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Lecture Presentation Software to accompany Investment Analysis and Portfolio Management Seventh Edition by Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown. Chapter 17. Chapter 17 - Equity Portfolio Management Strategies. Questions to be answered: What are the two generic equity portfolio management styles?

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Lecture Presentation Softwareto accompanyInvestment Analysis and Portfolio ManagementSeventh Editionby Frank K. Reilly & Keith C. Brown

Chapter 17


Chapter 17 - Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

Questions to be answered:

  • What are the two generic equity portfolio management styles?

  • What are three techniques for constructing a passive index portfolio?

  • How does the goal of a passive equity portfolio manager differ from the goal of an active manager?

  • What is a portfolio’s tracking error and how is it useful in the construction of a passive equity investment?


Chapter 17 - Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

  • What is the difference between an index mutual fund and an exchange-traded fund?

  • What are the three themes that active equity portfolio managers can use?

  • What stock characteristics differentiate value-oriented and growth-oriented investment styles?

  • What is style analysis and what does it indicate about a manager’s investment performance?


Chapter 17 - Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

  • What techniques are used by active managers in an attempt to outperform their benchmark?

  • What are differences between the integrated, strategic, tactical, and insured approaches to asset allocation?

  • How can futures and options be useful in managing an equity portfolio?


Passive versus Active Management

  • Passive equity portfolio management

    • Long-term buy-and-hold strategy

    • Usually tracks an index over time

    • Designed to match market performance

    • Manager is judged on how well they track the target index

  • Active equity portfolio management

    • Attempts to outperform a passive benchmark portfolio on a risk-adjusted basis


An Overview of Passive Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

  • Replicate the performance of an index

  • May slightly underperform the target index due to fees and commissions

  • Costs of active management (1 to 2 percent) are hard to overcome in risk-adjusted performance

  • Many different market indexes are used for tracking portfolios


Index Portfolio Strategy Construction Techniques

  • Full replication

  • Sampling

  • Quadratic optimization or programming


Full Replication

  • All securities in the index are purchased in proportion to weights in the index

  • This helps ensure close tracking

  • Increases transaction costs, particularly with dividend reinvestment


Sampling

  • Buys a representative sample of stocks in the benchmark index according to their weights in the index

  • Fewer stocks means lower commissions

  • Reinvestment of dividends is less difficult

  • Will not track the index as closely, so there will be some tracking error


Expected Tracking Error Between the S&P 500 Index and Portfolio Samples of Less Than 500 Stocks

Expected Tracking Error (Percent)

Exhibit 17.2

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

500

400

300

200

100

0

Number of Stocks


Quadratic Optimization (or programming techniques)

  • Historical information on price changes and correlations between securities are input into a computer program that determines the composition of a portfolio that will minimize tracking error with the benchmark

  • This relies on historical correlations, which may change over time, leading to failure to track the index


Index Funds

Attempt to replicate a benchmark index

Exchange-Traded Funds

EFTs are depository receipts that give investors a pro rata claim on the capital gains and cash flows of the securities that are held in deposit by a financial institution that issued the certificates

Methods of Index Portfolio Investing


An Overview of Active Equity Portfolio Management Strategies

  • Goal is to earn a portfolio return that exceeds the return of a passive benchmark portfolio, net of transaction costs, on a risk-adjusted basis

  • Practical difficulties of active manager

    • Transactions costs must be offset

    • Risk can exceed passive benchmark


Fundamental Strategies

Top-down versus bottom-up approaches

Asset and sector rotation strategies


Sector Rotation

  • Position a portfolio to take advantage of the market’s next move

  • Screening can be based on various stock characteristics:

    • Value

    • Growth

    • P/E

    • Capitalization

    • Sensitivity to economic variables


Contrarian investment strategy

Price momentum strategy

Earnings momentum strategy

Technical Strategies


Value versus Growth

  • Growth stocks will outperform value stocks for a time and then the opposite occurs

  • Over time value stocks have offered somewhat higher returns than growth stocks


Value versus Growth

  • Growth-oriented investor will:

    • focus on EPS and its economic determinants

    • look for companies expected to have rapid EPS growth

    • assumes constant P/E ratio


Value versus Growth

  • Value-oriented investor will:

    • focus on the price component

    • not care much about current earnings

    • assume the P/E ratio is below its natural level


Style

  • Construct a portfolio to capture one or more of the characteristics of equity securities

  • Small-capitalization stocks, low-P/E stocks, etc…

  • Value stocks appear to be underpriced

    • price/book or price/earnings

  • Growth stocks enjoy above-average earnings per share increases


Does Style Matter?

  • Choice to align with investment style communicates information to clients

  • Determining style is useful in measuring performance relative to a benchmark

  • Style identification allows an investor to diversify by portfolio

  • Style investing allows control of the total portfolio to be shared between the investment managers and a sponsor


Determining Style

  • Style grid:

    • firm size

    • value-growth characteristics

  • Style analysis

    • constrained least squares


Benchmark Portfolios

  • Sharpe

    • T-bills, intermediate-term government bonds, long-term government bonds, corporate bonds, mortgage related securities, large-capitalization value stocks, large-capitalization growth stocks, medium-capitalization stocks, small-capitalization stocks, non-U.S. bonds, European stocks, and Japanese stocks


Benchmark Portfolios

  • Sharpe

  • BARRA

    • Uses portfolios formed around 13 different security characteristics, including variability in markets, past firm success, firm size, trading activity, growth orientation, earnings-to-price ratio, book-to-price ratio, earnings variability, financial leverage, foreign income, labor intensity, yield, and low capitalization


Benchmark Portfolios

  • Sharpe

  • BARRA

  • Ibbotson Associates

    • simplest style model uses portfolios formed around five different characteristics: cash (T-bills), large-capitalization growth, small-capitalization growth, large-capitalization value, and small-capitalization value


Timing Between Styles

  • Variations in returns among mutual funds are largely attributable to differences in styles

  • Different styles tend to move at different times in the business cycle


Asset Allocation Strategies

  • Integrated asset allocation

    • capital market conditions

    • investor’s objectives and constraints

  • Strategic asset allocation

    • constant-mix

  • Tactical asset allocation

    • mean reversion

    • inherently contrarian

  • Insured asset allocation

    • constant proportion


Asset Allocation Strategies

  • Selecting an allocation method depends on:

    • Perceptions of variability in the client’s objectives and constraints

    • Perceived relationship between the past and future capital market conditions


Using Futures and Options in Equity Portfolio Management

  • Systematic and unsystematic risk of equity portfolios can be modified by using futures and options derivatives

  • Selling futures on the portfolio’s underlying assets reduces the portfolio’s sensitivity to price changes of the asset

  • Options do not have symmetrical impact on returns


The Use of Futures in Asset Allocation

  • Allows changing the portfolio allocation quickly to adjust to forecasts at lower transaction costs

  • Futures can maintain an overall balance in a portfolio

  • Futures can gain exposure to international markets

  • Currency exposure can be managed using currency futures and options


Using Derivatives in Passive Equity Portfolio Management

  • Futures and options can help control cash inflows and outflows from the portfolio

    • Inflows - index contracts allow time to make investments

    • Outflows - large planned withdrawal is made by selling securities, which causes an increase in cash holdings; futures can counterbalance this until the withdrawal

  • Options can be sold to reduce weightings in sectors or individual stocks during rebalancing


Modifying systematic risk

Modifying unsystematic risk

Using Derivatives in Active Equity Portfolio Management


www.russell.com

www.firstquadrant.com

www.wilshire.com

www.fool.com

www.dailystocks.com

The InternetInvestments Online


End of Chapter 17

  • Equity Portfolio Management Strategies


Future topicsChapter 18

  • Bond Fundamentals


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