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Kingdom Fungi. Finding the Fungus Among Us. Characteristics of Fungi . Eukaryotic Most are Multicellular Filamentous body plan Heterotrophic by Absorption Produce spores by sexual and asexual reproduction Haploid for part or most of life cycle Cell wall made of chitin

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Kingdom fungi l.jpg
Kingdom Fungi

Finding the Fungus Among Us


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Characteristics of Fungi

  • Eukaryotic

  • Most are Multicellular

  • Filamentous body plan

  • Heterotrophic by Absorption

  • Produce spores by sexual and asexual reproduction

  • Haploid for part or most of life cycle

  • Cell wall made of chitin

  • No movement: change location by growth of body or dispersion of spores


The filamentous body of a fungus l.jpg
The Filamentous Body of a Fungus

(c) Hyphal Cells (cutaway)

(a) Mycelium

HaploidNuclei

Cytoplasm

Septum

(b) Individual Hyphae

Pore

Cell Walls


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Body Plan of Fungi

  • Mycelium = network of filaments

  • Hypha = individual filament (plural = hyphae)

  • Septum = partition dividing cells, has pore for distribution of nutrients

  • Reproductive structure extends from main body, produces spores


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Fungal Nutrition

  • Heterotropic by absorption

    • secrete digestive enzymes

    • digest macromolecules outside the body

    • absorb digested nutrients

  • Three nutritional modes

    • Saprophytic = digestion of dead organisms

    • Parasitic = digestion of live organisms, causing disease

    • Mutualistic = beneficial relationship for two independent organisms




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Lichen: Mutualism Between Alga and Fungus

Algal Layer

Fungal Hyphae

AttachmentStructure


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Mycorrhizae: Mutualism Between Fungus and Plant Roots


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Applying Your Knowledge

  • Parasitic

  • Saprophtyic

  • Mutualistic

  • Which mode of nutrition

  • Provides a benefit for the fungus and its symbiotic partner?

  • Is shown by athlete’s foot fungus?

  • Involves digestion of dead organisms?


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Sexual Reproduction

  • Hypha from mycelia of opposite mating types fuse

  • Fusion of two haploid nuclei forms diploid zygote

  • Zygote produces haploid spores by meiosis

  • Each spore germinates to produce a haploid mycelium


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Chythrid Fungi

  • Flagellated, swimming spores require water for dispersal

  • Ancestral group, gave rise to modern fungi

Forming Male Gametes

Forming Female Gametes


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Zygote Fungi

  • Live in soil and on decaying plant matter

  • Zygosporangia = reproductive structures producing haploid spores


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Sac Fungi

  • Ascus = sac that surrounds haploid ascospores


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Club Fungi

  • Basidium = club-shaped reproductive structure that produces basidiospores


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Club Fungus Life Cycle

Haploid Nuclei

Fusion forms diploid zygote.

Basidiaon gills

MEIOSIS

Basidiospores(haploid)

Haploid1n

Mushroom gillsbear reproductivebasidia.

Diploid2n


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Club Fungus Life Cycle

Basidiospores(haploid)

Basidiaon gills

Hyphae aggregateto form mushroom

“+” MatingStrain

“-” MatingStrain

Basidiospores germinateforming hyphae (haploid).

+

-

Haploid1n

Hyphae fuse, buthaploid nucleiremain separatein binucleate cells

Diploid2n


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Imperfect Fungi

  • Sexual reproduction has not been observed


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Applying Your Knowledge

  • Chytrids

  • Zygote Fungi

  • Sac Fungi

  • Club Fungi

  • Imperfect Fungi

  • Which group of fungi

  • Encloses haploid spores within an ascus?

  • Has flagellated gametes?

  • Has an umbrella-shaped reproductive structure called a basidium?

  • Has not shown sexual reproduction?


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Applying Your Knowledge

  • Chytrids

  • Zygote Fungi

  • Sac Fungi

  • Club Fungi

  • Imperfect Fungi

  • Which group of fungi

  • Are found on as a topping your mushroom pizza?

  • Caused the pizza dough to rise?

  • Make up the fuzzy structure on the two-week old loaf of bread in your cupboard?


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Applying Your Knowledge

  • Prokaryotes

  • Protists

  • Fungi

  • Plantae

  • Animalia

  • Which kingdom/domain

  • Has organisms that are heterotrophic by ingestion?

  • Has cell walls made of chitin?

  • Reproduces by binary fission?


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