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The Integument. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM. Epidermis. I. Two Types A. Invertebrate type - epidermis plus basement membrane - protochordates B. Vertebrate type complex dermis + epidermis Trends - thin in anamniotes thick in amniotes. Basement Membrane. Epidermis. Dermis. Leptoid Scale.

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The Integument

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The Integument

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I. Two TypesA. Invertebrate type - epidermis plus basement membrane - protochordatesB. Vertebrate type complex dermis + epidermisTrends -

thin in anamniotes

thick in amniotes

Basement Membrane



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Leptoid Scale

Ganoid Scale

Placoid Scale

Cycloid Scale

Ctenoid Scale


II. Dermal Derivatives

A. Dermal armor1.Dermal bone - Ostracoderms2. Cosmoid scale of primitive fishes gave rise to dermocranium and dermal girdles

Cosmoid Scale

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Fish Scales

3.Placoid scale of chondrichthyes

Shark placoid scales

and teeth

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4.Ganoid scales of gar and sturgeons

contain the protein ganoin

5. Leptoid scale - loss of ganoinand gave rise to the cycloid

scale & ctenoid scale (with ctenii)

Cycloid scales

Ctenoid scales

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Other Dermal Derivatives

6. Osteoderms - crocodilia

7. Secondary dermal armor - armadillo shell

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B. Scale derivatives1. Branchiostegal rays - rods of bone

supporting the ventral pharyngeal wall in fish

2. Bony plates of sturgeons

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Summary of Dermal Derivatives

C.Dermal armor derivatives1. Dermocranium2. Teeth 3.Dermal girdle 4.Body scales 5. Osteoderms - crocodilians and some lizards6.Specialized dermal boney shells (dermal bone of armadillo)

Turtles -

Insert Fig. 6.36

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and Finally

D. Chromatophores - derived from embryonic nervous system1. Typesa. melanophores - brown to black pigments

b. lipophores & xanthophores - yellowerythrophores - redc. guanophores - whited. iridocytes - contain crystalsAll controlled by hormones




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In most vertebrates, MSH is produced by an intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland. Its secretion causes a dramatic darkening of the skin of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles. The darkening occurs as granules of melanin spread through the branches of specialized melanocytes called melanophores.

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III. Epidermal Derivatives

A.Epidermal seal cuticle - nonliving layer in protochordates, lung fishes, and larval amphibiansmucoid coat - mucous - fish, amphibians

keratin - in all, but more pronounced in terrestrial vertebratesSquamous cytoplasm granules form keratin that is first prevalent in reptiles and shed - ecdysis

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B. Epidermal scales - reptiles, birds, mammals

Keratin - soon to be shed

New Kertin layer

Mitotic Layer of epidermis


Reptilian scales

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C. Claws and Nails

Unguis -

keratinized nail

Subunguis -

living tissue that

generates ungus


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E. Hooves



Pad or cuneus


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F. Glands

1. Ancestral serous glands - precursor to the glands below

2. Poison glands – amphibians & frog licking

3. Wax glands - birds mammals

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4. Tubular glands - mammals

5.Sweat and

Mammary glands

6.Modern serous glands - Holocrine - cells shed and degenerate into fluidscent glands (reptiles)mucous glandssebaceous gland - oil scent glands of mammalsuroptygial gland - oil gland on tail of birds

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Develops from epidermis and

protrudes or grows into the dermis

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Evolution of Hair

  • No fossil evidence of origin of hair

  • Possibly arose from sensory structures of reptiles called prototrichs

Reptilian scales with

triads of prototrichs

Hairs of mammals arranged in triads


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2. Types a.Down - fluffyb.Filoplumes - hairlike c. Contour

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c. Contour feathers

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Velvet (not

shed) with

boney core

Bone covered

by velvet that is shed


Giraffe horn




with boney




Rhino horn

I. HornsJ. Antlers

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Bone covered with keratin

Large horn in males, small spike in females

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K. Baleen - keratinized plates for

filtering food in balleen whales

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