State territory level judge seminar
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STATE/TERRITORY LEVEL JUDGE SEMINAR. Purpose. The purpose of today’s session is to: prepare you to become a qualified State level judge, and instil you with the knowledge and understanding of the rules to provide the athletes with fair and consistent rulings. Agenda. BA structure

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State territory level judge seminar l.jpg


Purpose l.jpg

  • The purpose of today’s session is to:

  • prepare you to become a qualified State level judge, and

  • instil you with the knowledge and understanding of the rules to provide the athletes with fair and consistent rulings.

Agenda l.jpg

BA structure








Hints for judges

Awarding of points/Scoring blows





Drawing of bouts

Age divisions

Female boxing

Weight divisions


Judge analysis

Computer scoring

Handheld scoring


Set-up of computer scoring

Practical demonstrations

Process for advancement

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Boxing Australia structure

COUNCIL1 delegate per state & territory

BOARD5 elected directors






Wayne Rose (Chair)

Max Sulejmani (Sec)



Ann Tindal

Steve Warn

Tomis Papak

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  • The expectations of the spectators, competitors and coaches are that the Referees and Judges are totally impartial. Factors that affect R&Js are the four ‘Fs”; that is they are fit, fair, firm and friendly. Judging is only science; refereeing is science as well as art.

Fit so you may easily move around the ring with confidence and in touch with the athletes.





Normal sightNot colour blindPerson with a disabilityFitness above average

Expectations cont l.jpg
Expectations cont’

Fair so that it is openly apparent there is no favouritism


Fair mindedInterpretation of rulesEnforcing of rulesConsistency

Normally R&J are fair but may be affected by the following factors:




Reputation of boxer & countryFriendsTeam officials

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Expectations cont’

Firm so as coaches and boxers can be confident in our actions

Friendly so our sport may flourish and there is all round respect



Firm application of rulesFirm decisionsFirm actionFirm minded

Friendly in characterSpeak one of AIBA languages(English, French, Russian, Arabic)Sociable





Objectives l.jpg

The following is a comparison of objectives to make you better understand the role we play and why we have to overcome distractions or disappointments following unpopular decisions.

  • The objective of an athlete or coach is to:

  • win the bout [at all cost].

  • Our objective as officials is to:

  • ensure we arrive at the correct decision within the boundaries of the rules.

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Boxers dress

  • Clothing

  • Light boots or shoes without spikes or heals, socks, shorts not to exceed knee length, and a red or blue vest matching their corner covering the chest and back.

  • Where the vest and shorts are the same colour, the belt line must be clearly indicated.

  • A soft knee brace is acceptable; no metal or hard plastic.

  • Gum shields

  • Shall be worn and shall be form fitted. Where the gum shield is knocked out the referee shall take the boxer to their corner, have it washed and refitted. While this is being done the seconds are not to talk to the boxer. If the gum shield falls out a third time for any reason the boxer shall be warned and further warned if it happens again.

  • Red coloured gum shields are forbidden

  • Cup/ breast protectors

  • A cup protector shall be worn by male boxers, a jock strap may be worn in addition. Females shall wear a breast protector.

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Boxers dress cont’

  • Head guards

  • Boxers shall wear conforming head guards approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. Head guards should be of the same colour as their corner; in international bouts it is mandatory. National champs only AIBA approved head guards shall be used (Adidas, Everlast, Top Ten or Green Hill are approved).

  • The head guard will be fitted once in the ring and removed at the bout conclusion and before the decision.

  • Prohibited objects

  • No other objects may be worn during the bout. No type of body piercing and no body accessories shall be worn during the bout.

  • The use of rubbing liniment or products likely to be harmful or objectionable to an opponent, on the face, arms or any part of the body is forbidden. However, grease or vaseline rubbed into the forehead and eyebrows before a contest is allowable to prevent injury.

  • Dress infractions

  • A referee shall exclude from competition a boxer that does not wear a head guard, a cup-protector, a breast protector (females), and gumshield. Where a boxer’s glove or dress becomes undone during boxing the referee shall stop the contest and have it attended to.

Gloves l.jpg

  • Competitors shall wear red or blue gloves as per the respective boxer’s corner and which are approved by AIBA, BAI or the state. At national champs only Adidas, Everlast or Top Ten are approved. Boxers are not allowed to wear their own gloves.

  • The gloves shall weigh 10oz of which the leather portion shall not weigh more than half of the total weight and the padding not less than half the total weight. The regular hitting surface must be marked on the gloves with a clearly discernible colour. The padding of the gloves shall not be displaced or broken. Only clean and serviceable gloves shall be used.

  • All gloves and bandages shall be fitted under the supervision of two knowledgeable officials appointed for that purpose.

Bandages l.jpg

  • A bandage between 2.5m and 4.5m and 5.7cm wide on each hand will be used. No other kind of bandage may be used.

  • The use of any kind of tapes, rubber or adhesive plaster, as bandages, is strictly forbidden. However, a single strip of adhesive 3” (7.6cm) long and between 1” (2.5cm) and 2” (5cm) wide, may be used at the upper wrist to secure the bandage.

  • At national champs only AIBA bandages will be used.

  • Bandages shall be checked by the referee at the end of the bout.

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The judge

  • Attire:

  • Judges shall officiate in white clothing and black bow-tie.

  • Participation:

  • 5 judges will officiate at championship and selection events.

  • In other events 3 judges must be used.

  • A referee will not judge.

  • Duties:

  • The Judges’ primary duty is to independently and without bias judge the bout according to the rules.

  • Shall use the computer scoring system for judging, or if unavailable a Handheld boxing points calculator or similar; 20:19 scoring is forbidden.

  • May not speak to anyone during a bout or give any sign to a contestant or judge.

  • At end of a round, may bring to the referee’s attention anything the referee may not have noticed (eg loose ropes, noisy cornermen).

  • May not leave seat until the decision is announced.

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Referees and Judges

  • This rule deals with the generics of the role.

  • Only AIBA officials shall officiate during Olympic, Worlds, AIBA Challenge matches, Oceania, and other internationals. Referees shall not judge.

  • 5 judges shall be seated at ringside and separate from the public. If 5 is unavailable 3 may be used but not in major AIBA tournaments.

  • Only officials qualified and approved shall be used.

  • Officials acting as referees or judges shall not act as a manager, trainer or second during the same tournament.

  • An official may be suspended if they fail to enforce the rules or their marking or scoring is considered unsatisfactory.

  • If the referee is incapacitated during the contest the timekeeper shall ring the bell to stop the bout and the next available referee will resume the bout.

  • The use of the computer scoring is compulsory for all AIBA tournaments.

  • The 20-point scoring system is forbidden. Judges must score with the computer scoring, the Handheld boxing points calculator or similar.

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Ring positions















Computer operator

Jury Chair










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Hints for judges

  • Direct your gaze on a point midway between the two boxers; this will enable you to see and note the actions of each boxer. Avoid any inclination to watch a particular boxer, who by reason of their style or personality may attract more attention than their opponent.

  • Never rely on past performance, reputations or titles earned by a particular athlete.

  • A boxer who swings his/her blows is liable to contact the target area with the inside of the glove. Considerable proportions of swinging blows do not contact with the knuckle part of the closed glove, and are therefore foul blows, for which the judge must not award points.

  • A guide as to the correctness of a swinging blow is whether a boxer turns the glove when delivering the blow. Unless this occurs the blow will almost certainly be struck with the inside of the glove.

  • Infighting may be described as the exchange of several blows when the boxers are close together. The advantage is usually with the boxer whom has the inside position because she/he can strike straight speedy blows whilst their arms protect them.

  • Don’t give credit for blows delivered whilst the boxer is infringing the rules.

  • Don’t be influenced by the reputation of the boxer; the best champion is liable to be beaten. Award your points for the boxing you see, not for what a boxer can do, or has done on other occasions.

  • Don’t be influenced by the crowd or by the corners.

  • Don’t engage in conversation or other distractions during the contest, but give your undivided attention to the competing boxers, however, be prepared to advise the referee if she/he seeks your advice.

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Awarding of points

Scoring Blow

A scoring blow is one, which without being blocked or guarded, lands with the knuckle part of the closed glove of either hand on any part of the front or sides of the head or body above the belt, without infringing the rules.

A non-scoring blow is one which infringes the rules, or is struck with the side or back or inside of the glove, or with the open glove, or any part other than the knuckle part of the closed glove; or which lands on the arms; or which merely connects, without the weight of the body or shoulder.

Fouls l.jpg

  • Hitting below the belt, holding, tripping, kicking, and butting with foot or knee.

  • Hits or blows with head, shoulder, forearm, elbow, throttling of the opponent, pressing with arm or elbow in opponent’s face, pressing the head of the opponent back over the ropes.

  • Hitting with open glove, the inside of the glove, wrist or side of the hand.

  • Hits landing on the back of the opponent, and especially any blow on the back of the neck or head and kidney punch.

  • Pivot blows.

  • Attack whilst holding the ropes or making any unfair use of the ropes.

  • Lying on, wrestling and throwing in the clinch.

  • An attack on an opponent who is down or who is in the act of rising.

  • Holding.

  • Holding and hitting or pulling and hitting.

  • Holding, or locking of the opponent’s arm or head, or pushing an arm underneath the arm of an opponent.

  • Ducking below the belt of the opponent in a manner dangerous to an opponent.

  • Completely passive defence by double cover and intentionally falling or turning the back to avoid a blow.

  • Useless, aggressive, or offensive utterances during a round.

  • Not stepping back when ordered to break.

  • Attempting to strike an opponent immediately after the referee has ordered “break” and before stepping back.

  • Assaulting or behaving in an aggressive manner towards a referee at any time.

  • Spitting out the gumshield.

  • Keeping the advanced hand straight in order to obstruct the opponent’s vision.

  • If a referee has any reason to believe a foul has been committed which is unseen, the ref may consult the judges.

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Cautions and warnings

  • A caution is advice or admonishment for less serious infringements. 3 cautions for the same type of foul shall require a warning to be given. A warning is given where a boxer breaks the rules but does not warrant disqualification.

  • A minor infringement that is not advantageous to the offender does not merit a warning. A caution therefore should be sufficient. Warnings are for dangerous infringements, harm fouls or persistent offences.

  • Cautions and warnings must be given clearly in such a way that the boxer understands the offence and that you are "speaking" to him/her with your signal. Demonstrate by imitating the nature of the infringements.

  • To issue a "warning" the referee will stop the bout by giving the command "stop". Send the victim boxer to the neutral corner, give warning (indicate this with the thumb), clearly showing infringement to boxer, then indicate to each judge in order from No 1 to No 5 with the demonstrating thumb. He will demonstrate again to the boxer the infringement and indicate with thumb that warning has been given, and then order BOX.

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Cautions and warnings cont’

  • At the "third" warning, the referee must disqualify the offender. Do NOT take a disqualified boxer to his/her corner and enter into any discussion with the boxer or the seconds to justify your decision.

  • Judges’ responsibility

  • Where a judge agrees with a warning the judge will press the ‘warning’ button, whereas if a judge does not agree with the warning he/she simply does nor press any buttons. Where a judge is unsighted they shall agree with the referee.

  • Where a judge sees a foul where the referee was possibly obstructed or failed to respond, the judge may penalise the boxer by pressing the ‘warning’ button. This will be indicated by a ‘J’ on the bout printout and will increase the judge’s individual score by 2 blows.

  • Boxer down from a foul

  • Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall be warned, and the victim boxer shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee. Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree with the referee.

Decisions l.jpg

  • Win on points.

  • Win by retirement.

  • Win by RSC:

  • Outclassed (OC).

  • Compulsory count limit (CCL).

  • Injury

  • Win by disqualification.

  • Win by knockout.

  • Win by RSCH (referee stops contest – head injury).

  • Walkover.

  • No contest.

  • Draw.

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The timekeeper

  • The primary duty of the timekeeper is to regulate the number, duration and intervals between the rounds.

  • The intervals between rounds are one full minute (60 seconds) in duration.

  • Five seconds before the start of each round, the timekeeper shall signal “seconds out” by use of a whistle, similar device or by informing the announcer to announce “seconds out”.

  • The timekeeper shall commence and end each round by striking the gong, bell, buzzer or horn, etc.

  • The Timekeeper shall announce the number of each round prior to the start of the round.

  • The timekeeper shall regulate all periods of time and counts by a watch or clock.

  • Stops of the contest for warnings, cautions, bringing the dress or equipment into order, or for any other reason are NOTincluded in the two minutes, whereas a count IS included in the two minutes. A full one-minute rest shall be given between rounds. No additional round(s) may be given.

  • In the event of a knockdown, the timekeeper shall:

  • immediately start the count by raising his/her hand

  • regulate the passing seconds with movement of the hand in a visual position for the referee’s direction

  • begin the count from “one” to ten with intervals of one second; and

  • resume the clock; as any count is part of the duration of the round.

  • If, at the end of the round, a boxer is ‘down’ and the referee is in the course of counting, the gong or bell will not be sounded until the referee has given the command ‘box’ indicating the continuation of the round.

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Drawing of bouts

  • Purpose

  • The draw will take place following the weigh-in and 3 hrs before the first bout of the first session. To reduce the number of boxers in the first series down to 2, 4, 8, etc boxers in the second series.

  • To determine the order of competition.

Where there is 5 boxers there will be 1 bout, 3 byes as such:

Where there is 8 boxers there will be 4 bouts, 0 byes as such:



Bout 1


Bout 5

Bout 2



Bout 2


Bout 4

Bout 7



Bout 3


Bout 3

Bout 6



Bout 1

Bout 4



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Age limits

  • The boxer’s age is determined by using their age of birth.

  • At non-championship bouts boxers under 17 years are not permitted to compete against a boxer who is 2 calendar years or more older.

  • Where a boxer under 17 years competes against a boxer aged over 17 years the under 17 rules apply. Accordingly, where boundaries are crossed the lower age group always applies.

  • Australian states vary in their age restrictions for boxers to compete. Currently, many states within Australia allow boxers to compete from age 10 years. Due to Government restrictions, boxers in some states can only start competition from age 12 or 14 years.

  • Divisions within Australia

    • U11 – 10 years

    • U13 – 11 or 12 years.

    • U15 – 13 or 14 years

    • Junior – 15 or 16 years.

    • Youth – 17 or 18 years.

    • Elite – 17 years and 34 years.

    • Masters – 35 years and over (unlimited)

  • Australian championship ages at the first weigh-in

    • Junior – 15 years and 16 years (includes female).

    • Youth – 17 years and 18 years (includes female).

    • Elite Male and Female – 17 years and 34 years.

Rounds l.jpg

  • Under 15 yrs:

    • Boys and girls – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.

    • Novice – 3 x 1 min rounds.

  • Junior:

    • Boys and girls – 3 x 2 min rounds.

    • Novice – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.

  • Youth:

    • Male – 4 x 2 min rounds.

    • Female – 3 x 2 min rounds.

    • Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.

  • Elite:

    • Male – 3 x 3 min rounds.

    • Female – 4 x 2 min rounds.

    • Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.

  • Masters:

    • Male and female – 3 x 2 min rounds.

  • Stopping the contest for warnings, cautions, fixing the dress, fixing equipment, or for any other reason (other than a count), is not included in the duration of the round.

  • A full one-minute rest period shall be given between rounds.

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Computer scoring

  • In 1990, AIBA made computerised scoring mandatory for all international tournaments, and BA rules require computerised scoring also for all national competitions in Australia.

  • The main purpose of computerised scoring is to ensure fair, objective and purely technical decisions for the boxers. Other advantages are: Judges are relieved of the tedious calculations to determine points and can concentrate on recognising and recording scoring blows only. Trace recording of all judges actions at every second of the bout are made, and faster, more accurate flow of information and less delay between bouts occurs.

  • All Judges’ reactions are immediately displayed on the screen that is situated in front of the jury. In this manner the jury is able to monitor the effectiveness of each Judge. All data that is collected during the bout is synchronised with the bout clock. This means that each press of a button by a Judge is immediately time stamped and registered. As we do not use a bout clock linked to the computer, our situation is that the computer internally registers this information that can then be extracted.

  • Judges new to computer scoring generally tend to under-press or over-press significantly. It is important to learn to relax and not be trigger-happy, since you cannot “undo” a press of the button. There is plenty of time for you to determine if a punch is valid, and ensure that you press the button for the correct corner (red or blue) promptly but without rushing.

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Computer scoring cont’Scoring pad

  • Concept

  • On/off button

  • Scoring buttons

  • Warning buttons

  • Visual display

  • Visual display button

  • Power input

Computer scoring cont l.jpg
Computer scoring cont’

  • Individual score

  • Warnings

  • Judge’s warning

  • Draw

  • If computer malfunctions

  • Judges assessment

  • Individual accepted score

  • Combined accepted score

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Computer scoring cont’

  • If the computer scoring system becomes defective during a bout the Jury shall cease the bout for one minute.

  • Scores retained

  • If, during the one-minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of the stoppage are retained, proceed as follows:

  • The judges shall use hand held scoring devices (includes clicker devices) and record the bout for the duration and record the score onto scoring paper.

  • At the end of the contest the jury shall collect the scoring papers from the judges.

  • Add the judges’ individual scores from the computer to the scores from the scoring papers, delete the high and low scores from the red and blue corner to arrive at the winner.

  • Scores not retained

  • If during the one minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of the stoppage are not retained, proceed as follows:

  • If the incident occurs in the 1st, 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, and there are at least three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled as the final bout of the session.

  • If the incident occurs in the 1st, 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, and there are less than three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled to the start of the next session; but if there are no further sessions scheduled for the event then the judges will be asked to decide the winner.

    If the incident occurs after the end of the 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, the judges will be asked to decide the winner.

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Handheld boxing points calculator



  • Concept

  • Handheld calculators are not connected to a computer, but use the same concept as a simple press of a red or blue button each time a scoring blow has been delivered. This enables the judge to fully concentrate on the bout and to simply react to a scoring punch.

  • On button

  • Boxing mode


  • Start scoring

  • Scoring buttons






  • Warning buttons






  • Round button










  • Stop scoring

  • Display scores

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Handheld boxing points calculator



Bout No:

Weight Div:






  • Scorecard

Boxer’s name:

Boxer’s name:

  • Warnings



  • Judge’s warnings

Warnings & counts




Warning & counts

  • Knockdowns



  • Procedure at end of bout




  • Points equal at end of bout



  • If handheld malfunctions




In case of tied score

Most leading off

or better style

Better defence








RSC Out-class

RSC Comp Count Limit





RSC Injury


No Contest






……………………..Signature of Judge

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Computer set-up

















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Process for advancement

  • Modules

    • Successfully perform as a gloving steward

    • Successfully perform as a timekeeper

    • Successfully set up the computer scoring system

    • Demonstrate understanding of a draw

    • Demonstrate understanding of the judges’ evaluation