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Kingdom Fungi. Finding the Fungus Among Us. Characteristics of Fungi . Eukaryotic Most are Multicellular Filamentous body plan Heterotrophic by Absorption Produce spores by sexual and asexual reproduction Haploid for part or most of life cycle Cell wall made of chitin

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kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi

Finding the Fungus Among Us

characteristics of fungi
Characteristics of Fungi
  • Eukaryotic
  • Most are Multicellular
  • Filamentous body plan
  • Heterotrophic by Absorption
  • Produce spores by sexual and asexual reproduction
  • Haploid for part or most of life cycle
  • Cell wall made of chitin
  • No movement: change location by growth of body or dispersion of spores
the filamentous body of a fungus
The Filamentous Body of a Fungus

(c) Hyphal Cells (cutaway)

(a) Mycelium

HaploidNuclei

Cytoplasm

Septum

(b) Individual Hyphae

Pore

Cell Walls

body plan of fungi
Body Plan of Fungi
  • Mycelium = network of filaments
  • Hypha = individual filament (plural = hyphae)
  • Septum = partition dividing cells, has pore for distribution of nutrients
  • Reproductive structure extends from main body, produces spores
fungal nutrition
Fungal Nutrition
  • Heterotropic by absorption
    • secrete digestive enzymes
    • digest macromolecules outside the body
    • absorb digested nutrients
  • Three nutritional modes
    • Saprophytic = digestion of dead organisms
    • Parasitic = digestion of live organisms, causing disease
    • Mutualistic = beneficial relationship for two independent organisms
lichen mutualism between alga and fungus
Lichen: Mutualism Between Alga and Fungus

Algal Layer

Fungal Hyphae

AttachmentStructure

applying your knowledge
Applying Your Knowledge
  • Parasitic
  • Saprophtyic
  • Mutualistic
  • Which mode of nutrition
  • Provides a benefit for the fungus and its symbiotic partner?
  • Is shown by athlete’s foot fungus?
  • Involves digestion of dead organisms?
sexual reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
  • Hypha from mycelia of opposite mating types fuse
  • Fusion of two haploid nuclei forms diploid zygote
  • Zygote produces haploid spores by meiosis
  • Each spore germinates to produce a haploid mycelium
chythrid fungi
Chythrid Fungi
  • Flagellated, swimming spores require water for dispersal
  • Ancestral group, gave rise to modern fungi

Forming Male Gametes

Forming Female Gametes

zygote fungi
Zygote Fungi
  • Live in soil and on decaying plant matter
  • Zygosporangia = reproductive structures producing haploid spores
sac fungi
Sac Fungi
  • Ascus = sac that surrounds haploid ascospores
club fungi
Club Fungi
  • Basidium = club-shaped reproductive structure that produces basidiospores
club fungus life cycle
Club Fungus Life Cycle

Haploid Nuclei

Fusion forms diploid zygote.

Basidiaon gills

MEIOSIS

Basidiospores(haploid)

Haploid1n

Mushroom gillsbear reproductivebasidia.

Diploid2n

club fungus life cycle17
Club Fungus Life Cycle

Basidiospores(haploid)

Basidiaon gills

Hyphae aggregateto form mushroom

“+” MatingStrain

“-” MatingStrain

Basidiospores germinateforming hyphae (haploid).

+

-

Haploid1n

Hyphae fuse, buthaploid nucleiremain separatein binucleate cells

Diploid2n

imperfect fungi
Imperfect Fungi
  • Sexual reproduction has not been observed
applying your knowledge19
Applying Your Knowledge
  • Chytrids
  • Zygote Fungi
  • Sac Fungi
  • Club Fungi
  • Imperfect Fungi
  • Which group of fungi
  • Encloses haploid spores within an ascus?
  • Has flagellated gametes?
  • Has an umbrella-shaped reproductive structure called a basidium?
  • Has not shown sexual reproduction?
applying your knowledge20
Applying Your Knowledge
  • Chytrids
  • Zygote Fungi
  • Sac Fungi
  • Club Fungi
  • Imperfect Fungi
  • Which group of fungi
  • Are found on as a topping your mushroom pizza?
  • Caused the pizza dough to rise?
  • Make up the fuzzy structure on the two-week old loaf of bread in your cupboard?
applying your knowledge21
Applying Your Knowledge
  • Prokaryotes
  • Protists
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia
  • Which kingdom/domain
  • Has organisms that are heterotrophic by ingestion?
  • Has cell walls made of chitin?
  • Reproduces by binary fission?
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