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L2 Animal Diversity Making sense of diversity PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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L2 Animal Diversity Making sense of diversity. Linnaeus. Key. fins or legs?. legs. fins. amniote?. yes. bone/cartilage?. scales?. no. no. cartilage. bone. yes. hair/feathers?. hair. feathers. shark. frog. fish. mammal. bird. crocodile. fins. bone. Key. fins or legs?.

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L2 Animal Diversity Making sense of diversity

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L2 Animal Diversity

Making sense of diversity


Linnaeus


Key

fins or legs?

legs

fins

amniote?

yes

bone/cartilage?

scales?

no

no

cartilage

bone

yes

hair/feathers?

hair

feathers

shark

frog

fish

mammal

bird

crocodile


fins

bone

Key

fins or legs?

bone/cartilage?

fish


Key

fins or legs?

legs

fins

amniote?

yes

bone/cartilage?

scales?

no

no

cartilage

bone

yes

hair/feathers?

hair

feathers

shark

frog

fish

mammal

bird

crocodile


Keys need not reflect evolution

mammal

bird

crocodile

frog

fish

shark


Demo


Paraphyletic groups are often grouped by the absence of something


Defining taxonomic groups can be tricky


Whittaker’s Five Kingdom Classification (1969)

photosynthesis

absorption

ingestion

Classification based on cell structure and methods of nutrition


Evolutionary tree for all of life

Constructed from ribosomal RNA sequences


The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes, S. L. Baldauf, Science Jun 13 2003: 1703-1706


Protists are “paraphyletic”

Protists are those eukaryotes left over after we remove plants, fungi, and animals


alveolates

The Deep Roots of Eukaryotes, S. L. Baldauf, Science Jun 13 2003: 1703-1706


Red tides - massive dinoflagelate blooms causing massive fish deaths

(need piccies of red tide)


Apicomplexa: Malaria

Each year 300 million people are infected, and 2 million die


Malaria is an ancient disease

10-20 Myr

falciparum Human

Phylogeny of the genus Plasmodium

reichenowi Chimp

gallinaceum Bird

lophurae Bird

mexicanum Lizard

malariae Human

fragile Monkey

150 Myr

knowlesi Monkey

41 Myr

vivax Human

cynomolgi Monkey

berghei Rodent


Coccoliths

  • Emiliania huxleyi is planktonic

  • On death cells clump together and sink to the ocean floor

  • Massive carpets of coccoliths cover the ocean floors


Emiliania huxleyi off the coast of Newfoundland, 21st July 1999


Radiolarian


Foraminiferan


Neogloboquadrina pachyderma

Left or right coiled shell depending on water temperature

Right-coiled (Dextral) specimen, umbilical view

Percent right-coiling N.pachyderma

10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

100,000

120,000

140,000

160,000

Left-coiled (sinistral) specimen, umbilical view


Trypanosoma

Causes African sleeping sickness in humans

Red blood cells

Trypanosomes


Diatoms

Glasslike walls made of hydrated silica.

Skeletons for “diatomaceous earth” which is used for filters.


Choanoflagellates


Similarity between sponges and choanoflagellates

Colonial choanoflagellates


Summary

  • Keys enable us to identify organisms

  • Keys are not classifications

  • Groups defined by not having features of another group often comprise unrelated organisms (paraphyletic)

  • The protists are a classic case of a diverse but unrelated group of organisms


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