Nagorno karabakh conflict in azerbaijan
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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan. Phil Vandenberg. www.azerb.com. Overview. General Information Past conflict Ceasefire Current situation. www.azerb.com. Nagorno-Karabakh (General Info). “Mountainous Black Garden” – Azeri Artsakh “Manly Sak” - Armenian Rugged region

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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

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Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict in Azerbaijan

Phil Vandenberg

www.azerb.com


Overview

  • General Information

  • Past conflict

  • Ceasefire

  • Current

    situation

www.azerb.com


Nagorno-Karabakh (General Info)

  • “Mountainous Black Garden” – Azeri

    Artsakh “Manly Sak” - Armenian

  • Rugged region

    • Mountain ranges reaching an altitude of 3,700 m (12,000 ft.)

    • Higher elevations have little or no vegetation

  • Mild lower climates with dense vegetation

Nagorno-Karabakhregion

www.azerb.com


General Info Cont.

  • Population of about 130,000

  • 4,400 square kilometers

  • Economy is based mostly on copper mining and agriculture

    • Cattle

    • Vineyards

    • Orchards

    • Wheat

    • Veggies

    • Cotton


History of Nagorno-Karabakh

  • Ethnic Armenian “time bomb” region created by Stalin

  • Incorporated into Azerbaijan in 1921 by Stalin

  • Problems began immediately

  • Major conflicts in the late 1940s

    • Armenia proposed annexing Karabakh but was denied

    • Repatriated Armenians forced around 100,000 Azeris out of Armenia


Recent History

  • February 1988 – Armenia requested that Karabakh be transferred to Armenian control (REJECTED)

  • Azerbaijan sends request to Moscow to repatriate ethnic Azeris and Armenians on both sides

  • Over 200,000 Azeris living in Armenia are forced out of country

  • End of February 1988 – violence erupts between Azeris and Armenians in city of Sumgait (Soviet troops called in)


More Recent History

  • November 1988 – more violence

    • Tens of thousands expelled from both countries

    • Massacres on both sides

  • Break-up of Soviet Union in 1991

    • Full-scale war breaks loose


Khojaly

  • About 7,000 citizens

  • Early 1992 the city was attacked by Armenian troops for several weeks

  • February 25, 1992- Armenian troops forced citizens to escape the city

  • Troops positioned in hills shot at fleeing Azeris

www.azerb.com


Khojaly continued

  • Estimated 450 – 1,000 men, women and children slaughtered

  • Over 1,200 taken hostage

  • Town burned

  • Date was 4-year anniversary of Armenian massacres in Sumgait

http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html


Ceasefire

  • May 1994

  • At time of ceasefire:

    • Over 20,000 dead

    • Over 1,000,000 refugees

    • Estimated $60 billion in damages

  • Russia helping to mediate

  • Both countries observing… mostly

    • Armenian troops occupy Karabakh and non-Armenian areas around it

Image from: http://newhouse.syr.edu/alexia/archives/1998/bradner/bradportnew18.html


Images of Refugees

http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html


Current Situation

  • Karabakh Armenians have declared independence

    • Not actually recognized by any other countries

    • Goal is to join Armenia

  • Nagorno-Karabakh government controls about 14,000 km², including a “corridor” to Armenia


http://fismailzade.web.wesleyan.edu/Karabakh.html


No Man’s Land

  • 1 Km wide expanse between Azeri and Karabakh-Armenian forces

  • Networks of wire fencing and minefields

  • Well-dug, concrete-reinforced bunkers and trenches

  • Excavated tank ditches

  • Regular exchange of sniper fire


Solutions

  • Honor Karabakh’s claim to independence and leave them alone

  • Continue fighting and hope to win all land back (or even just the land outside of Karabakh)

  • Cut deal with Armenia giving them most or all of Karabakh and a gateway to it

    No matter what the solution, refugees need to be housed more suitably


Works Cited

  • “Azerbaijan – International Disputes.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com

  • Google Images. http://images.google.com

  • “Karabakh – Heartland of Azerbaijan.” Yusif Akhundov. http://www.angelfire.com/fl/fialochka/karabakh.html

  • “Karabakh – Tragedy of the 20th Century.” Fariz’s Home Page. http://fismailzade.web.wesleyan.edu/index.html

  • “Nagorno Karabakh.” A to Z of Azerbaijan. Azerb.com. http://www.azerb.com

  • “The United States and Nagorno-Karabakh.” Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of State Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. http://www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/fs/13502.htm


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