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Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Resources: Developing an Assessment Infrastructure for Libraries, State, and Other Types of Consortia. Presented By: Terry Plum, Simmons GSLIS Brinley Franklin, University of Connecticut Martha Kyrillidou, ARL Gary Roebuck, ARL MaShana Davis, ARL .

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Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Resources:Developing an Assessment Infrastructure for Libraries, State, and Other Types of Consortia

Presented By:

Terry Plum, Simmons GSLISBrinley Franklin, University of ConnecticutMartha Kyrillidou, ARL Gary Roebuck, ARLMaShana Davis, ARL

Library Assessment Conference 2008

University of Washington

Seattle, WA

August 4, 2008


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MINES for Libraries® Background

  • 1982 First indirect cost study – in-house

  • 1986 Agreement with DHHS

  • 1998 CARL surveying Medline and FirstSearch

  • 1999 ARL New Measures – Terry Plum

  • 2003 ARL adopts MINES into StatsQUAL®

  • 2005 ARL interactive data with OCUL

  • 2007 ARL in discussion with EZproxy

  • 2008 IMLS grant application

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Measuring Digital Content Use

  • The most popular current method of measuring usage of electronic resources by libraries is not through web-based usage surveys, but through vendor supplied data of library patron usage or transaction usage.

  • Web-based usage surveys are increasingly relevant in the collection of usage data to make collection development and service decisions, to document evidence of usage by certain patron populations, and to collect and analyze performance outputs.

    Brinley Franklin and Terry Plum, “Successful Web Survey Methodologies for Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Services (MINES for Libraries®)” IFLA Journal 32 (1) March, 2006

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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ARL

Statistics™

LibQUAL+®

DigiQUAL®

ClimateQUAL™

MINES

for Libraries®

ARL Statistics™ is a series of annual publications that describe the collections, expenditures, staffing, and service activities for Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries.

The DigiQUAL® online survey designed for users of digital libraries that measures reliability and trustworthiness of Web sites. DigiQUAL® is an adaptation of LibQUAL+® in the digital environment.

ClimateQUAL™: Organizational Climate and Diversity Assessment is an online survey that measures staff perceptions about: (a) the library's commitment to the principles of diversity, (b) organizational policies and procedures, and (c) staff attitudes.

LibQUAL+® is a rigorously tested Web-based survey that libraries use to solicit, track, understand, and act upon users‘ opinions of service quality.

Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Resources (MINES) is an online transaction- based survey that collects data on the purpose of use of electronic resources and the demographics of users.

ARL New Measures Toolkit: StatsQUAL®

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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What is MINES?

  • Action Research

    • Historically rooted in indirect cost studies

    • Set of recommendations for research design

    • Set of recommendations for web survey presentation

    • Set of recommendations for information architecture in libraries

    • Plan for continual assessment of networked electronic resources

    • An opportunity to benchmark across libraries

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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What is MINES? (cont’d)

  • Measuring the Impact of Networked Electronic Services (MINES)

  • MINES is a research methodology that measures the usage of networked electronic resources of a library or consortium by a specific category of the patron population.

  • MINES is a Web-based survey form consisting of 5 questions that is administered at the time of transaction.

  • MINES measures:

    • User status and discipline/affiliation (who)

    • Physical location (where)

    • Primary purpose and reason of use (why)

  • MINES a part of Association of Research Libraries’ New Measures & Assessment Initiatives (since 2003).

  • MINES is different from other electronic resource usage measures that quantify total usage (e.g., Project COUNTER, E-Metrics) or measure how well a library makes electronic resources accessible (LibQUAL+®).

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Recent Data Collection Activities via ARL

  • Ontario Council of University Libraries (OCUL)

  • University of Iowa Libraries

  • University of Macedonia

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Questions Addressed

  • How extensively do sponsored researchers use the new digital information environment?

  • Are researchers more likely to use networked electronic resources from inside or outside the library?

  • Are there differences in usage of electronic information based on the user’s location (e.g., in the library; on-campus, but not in the library; or off-campus)?

  • What is a statistically valid methodology for capturing electronic services usage both in the library and remotely through web surveys?

  • Are particular network configurations more conducive to studies of digital libraries patron use?

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Reliance on Vendor Statistics

Vendor statistics, while more reliable than in the past, are still maturing.

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Library User Survey

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Library User Survey

Patron Status

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Library User Survey

Affiliation

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Library User Survey

Location

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Library User Survey

Purpose

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Issues with Web surveys

  • Research design

    • Coverage error

      • Unequal access to the Internet

      • Internet users are different than non-users

    • Response rate

      • Response representativeness

    • Random sampling and inference

    • Non-respondents

  • Data security

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES Strategy

  • A representative sampling plan, including sample size, is determined at the outset. Typically, there are 48 hours of surveying over 12 months at a medical library and 24 hours a year at a main library.

  • Random moment/web-based surveys are employed at each site.

  • Participation is usually mandatory, negating non-respondent bias, and is based on actual use in real-time.

    • IRB waiver or approval

  • Libraries with database-to-web gateways or proxy re-writers offer a comprehensive networking solution for surveying all networked services users during survey periods.

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES Strategy

  • Placement

    • Point of use

    • Not remembered, predicted or critical incident

  • Usage rather than user

    • What about multiple usages

    • Time out ?

    • Cookie or other mechanism with auto-population or more recently counting invisibly with a time out.

  • Distinguish patron association with libraries.

    • For example, medical library v. main library.

    • But what if the resources are purchased across campus for all. Then how to get patron affiliation?

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Web Survey Design Guidelines

  • Web survey design guidelines that MINES followed:

    • Presentation

      • Simple text for different browsers – no graphics

        • Different browsers render web pages differently

      • Few questions per screen or simply few questions

      • Easy to navigate

      • Short and plain

      • No scrolling

      • Clear and encouraging error or warning messages

      • Every question answered in a similar way - consistent

        • Radio buttons, drop downs

      • ADA compliant

      • Introduction page or paragraph

      • Easy to read

        • Must see definitions of sponsored research.

      • Can present questions in response to answers – for example if sponsored research was chosen, could present another survey

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Quality Checks

  • Target population is the population frame – surveyed the patrons who were supposed to be surveyed - except in libraries with outstanding open digital collections.

  • Check usage against IP. In this case, big numbers may not be good. May be seeing the survey too often.

  • Alter order of questions and answers, particularly sponsored and instruction.

  • Spot check IP against self-identified location

  • Spot check undergraduates choosing sponsored research – measurement error

  • Check self-identified grant information against actual grants

  • Content validity – discussed with librarians and pre-tested.

  • Turn-aways – number who elected not to fill out the survey

  • Library information architecture -- Gateway v. HTML pages – there is a substantial difference in results.

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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What is a session? Research Libraries

Session A successful request of an online service.  It is one cycle of user activities that  typically starts when a user connects to the  service or database and ends by  terminating activity that is either explicit  (by leaving the service through exit or  logout) or implicit (timeout due to user  inactivity) (NISO)

Counter Code of Practice: Journals and Databases. Release 3. Glossary of Terms. http://www.projectcounter.org/code_practice.html

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Federated searches are different Research Libraries

Search and session activity generated by federated search engines and other automated search agents should be categorized differently from regular searches. Any searches or sessions derived from any federated search engine (or similar automated search agent) should be included in separate “Searches_federated” and “Sessions_federated” counts….and are not to be included in the “Searches_run” and “Sessions” counts.

Counter Code of Practice: Journals and Databases. Release 3. Glossary of Terms. http://www.projectcounter.org/code_practice.html

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Sample Survey Data File Generated Research Libraries

Other UConnInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/done=referer;dbname=WorldCat;autho=100122319;FSIP12:36:5012/3/2004Off CampusUConn Faculty12.101.104.84

Family StudiesInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://www.jstor.org/cgi-bin/jstor/gensearch12:37:4312/3/2004Off CampusUConn Undergraduate Student12.101.104.84Non-UConnOther Activitieshttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First13:08:4112/3/2004Off CampusNon-UConn12.18.36.40

Non-UConnInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://magic.lib.uconn.edu/index_real.html13:31:2912/3/2004Off CampusNon-UConn12.76.131.246

Non-UConnOther Activitieshttp://magic.lib.uconn.edu/index_real.html12:11:0612/3/2004Off CampusNon-UConn130.132.86.156Agriculture & Natural ResourcesInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://magic.lib.uconn.edu/index_real.html12:33:5712/3/2004

Off CampusNon-UConn131.128.89.54EducationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://www.euromonitor.com/womdas/12:57:4412/3/2004

Off CampusNon-UConn134.241.135.70Non-UConnInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First13:28:5212/3/2004

Off CampusNon-UConn134.74.42.82Business AdministrationOther Activitieshttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First12:56:4612/3/2004In the LibraryUConn Faculty137.99.1.122

Liberal Arts & SciencesOther Activitieshttp://www.siam.org/journals/simax/simax.htm12:52:1712/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.1.122

EngineeringInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First12:04:3112/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.1.219

Business AdministrationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?RQT=31812:16:3312/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.100.105

Business AdministrationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://www.jstor.org/journals/07322399.html12:16:5212/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.100.105

Business AdministrationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First12:29:5312/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.100.175

Business AdministrationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://homerweb.lib.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/Pwebrecon.cgi?DB=local&PAGE=First12:48:4112/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.100.175

Business AdministrationInstruction/Education/Departmental (Non-Funded) Researchhttp://proquest.umi.com/login?COPT=SU5UPTAmVkVSPTImREJTPTE3MjErMysxNkJD&clientId=4899612:04:2312/3/2004On Campus - StorrsUConn Graduate Student137.99.100.175

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries Research Libraries® Implemented via StatsQUAL®Dataflow Diagram

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries Research Libraries® Implemented via StatsQUAL®Cross-Functional Flowchart

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Reporting Research Libraries

  • Streamline data collection

  • Standardized reporting

    • General overview

    • Frequencies and cross tabulations for common variables

      • Who is accessing electronic resources? (user status and affiliation)

      • Where are they accessing electronic resources? (location)

      • Why are they accessing electronic resources? (purpose/reason of use)

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries Research Libraries®

Purpose of Use by Location

U.S. Main Campus Libraries 2003-05

In the Library

n = 9,733

On-Campus, Not in the Library

n = 9,460

66%

Sponsored

Research

Instruction

Other

Other Sponsored

Activities

Overall Use

n = 26,983

Off-Campus

n = 7,790

*72% of sponsored research usage of electronic resources occurred outside the library; 83% took place on campus.

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Online Data Analysis Research Libraries

  • Expand data analysis capabilities

    • Multidimensional data views  “Drag and drop”

    • Cross tabulations

    • Frequencies

    • Longitudinal analysis

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Web Interface Research Libraries

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Post Survey Consulting Research Libraries

  • Help institutions:

    • Identify common themes in their data

    • Identify answers to research questions

    • Identify next steps according to initial goals and/or research questions

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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Resources Research Libraries

  • Web interface

    http://minesforlibraries.org

  • ARL New Measures and Assessment Initiatives: MINES for Libraries®

    http://www.arl.org/stats/initiatives/mines/index.shtmlplace

  • Articles & Presentations

    http://www.arl.org/stats/initiatives/mines/minesresources.shtml

MINES for Libraries® Association of Research Libraries

www.minesforlibraries.org Statistics and Measurement Program


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