and anestrus

    • estrus :- state during which female seek and accept the male

    • when estrus :- behavioral change -- reducing in feeding, resting

    • behavioral features -- synchronized with various physiological changes of entire genital system


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Estrous Cycle

  • Estrous cycle :

    • health, nutrition and housing -- influential on estrus

    • features of estrus intensity

      • quiescent estrus

      • aberrances of estrus

      • onset of estrus

      • vocalization in estrus

      • duration of estrus

      • post-partum estrus


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Female

    • hypothalamic factor

      • GnRH in hypothalamus stimulate the release of FSH and LH from anterior pituitary gland

      • FSH -- induce follicular development

      • FSH + LH -- together stimulate estrogen + progesterone production by ovary


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Female

    • hypothalamic factor (cont)

      • most of estrous cycle, estrogen + progesterone maintain low levels of LH + FSH through a negative feedback action on hypothalamic pituitary axis

      • near proestrus, the situation is reversed : rising estrogen levels have positive feedback on LH secretion


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Female

    • hypothalamic factor (cont)

      • resulting in the LH serge -- cause ovulation


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4.2


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Cyclical ovulation :

    • spontaneous ovulator : bitch, ewe, mare and sow

    • induced ovulators : cat, rabbit, camel

    • the seasonal nature of reproductive behavior -- due to central neural variation in responsiveness to gonadal hormones

  • olfactory influences and pheromone


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Male

    • hypothalamic factor

      • FSH stimulate spermatogenesis

      • inhibin -- negative feedback on FSH release

      • LH -- stimulates testosterone release


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Central Nervous System and Control of Sexual Behavior

  • Male (cont)

    • neocortex and amygdala

      • lesionin sensorimotor area of neocortex -- suppress copulatory performance

      • lesion of the amygdala or pyriform cortex -- produce hypersexuality

    • olfaction

      • important for identification of the estrous female


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Cattle

  • The Cow

    • puberty occur 4-24 months of age

    • estrous cycle is 18-24 days (21 days)

    • onset of estrus

      • more often evening and cease in morning

      • actual receptivity lasts 13-14 hr

      • an estrous cow -- increase motor activity, decrease food intake


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Cattle

  • The Cow

    • onset of estrus (cont)

      • increase investigative behavior : flehmen, sniffing, rubbing, licking

      • increase as does premounting behavior


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Cattle

  • The Cow

    • detection of estrus

      • more critical in dairy industry as artificial insemination

      • physical sign : copious vaginal discharge, vulva relaxation

      • traditionally, the bull is the best detector, teaser bull or vasectomized


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Cattle

  • The Cow

    • behavioral aberrations

      • silent heat

      • nymphomania : common in high production cow than beef breeds, show increase intense estrous behavior (persistently or at frequent or irregular intervals)


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Cattle

  • The Bull

    • courtship

      • starting late in the cow’s proestrus

      • graze beside the cow, guarding her

      • during proestrus, most female are attractive to male, but not receptive

      • ejaculation occur within second intromission


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Cattle

  • The Bull

    • courtship (cont)

      • bull are used for hand breeding or AI -- lack of the stimulatory effects of the prolonged courtship -- poor semen quality

    • sensory stimuli : need for elicit male sexual behavior

    • malnutrition : rarely effect


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Cattle

  • The Bull

    • behavioral aberrations

      • masturbation : pelvic thrust, back arched, partially erect penis

      • importence : loss of libido ( musculoskeletal disease, obesity, balanoposthitis, injury to penis, testicular atrophy


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Sheep and Goat

  • The Ewe and Doe

    • estrous cycle

      • short-day breeder : estrous cycle 14-20 day (~16 days)

      • estrous period 30-36 hr

      • tropical and subtropical : non-seasonal breeder


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Sheep and Goat

  • The Ewe and Doe

    • the Ram effect

      • continuous exposure to a ram trends to increase the incidence of estrus

    • courtship behavior

      • actively seek out the male and sniff the male’s body, genital and thrust her head against his flank


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Sheep and Goat

  • The Ewe and Doe

    • courtship behavior (cont)

      • increase motor activity : tail wagging

      • ram seeking behavior -- correlated with estrogen level

      • competition : agonistic behavior


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12-10


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Sheep and Goat

  • The Ram and Buck

    • courtship behavior

      • spends a great deal of time sniffing the other’s genitalia, urine -- flehmen response

    • dominance effect

    • behavioral aberration


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Horse

  • The Mare

    • estrous cycle

      • long-day breeder : estrous cycle 20-23 days (~21 days)

      • sexual receptivity : 5-6 days

      • non-receptive mare: react to teaser’s advances by squealing, striking, kicking, moving away

      • full estrus : immobility, permitting the teaser to nibble her hump and wither


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12-11


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Horse

  • The Mare

    • foal heat

      • following parturition : quite predictable

      • begins from 5-18 days (~9 days) after foaling


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Horse

  • The Mare

    • behavioral aberration

      • prolonged estrus (up to 90 days at the end of the breeding season)

      • split estrus (1-2 days of “shallow” estrus)

      • anestrus (physiological and behavioral anestrus)


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Horse

  • The Mare

    • behavioral aberration (cont)

      • psychic heat (estrus without the normal physiological correlates of estrus)

      • nymphomania : excessive sexual behavior

      • silent heat


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Horse

  • The Stallion

    • courtship behavior

      • vary with management practice

      • driving, herding, snaking with a distinctive head-down position (elicited by the presence of other stallions)

      • adequate period of sexual foreplay -- essential :- female is fully receptive


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Horse

  • The Stallion

    • sensory stimuli

      • visual + sensory stimuli :- vital to the display of sexual behavior

      • masturbation : normal behavior in stallion


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Horse

  • The Stallion

    • behavioral aberrations

      • common problem of sexual behavior in stallion

        • show sexual interest, not mount, or mount but not ejaculate

        • low or no libido

        • mount only when another specific present

        • injury

        • geldings that behave like stallion


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Horse

  • The Stallion

    • behavioral aberrations

      • treatmetn of any behavior problem must begin with elimination, or at least identification, or physical impairment : genital injury, limb injury

      • self-multilation

      • overuse and rough handling


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Pigs

  • The Sow

    • estrous cycle

      • non-seasonal breeder, estrous cycle 18-24 days (~21 days)

      • estrous period 40-46 hr

      • increase activity as estrus approach : urination, calling male with soft, rhythmic grunt

      • estrous sow attempt to mount other estrous sow


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Pigs

  • The Sow

    • estrous cycle (cont)

      • immobility response of the fully receptive sow require both auditory and olfactory stimuli

      • olfactory stimuli :- pheromones present in both saliva + preputial secretion of boar (5-alpha-androst (16-ene-3 one)


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Pigs

  • The Sow

    • behavioral aberration

      • failure to reproduce in confinement


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Pigs

  • The Boar

    • courtship behavior

      • pursue the female, attempting to nose her sides, flanks and vulva

      • during the phase of courtship, boar use a series of soft, gutteral grunts, about 6-8 second (“courting song”)

      • ejaculate time (as dog) 3-20 min


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12-12


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Pigs

  • The Boar

    • olfactory stimuli

      • unimportant in stimulating a boar to mount a female or dummy

    • early socialization

      • raised in isolation from 3 wks of age copulated less with estrous sow than boar raised in group

    • aberration : difference in the level of “sex drive” (between individual)


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Dogs

  • The bitch

    • estrous cycle

      • non-seasonal breeder : cycle is extremely variable from individual to individual , or from heat to next heat

      • usually 2 cycle yearly


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Dogs

  • The Bitch

    • courtship behavior

      • marked by play behavior in proestrus, decrease during estrus

      • usually 2 cycle yearly


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Dogs

  • The Dogs

    • courtship behavior

      • urine of estrous bitch -- to be more attractive to the dog than vaginal secretion

      • canids do not show the classic flehmen response of the ungulate

      • possible that the “tongueing response”


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Dogs

  • The Dogs

    • behavioral aberration

      • lack of sufficient social contact -- inhibit successful copulation

      • timidy, especially in poodles + German shepherd

      • masturbation

      • castration : prepubertal castration -- greatly reduces sexual interest


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Cats

  • The Queen

    • estrous cycle

      • seasonal polyestrous breeder

      • usually 2 cycle yearly

    • catnip

      • nepetalactone, a volatile terpenoid in catnip plant (Nepeta cateria) -- elicit behavior similar to sexual behavior


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Cats

  • The Queen

    • courtship behavior

      • call and purr, restless and show increased general motor activity

      • very affectionate toward the owners

      • urinates frequently, rub her head , flank on furniture (produce pheromone)


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12-16


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Cats

  • The Toms

    • courtship behavior

      • locate estrous cat via olfactory cue

      • show flehmen response or gape, call, around her and sniff her genitalia

      • non-receptive female will actively, even violently, rebuff a male


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Cats

  • The Toms

    • courtship behavior

      • if female accept -- male approach her from side and behind and grips her neck with hes mouth

      • ejaculation occurs second after intromission (< 10 sec)


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Cats

  • The Toms

    • behavioral aberration

      • castration : prepubertal (6-8 m) -- generally eliminates sexual behavior


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