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IV Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies Ecology-Energy Issues in Latin-America June 16-19, 2004 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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IV Biennial International Workshop Advances in Energy Studies Ecology-Energy Issues in Latin-America June 16-19, 2004. ENERGY and SUSTAINABILITY José Tomaz Vieira Pereira UNICAMP. INTRODUCTION Energy. Energy Ability to promote changes. INTRODUCTION Energy and Value.

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IV Biennial International WorkshopAdvances in Energy StudiesEcology-Energy Issues in Latin-AmericaJune 16-19, 2004

ENERGY and SUSTAINABILITY

José Tomaz Vieira Pereira

UNICAMP


Introduction energy l.jpg

INTRODUCTIONEnergy

  • Energy

    • Ability to promote changes


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INTRODUCTIONEnergy and Value

Common sense about energy and Value

  • Some activities requires more effort (more work) than others.

  • The word ENERGY is frequently used to designate this effort.

  • The more energy is used to do the work more valuable it is.


Aterra como sistema l.jpg

THE EARTT AS A SYSTEM

ATERRA COMO SISTEMA

Look at EARTH from space

To maintain the equilibrium

the energy received must be

transfered back to space.


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Gravitacional

Energy

Nuclear

Energy

Nuclear Fusion

Solar Gravitation

Solar Radiation

Eletro-mag

Energy

Non-renewable Stock

Water Heating and Evaporation

Solar Energy

Hydric

Energy

Moon

Movement

Earth

Rotation

Biomass

Fossil Fuel

Geologic

Time

Photo

synthesis

Rivers and Reservoirs

Nuclear

Decay

*

Light

Elements

Wind Energy

Waterfalls

Tides and

Waves

Chemical Energy

Nuclear Bound

Solar Colector

Fotovoltaic

Cells

Nuclear Fusion

Heavy

Elements

Potencial and Kinetic Energy

Combustion

Eletric Energy

Wind

Turbine

Hydaulic

Turbine

Nuclear Fission

*

Geothermal

Energy

Eletric Generator

Eletric Equipment

Mechanical

Work

Heat

Ocean Heat

Equipments

Thermal Dissipation

Thermal Machines

Thermal Machines


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BASIC SOURCES OF ENERGY

  • SOLAR ENERGY

  • GEOTERMAL ENERGY

  • TIDE ENERGY


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ANNUAL FLUX OF ENERGY


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ENERGY SYSTEM

CONVERTERS CHAIN - MUST FULFILL THREE CONDITIONS

  • quality:

    • adequate to specific needs;

  • place:

    • be where it’s needed;

  • time:

    • ready on time.


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ENERGY SYSTEM

THE INTERDEPENDENCE WITH THREE SPHERES.

  • ECONOMIC

  • SOCIAL

  • ECOLOGICAL

    Must to be considered simultaneously


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TYPES OF ENERGY

  • Work Energy (Hydraulic, Wind, Mechanical, Electrical, etc.)

    • High conversion coefficient for all other forms of energy.

  • Thermal Energy.

    • Low conversion coefficient for work energy


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CONVERTING ENERGY INTO WORK

  • COONVENTERS EFFICIENCY:

    • Human being ~ 20%.

    • Horse ~ 10%.

    • Ox < 10%.

    • Thermal < 40%

    • Hydraulic/Wind < 100%

  • In the absence of exosomatic sources, Slavery is a more rational energy system.


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SOCIAL SYSTEM

NEOLITIC REVOLUTION

  • Fundamental change:

    • Time perception. To seed and wait for harvest at the end of agricultural cycle.

  • NOTE. Time perception is still a central problem for the human specie.

  • We have an immense difficulty to think, plan and do in long term.


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THE SPREAD OF HUMANS


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INDEPENDENT CENTERS OF CIVILIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT


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ECONOMIC SYSTEM

THE ROMAN EMPIRE

  • The paths of Roman power:

    • water and roads.

    • Slavery in a scale ever reached .

    • In the beginning of Christian era:

      • 3 millions of slaves.

      • 4 millions of freedom mans

  • The slavery represented a non incentive to development of machines powered by other energy sources than humans.


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THE CHINESE MODEL

  • Endogenous human reproduction without slaves.

  • Integration between energy and farm work.

  • Great agricultural productivity:

    • Highly energetic cereal grains;

    • The men was the main source of mechanical energy.

    • Complemented by animals em water mills.


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THE CHINESE MODEL

  • High productivity in agriculture:

    • 20 a 30 t/ha.

    • Medieval Europe 3 a 4 t/ha.

  • Great energetic ingenuity, mainly in hydraulic.

  • Canals, Reservoirs, ditches.

    • Ecluse (sec I A.C.)

    • Han Kon Canal(sec. V AD) the most ancient of the world.

    • Grand Canal - 1794 Km length.

      • Started 605

      • Finished 1327


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THE MEDIEVAL EUROPE

  • IX Century- improvement in food productivity and quality. Crop rotation.

  • XI and XV Centuries- Evolution of three big sources of energy

    • water, wind and wood.

  • Water mills and forges:

    • Symbols of technical changes – efficiencies between 20% and 70%.

    • Replacement of the human work (10 to 20 men).

    • Reinforcement of the oppressive social structure of the Feudal Lords


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Progresso-Modernização-Industrialização

  • Alto consumo de energia fóssil


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CO2 EMISSIONS


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WORLD ENERGY COMSUMPTION


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WORLD - RENEWABLE AND NON RENEWVABLE


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World Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel Type1970-2025

Share of

World

Total

Source: EIA, International Energy Outlook 2004


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ONE POINT TO CONSIDER

  • Our immense difficulty with long term thinking

  • As we saw the Extinction of big mammals before domestication

  • Philip Ferside exemple (Amazon Forest)

  • Egydio Schwade exemple

  • The CAPIVARA sindrome


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LAKE


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CAPIVARACAPYBARA


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TREE damaged by Capybara


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SUCUPIRAEgydio SchwadePresidente Figueiredo - AM


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WHAT TO DO?

  • May be what we have done.

  • Organizing Workshops

  • Sharing our ideas, concepts, perceptions

  • Trying to influence our Politicians and Governors

  • Working hard to demonstrate the correctness of our point of view.

  • BUT CERTAINLY THIS ISN’T ENOUGH


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Bibliography

  • Environmental Accounting - Emergy and Environmental Decision Making - Howard T. Odum - John Wiley & Sons - 1996

  • Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics - Michael J. Moran & Howard N. Shapiro - John Wiley & Sons – 1992

  • In the Servitude of the Power - Energy and Civilization through the Ages -Jean-Claude Debeir, Jean-Paul Deléage and Daniel Emery ZED BOOKS- 1991

  • Guns, Germs and Steel - Jared Diamond - W.W.Norton & Company - 1997


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