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Major Dialect Atlases. The Roadmaps To Linguistics. Christian Schimmrick BA Anglistik/Amerikanistik Seminar Dialectology Chemnitz University of Technology [email protected] Table of Contents. Introduction Important Atlases & Their Development

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major dialect atlases
Major Dialect Atlases
  • The Roadmaps To Linguistics

Christian Schimmrick

BA Anglistik/Amerikanistik

Seminar Dialectology

Chemnitz University of Technology

[email protected]

table of contents
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Important Atlases & Their Development
        • Linguistic Atlas of New England
        • Linguistic Atlas of England
        • Atlas of North American English
  • Tools & Additions
        • Indexes to Linguistic Atlases
  • References
slide4

Introduction

  • A Dialect Atlas is a publication containing a set of maps on which speech variations are recorded — also called Linguistic Atlas.
  • (Source: Miriam Webster Online)
  • A Dialect Atlas is a collection of maps of a certain area indicating the distribution of various phonological, morphological, lexical, or other features of the dialects of that area.
  • (Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary)
slide5

Introduction

  • Why do we need Linguistic Atlases?
          • present survey data graphically
          • unified, compact source for dialect research
          • cover a broad range of linguistic features
          • enable us to trace historical development of languages
slide6

Introduction

  • Which map types do Linguistic Atlases contain?
slide9

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Facts
          • initiated in the early 1920s by Hans Kurath and others
          • first American Linguistic Atlas
          • contains over 700 maps
          • survey: 1931-1933
          • over 400 interview informants
          • data collecting: 750 item questionnaire
          • answers recorded in IPA transcription
slide11

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Development
          • plan of mapping dialect of North American English
          • fieldworkers traveled to pre-selected communities
          • in every community : 2 informants
          • informant profiles set by Kurath:- Informant 1: old-fashioned / unschooled (farmer)- Informant 2: middle-class member / grade- or highschool
          • priority on historical American towns (early American settlements)
          • results of interviews were plotted on many maps
slide12

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Development
          • every map shows the distribution of:- regional vocabulary- pronunciation- forms of grammarand the actual phonetic form of the Informants words/phrases
          • use of isoglosses and/or word boundaries
slide13

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Impact
          • published 1939 - 1943 in three volumes
          • this atlas is the foundation of historical analyses
          • classic resource for linguists
          • most complete publication in the history of American dialectology
          • although the survey fieldwork has been completed:- each region still has a director, analyzing data & completing it- supervising work
slide14

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Hans Kurath
          • born: 1891 in Villach, Austria
          • immigrated to the US in 1907
          • leading figure in American geographical linguistics
          • 1920: graduate student in German Linguistics at University of Chicago:- had the opportunity to travel a lot through the USA- found many varieties of regional English
          • convinced to create a complete, systematic study of American English
slide15

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of New England (LANE) : Hans Kurath
          • main interest of research: historical linguistics
          • reconstruct the evolution of American English from the „pure“ forms of the early settlers to contemporary regional dialects
          • in 1920s: professor for German and Linguistics
          • was convinced that language is a record book of society and events (growth of trade / urbanization / population movements)
          • Linguistic Atlas of New England: huge success- beginning of survey & atlas development in England - 1941: president of the Linguistic Society of America
slide17
The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

success of Hans Kuraths Linguistic Atlas of New England made up the ground for English Dialect Atlas development

Kurath in front of the Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences:„Unfortunately the lines leading back to the Mother Country, to England [...], will remain vague and tentative until a linguistic Atlas of the British Isles is made.“ (Hans Kurath, ‚Second International Congress of Phonetic Sciences‘ , 1935)

one of the most important stages of the English Dialect survey (SED) planned by Harold Orton and Eugen Dieth

Important Atlases & Their Development

slide18
The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

first, fullest, systematically collected body of dialect material for all english regions

strong historical bias

field survey: 1950 - 1961

11 special trained fieldworkers & over 300 localities

data collecting: 1300 questions survey featuring phonological / lexical / morphological and syntactical features

high consistency of material quality expected

Important Atlases & Their Development

slide19
The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

questionnaire took 18 hours to complete

informants: - over 60 years old- one man & one woman- agricultural background

after completing survey: 404 000 items

Important Atlases & Their Development

slide21
The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Facts

9 sections of the questionnaire:1. The Farm & Farming2. Animals3. Nature4. House & Housekeeping5. The Human Body6. Numbers7. Time & Weather8. Social Activities9. States, Actions, Relations

reflects the environment and the daily life of the English countryman

reason: old dialect forms are mostly found in rural areas

Important Atlases & Their Development

slide22

Important Atlases & Their Development

Phonological Map

Isoglosses

Example:

„week“

IPA Transcription

Survey Data

slide23
The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Development

aims of the atlas:- present traditional vernacular English - rely on oldest and most conservative forms of dialect speech- illustrate regional distribution of speech used since ancient times

use of isoglosses

Orton emphasized older forms to show greater derivation from Standard English

sound-recordings after 1952 not successful:- financial problems- obscures general patterns of distribution (confusion)

Important Atlases & Their Development

slide24

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Linguistic Atlas of England (LAOE) : Harold Orton
          • born: 1898 in Byers Green, Durham, England
          • university lecturer and dialectologist (University of Leeds)
          • co-founder of the SED (Survey of English Dialects) with Eugen Dieth
          • retired in 1964 and died in 1975, the year of the expected publication
          • planned the publication programme:- Introduction (1962)- Basic Material (1962-1971) / 4 volumes; each three parts
slide26

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts
          • record of the regional dialects of English spoken in the US & Canada
          • based on the TELSUR telephone survey carried out 1992 - 1999
          • provides the first comprehensive view of North American pronunciation & phonology
          • main focus on:- mechanisms,- causes and- consequences,of linguistic change
slide27

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts
          • no fieldworkers compared to LANE & LAOE:- 13 telephone interviewers- chosen telephone numbers identifying major ethnic groups
          • 805 recorded interviews
          • 762 informants living in urbanized areas (> 50.000 inhabitants)
          • mostly Euro-Americans
          • tape / digital recording & acoustic editing by normalization program (PLOTNIK)
slide28

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Facts
          • provides information on:- perception and production- acoustic measurements- realization of phonemic categories & forms- phonological systems & individual phonemes
          • featuring 139 color maps + sound samples on CD-ROM
          • shows the change of sounds IN PROGRESS in relation to gender, age and city size
slide29

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • The Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : Impact
          • major aim: re-establish the links of dialect geography and general linguistics (data vs theoretical interpretation)
          • develop connections between Atlas data and the theory of soundchange
          • reveals increasing diversity of English in North America
slide31

Important Atlases & Their Development

Merger of /i/ and /e/ before nasals

‚pin‘ vs ‚pen‘

slide32

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : William Labov
          • born in 1927 in Rutherford, New Yersey, USA
          • one of the most important linguists
          • regarded as the founder of sociolinguistics (the study of language in human society)
          • 1948: Harvard
          • 1949 - 1961: industrial chemist
          • 1971 - now: professor of linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania
slide33

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • Atlas of North American English (ANAE) : William Labov
          • famous for his methods of data collecting
          • influential in social dialectology
          • still studies changes in phonology of American English
slide36

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • Indexes to Dialect / Linguistic Atlases : Facts
          • list-type publications showing data of many linguistic atlas projects
          • often necessary for research
          • usually atlases contain lists of the questionnaire data & the appropriate maps
          • confusion
slide37

Important Atlases & Their Development

  • Indexes to Dialect / Linguistic Atlases : Why?
          • get an overview over the numerous publications of publications
          • compact tool of research:- ‚item of interest‘ vs ‚where to find‘
          • long term projects (like atlases) suffer from fragmentation:- the longer the project the more data- overlapping of certain publications - no overlapping: confusion where to find the missing data
          • enable us a de-fragmented, easier view on material in compact form (good overview over the data of many survey/Atlas publications, making them comparable)
slide39

References

  • Fischer, AndreasAn Index to Dialect Maps of Great Britain (1991)
  • Labov, Bill (2005)The Atlas of North American English
  • Orton, Harold (1971)The Linguistic Atlas of England
  • Widdowson, J.D.A. & Upton, Cliff (1996)An Atlas of English Dialects
slide40

References

  • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html
  • http://us.english.uga.edu/
  • http://www.muturzikin.com/cartesusa/usa.htm
  • http://www.csiss.org/classics/content/17
  • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/home.html
  • http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono_atlas/maps/Map3.html
  • http://www.unc.edu/~gerfen/Ling30Sp2002/sociolinguistics.html
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