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Integumentary System. Protection & support Sensory Respiratory (amphibians) Thermoregulation Dissipate heat (blood vessels, sweat) Conserve heat (blood vessels, hair, feathers). Locomotion Water balance Protective coloring, behavior Vitamin D synthesis. Epidermis. Ectodermal derivative

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Integumentary System

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Integumentary system l.jpg

Integumentary System

  • Protection & support

  • Sensory

  • Respiratory (amphibians)

  • Thermoregulation

    • Dissipate heat (blood vessels, sweat)

    • Conserve heat (blood vessels, hair, feathers)


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  • Locomotion

  • Water balance

  • Protective coloring, behavior

  • Vitamin D synthesis


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Epidermis

  • Ectodermal derivative

  • nonvascular


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Epidermis

  • Stratum germinativum

    • Deeper layer

    • Mitosis


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Epidermis

  • Superficial layer

    • Mucus cells (amphibians, fish)

    • Proteinaceous cells/granular glands

      • Slime, poisons, enamels, photophores, pheromones

      • Keratin (cornified, horny, stratum corneum) – Tetrapod feature


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Epidermis

  • Glands are epidermal in origin


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Dermis

  • Dermatome (mesoderm) in origin

  • Lateral/ventral mesoderm

  • Neural crest cells for pigment


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Dermis

  • Collagen for strength

  • Mucopolysaccharides

  • Elastic fibers

  • Smooth muscle

  • Blood and lymph vessels

  • Follicles and bases of gland


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Dermis

  • Dermis has ancient potential in forming bone as in this ostracoderm!


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Hard or Mineralized Tissues

  • Enamel

  • Dentin

  • Bone

    • Lamellar = Compact

    • Spongy


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Hard tissues

  • Bone is very primitive dating back to the ostracoderms


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Dermis

  • Chromatophores

    • Dermal in origin

    • From neural crest cells

    • Homeotherms have melanophores & pigment is INJECTED into epidermis

    • Poikilotherms – the pigment stays in the dermis


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Dermis - Chromatophores

  • Iridophores – silvery & iridescent

  • Xanthophores – yellow

  • Erythrophores - red


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Fish Skin - Epidermis

  • Cyclostomes – thin with unicellular mucus glands

  • Jawed fish – unicellular mucus glands, no keratin!, photophores in some


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Fish Dermis

  • Cyclostomes – no scales

  • Ostracoderms & Placoderms

    • Armor shields


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Ostracoderm Armor

  • Lamellar bone

  • Spongy bone

  • Dentin(e)

  • Enamel


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Armor Shield

  • Denticle – Elevations capped with enamel

  • Protection

  • Mineral reservoir


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Fish Dermis

  • Cosmoid scales

  • Modified dentin layer called Cosmine

  • Extinct sarcopterygians


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Fish Dermis

  • Ganoid scales

  • Modified thick enamel layer called ganoine

  • Found in gars


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Ganoid scale


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Fish Dermis

  • Placoid scales

  • Chondrichthyes

  • Denticle points reduce friction

  • Ancestor to teeth


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Placoid Scales

Dentin

Pulp

Pulp cavity

Epidermis


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Fish Dermis

  • Modern scales

  • Acellular

  • Thin lamellar bone only

  • Teleosts and modern sarcopterygians

  • Annual rings allows aging of fish


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Cycloid & Ctenoid Scales


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Cycloid scale


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Ctenoid scale


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Key Points

  • Give two major characteristics of fish skin.


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Amphibians

  • No scales

  • Multicellular glands (mucus)

  • Stratum corneum – keratin – tetrapod feature


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Amphibian Epidermis

  • Thin

  • Stratum corneum with keratin

  • Mucus and granular glands


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Integument

Epidermis

Mucus gland

Poison gland

Dermis


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Amphibian Dermis

  • Firmly attached

  • May have chromatophores

  • (Caecilians may have bony dermal scales)


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Key Points

  • Give 2 major characteristics of amphibian skin


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Reptile Skin

  • THICK stratum corneum

  • Epidermal scales in all

  • Horny (keratinized)surface structures

  • Very few glands, dry skin

  • Some have bony dermal scales or plates


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Scales

Scale

Cornified

layer

Epidermis

Dermis

Chromatophores


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Reptile epidermis

  • Stratum corneum with keratin

  • Scales

  • Scutes

  • No mucus glands

  • Some have granular/scent glands, but rare


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Scales

Scale

Cornified

layer

Epidermis

Dermis

Chromatophores


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Reptile Dermis

  • Thin

  • Osteoderms e.g. crocodile

  • Turtle shell

    • Carapace

    • Plastron

  • Gastralia

    • Abdominal “ribs” but dermal scale splints in abdomen of crocodiles


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Key Points

  • Give 2 major characteristics of reptile skin


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Bird Skin


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Bird Skin

  • Thin skin, only thick at foot and beak

  • Loose skin

  • FEATHERS

  • Evolution of feathers


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Bird Epidermis

  • Thin

  • Horny scales at face, legs, feet

  • Beak

  • Uropygial glands at rump, esp. in aquatic birds


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Bird Epiderms - Feathers

Contour feathers


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Feathers


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Contour feathers

  • Shaft

    • Calamus = Quill

    • Rachis – vane-bearing part

  • Vane

    • Barb

    • Barbule

    • Hooklet


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Feathers

Vane

Shaft

Quill


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Feather structure

Shaft

Barb

Barbule

Hooklets


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Bird feathers

  • Preening

  • Rehooks hooklets


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Bird feathers

  • Down Feathers

  • MAY be ancestral feather

  • Short calamus

  • No hooklets

  • insulation


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Feathers

  • Contour feathers

  • Down feathers

  • Filoplumes

  • Bristles


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Bird feathers

  • Feather follicle – ectoderm, but activated by vascular mesoderm

  • Molt is shedding old and growing new feathers


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Bird Dermis

  • Thin

  • Arrector pullorum muscle

  • Some males have a spur of dermal bone near feet


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Mammal Skin


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Mammal skin

  • Hair

  • Glands – a variety

  • Highly keratinized stratified cornified epidermis

  • Thick dermis


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Mammal Epidermis

  • Stratum germinativum for mitosis

  • Stratum granulosum (one or more layers)

  • Stratum corneum


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Stratum corneum derivatives

  • Horny scales as in beaver tail

  • Claws, hooves, nails, armadillo shell


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Stratum corneum derivatives - horns

  • True horns

  • Dermal bony core

  • Horny cover

  • Not shed

  • Ruminants (antelope, cattle)


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Stratum corneum derivatives - horns

  • Hair horns

  • Rhinoceros


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Stratum corneum derivatives - horns

  • Antlers & giraffe horns

  • Bone

  • Velvet

  • Antlers (deer, elk, moose) shed but not giraffe horns


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Mammal Epidermis

  • Glands

  • Sweat

  • Sebaceous

  • Scent

  • Mammary


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Integument

Sweat

pore

Sebaceous

gland

Apocrine sweat

gland

Erector

muscle

Eccrine sweat

gland

Follicle


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Mammal Epidermis

  • Hairs

  • Origin

  • Shaft

    • Cortex with cuticle

    • Medulla


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Mammal Epidermis - hair

  • Root of hair

    • Follicle undergoes mitosis

    • Bulb is widened area in dermis providing nourishment for growing hair

  • Arrector pili muscle


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Types of hairs

  • Guard hairs


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Types of hair

  • Underfur


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Types of hair

  • Vibrissae


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Types of hair

  • Quills


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Mammal Dermis

  • Very thick

  • Follicles

  • Arrectors

  • CT

  • Blood vessels

  • Gland bases

  • Nerve endings


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Key Points

  • Give one major characteristic of bird skin

  • Give one major characteristic of mammal skin


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Epidermal or Dermal?

  • Sweat gland

  • Hair

  • Fish scale

  • Reptile scale

  • Oil gland


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