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L2 Animal Diversity Making sense of diversity. Linnaeus. Key. fins or legs?. legs. fins. amniote?. yes. bone/cartilage?. scales?. no. no. cartilage. bone. yes. hair/feathers?. hair. feathers. shark. frog. fish. mammal. bird. crocodile. fins. bone. Key. fins or legs?.

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Slide1 l.jpg

L2 Animal Diversity

Making sense of diversity



Slide4 l.jpg
Key

fins or legs?

legs

fins

amniote?

yes

bone/cartilage?

scales?

no

no

cartilage

bone

yes

hair/feathers?

hair

feathers

shark

frog

fish

mammal

bird

crocodile


Slide5 l.jpg

fins

bone

Key

fins or legs?

bone/cartilage?

fish


Slide6 l.jpg
Key

fins or legs?

legs

fins

amniote?

yes

bone/cartilage?

scales?

no

no

cartilage

bone

yes

hair/feathers?

hair

feathers

shark

frog

fish

mammal

bird

crocodile


Slide7 l.jpg

Keys need not reflect evolution

mammal

bird

crocodile

frog

fish

shark





Whittaker s five kingdom classification 1969 l.jpg
Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification (1969) something

photosynthesis

absorption

ingestion

Classification based on cell structure and methods of nutrition


Evolutionary tree for all of life l.jpg
Evolutionary tree for all of life something

Constructed from ribosomal RNA sequences



Protists are paraphyletic l.jpg
Protists are “paraphyletic” 2003: 1703-1706

Protists are those eukaryotes left over after we remove plants, fungi, and animals


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alveolates 2003: 1703-1706

The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes, S. L. Baldauf, Science Jun 13 2003: 1703-1706


Red tides massive dinoflagelate blooms causing massive fish deaths l.jpg
Red tides - massive dinoflagelate blooms causing massive fish deaths

(need piccies of red tide)


Apicomplexa malaria l.jpg
Apicomplexa: Malaria fish deaths

Each year 300 million people are infected, and 2 million die


Malaria is an ancient disease l.jpg
Malaria is an ancient disease fish deaths

10-20 Myr

falciparum Human

Phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium

reichenowi Chimp

gallinaceum Bird

lophurae Bird

mexicanum Lizard

malariae Human

fragile Monkey

150 Myr

knowlesi Monkey

41 Myr

vivax Human

cynomolgi Monkey

berghei Rodent


Coccoliths l.jpg
Coccoliths fish deaths

  • Emiliania huxleyi is planktonic

  • On death cells clump together and sink to the ocean floor

  • Massive carpets of coccoliths cover the ocean floors


Slide21 l.jpg

Emiliania huxleyi fish deaths off the coast of Newfoundland, 21st July 1999


Radiolarian l.jpg
Radiolarian fish deaths


Foraminiferan l.jpg
Foraminiferan fish deaths


Neogloboquadrina pachyderma l.jpg
Neogloboquadrina pachyderma fish deaths

Left or right coiled shell depending on water temperature

Right-coiled (Dextral) specimen, umbilical view

Percent right-coiling N.pachyderma

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Left-coiled (sinistral) specimen, umbilical view


Trypanosoma l.jpg
Trypanosoma fish deaths

Causes African sleeping sickness in humans

Red blood cells

Trypanosomes


Diatoms l.jpg
Diatoms fish deaths

Glasslike walls made of hydrated silica.

Skeletons for “diatomaceous earth” which is used for filters.


Choanoflagellates l.jpg
Choanoflagellates fish deaths


Similarity between sponges and choanoflagellates l.jpg
Similarity between sponges and choanoflagellates fish deaths

Colonial choanoflagellates


Summary l.jpg
Summary fish deaths

  • Keys enable us to identify organisms

  • Keys are not classifications

  • Groups defined by not having features of another group often comprise unrelated organisms (paraphyletic)

  • The protists are a classic case of a diverse but unrelated group of organisms