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Integumentary System. Protection & support Sensory Respiratory (amphibians) Thermoregulation Dissipate heat (blood vessels, sweat) Conserve heat (blood vessels, hair, feathers). Locomotion Water balance Protective coloring, behavior Vitamin D synthesis. Epidermis. Ectodermal derivative

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integumentary system
Integumentary System
  • Protection & support
  • Sensory
  • Respiratory (amphibians)
  • Thermoregulation
    • Dissipate heat (blood vessels, sweat)
    • Conserve heat (blood vessels, hair, feathers)
slide2
Locomotion
  • Water balance
  • Protective coloring, behavior
  • Vitamin D synthesis
epidermis
Epidermis
  • Ectodermal derivative
  • nonvascular
epidermis5
Epidermis
  • Stratum germinativum
    • Deeper layer
    • Mitosis
epidermis6
Epidermis
  • Superficial layer
    • Mucus cells (amphibians, fish)
    • Proteinaceous cells/granular glands
      • Slime, poisons, enamels, photophores, pheromones
      • Keratin (cornified, horny, stratum corneum) – Tetrapod feature
epidermis7
Epidermis
  • Glands are epidermal in origin
dermis
Dermis
  • Dermatome (mesoderm) in origin
  • Lateral/ventral mesoderm
  • Neural crest cells for pigment
dermis11
Dermis
  • Collagen for strength
  • Mucopolysaccharides
  • Elastic fibers
  • Smooth muscle
  • Blood and lymph vessels
  • Follicles and bases of gland
dermis12
Dermis
  • Dermis has ancient potential in forming bone as in this ostracoderm!
hard or mineralized tissues
Hard or Mineralized Tissues
  • Enamel
  • Dentin
  • Bone
    • Lamellar = Compact
    • Spongy
hard tissues
Hard tissues
  • Bone is very primitive dating back to the ostracoderms
dermis17
Dermis
  • Chromatophores
    • Dermal in origin
    • From neural crest cells
    • Homeotherms have melanophores & pigment is INJECTED into epidermis
    • Poikilotherms – the pigment stays in the dermis
dermis chromatophores
Dermis - Chromatophores
  • Iridophores – silvery & iridescent
  • Xanthophores – yellow
  • Erythrophores - red
fish skin epidermis
Fish Skin - Epidermis
  • Cyclostomes – thin with unicellular mucus glands
  • Jawed fish – unicellular mucus glands, no keratin!, photophores in some
fish dermis
Fish Dermis
  • Cyclostomes – no scales
  • Ostracoderms & Placoderms
    • Armor shields
ostracoderm armor
Ostracoderm Armor
  • Lamellar bone
  • Spongy bone
  • Dentin(e)
  • Enamel
armor shield
Armor Shield
  • Denticle – Elevations capped with enamel
  • Protection
  • Mineral reservoir
fish dermis25
Fish Dermis
  • Cosmoid scales
  • Modified dentin layer called Cosmine
  • Extinct sarcopterygians
fish dermis28
Fish Dermis
  • Ganoid scales
  • Modified thick enamel layer called ganoine
  • Found in gars
fish dermis33
Fish Dermis
  • Placoid scales
  • Chondrichthyes
  • Denticle points reduce friction
  • Ancestor to teeth
placoid scales
Placoid Scales

Dentin

Pulp

Pulp cavity

Epidermis

fish dermis38
Fish Dermis
  • Modern scales
  • Acellular
  • Thin lamellar bone only
  • Teleosts and modern sarcopterygians
  • Annual rings allows aging of fish
key points
Key Points
  • Give two major characteristics of fish skin.
amphibians
Amphibians
  • No scales
  • Multicellular glands (mucus)
  • Stratum corneum – keratin – tetrapod feature
amphibian epidermis
Amphibian Epidermis
  • Thin
  • Stratum corneum with keratin
  • Mucus and granular glands
integument
Integument

Epidermis

Mucus gland

Poison gland

Dermis

amphibian dermis
Amphibian Dermis
  • Firmly attached
  • May have chromatophores
  • (Caecilians may have bony dermal scales)
key points49
Key Points
  • Give 2 major characteristics of amphibian skin
reptile skin
Reptile Skin
  • THICK stratum corneum
  • Epidermal scales in all
  • Horny (keratinized)surface structures
  • Very few glands, dry skin
  • Some have bony dermal scales or plates
scales
Scales

Scale

Cornified

layer

Epidermis

Dermis

Chromatophores

reptile epidermis
Reptile epidermis
  • Stratum corneum with keratin
  • Scales
  • Scutes
  • No mucus glands
  • Some have granular/scent glands, but rare
scales53
Scales

Scale

Cornified

layer

Epidermis

Dermis

Chromatophores

reptile dermis
Reptile Dermis
  • Thin
  • Osteoderms e.g. crocodile
  • Turtle shell
    • Carapace
    • Plastron
  • Gastralia
    • Abdominal “ribs” but dermal scale splints in abdomen of crocodiles
key points64
Key Points
  • Give 2 major characteristics of reptile skin
bird skin66
Bird Skin
  • Thin skin, only thick at foot and beak
  • Loose skin
  • FEATHERS
  • Evolution of feathers
bird epidermis
Bird Epidermis
  • Thin
  • Horny scales at face, legs, feet
  • Beak
  • Uropygial glands at rump, esp. in aquatic birds
bird epiderms feathers
Bird Epiderms - Feathers

Contour feathers

contour feathers
Contour feathers
  • Shaft
    • Calamus = Quill
    • Rachis – vane-bearing part
  • Vane
    • Barb
    • Barbule
    • Hooklet
feathers74
Feathers

Vane

Shaft

Quill

feather structure
Feather structure

Shaft

Barb

Barbule

Hooklets

bird feathers
Bird feathers
  • Preening
  • Rehooks hooklets
bird feathers77
Bird feathers
  • Down Feathers
  • MAY be ancestral feather
  • Short calamus
  • No hooklets
  • insulation
feathers78
Feathers
  • Contour feathers
  • Down feathers
  • Filoplumes
  • Bristles
bird feathers79
Bird feathers
  • Feather follicle – ectoderm, but activated by vascular mesoderm
  • Molt is shedding old and growing new feathers
bird dermis
Bird Dermis
  • Thin
  • Arrector pullorum muscle
  • Some males have a spur of dermal bone near feet
mammal skin84
Mammal skin
  • Hair
  • Glands – a variety
  • Highly keratinized stratified cornified epidermis
  • Thick dermis
mammal epidermis
Mammal Epidermis
  • Stratum germinativum for mitosis
  • Stratum granulosum (one or more layers)
  • Stratum corneum
stratum corneum derivatives
Stratum corneum derivatives
  • Horny scales as in beaver tail
  • Claws, hooves, nails, armadillo shell
stratum corneum derivatives horns
Stratum corneum derivatives - horns
  • True horns
  • Dermal bony core
  • Horny cover
  • Not shed
  • Ruminants (antelope, cattle)
stratum corneum derivatives horns98
Stratum corneum derivatives - horns
  • Antlers & giraffe horns
  • Bone
  • Velvet
  • Antlers (deer, elk, moose) shed but not giraffe horns
mammal epidermis104
Mammal Epidermis
  • Glands
  • Sweat
  • Sebaceous
  • Scent
  • Mammary
integument105
Integument

Sweat

pore

Sebaceous

gland

Apocrine sweat

gland

Erector

muscle

Eccrine sweat

gland

Follicle

mammal epidermis107
Mammal Epidermis
  • Hairs
  • Origin
  • Shaft
    • Cortex with cuticle
    • Medulla
mammal epidermis hair
Mammal Epidermis - hair
  • Root of hair
    • Follicle undergoes mitosis
    • Bulb is widened area in dermis providing nourishment for growing hair
  • Arrector pili muscle
types of hairs
Types of hairs
  • Guard hairs
types of hair113
Types of hair
  • Vibrissae
mammal dermis
Mammal Dermis
  • Very thick
  • Follicles
  • Arrectors
  • CT
  • Blood vessels
  • Gland bases
  • Nerve endings
key points118
Key Points
  • Give one major characteristic of bird skin
  • Give one major characteristic of mammal skin
epidermal or dermal
Epidermal or Dermal?
  • Sweat gland
  • Hair
  • Fish scale
  • Reptile scale
  • Oil gland
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