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FHWA International Scanning Studies on Managing Travel Demand and Active Traffic Management. Federal Scans and Transferability to Washington State California MICM Workshop Los Angeles, Dec. 5, 2007 Eric N.Schreffler (ESTC) and Craig Stone (WSDOT). donpeat.com.

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FHWA International Scanning Studies on Managing Travel Demand and Active Traffic Management

Federal Scans and Transferability to Washington State

California MICM Workshop

Los Angeles, Dec. 5, 2007

Eric N.Schreffler (ESTC) andCraig Stone (WSDOT)

donpeat.com


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Managing Travel Demand and Active Traffic Management to Mitigate Congestion

  • OVERVIEW

  • Federal Congestion Management Process

  • Managing Travel Demand Scan

  • Active Traffic Management Scan

  • Washington State ATM Feasibility Study

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FEDERAL CONGESTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS Mitigate Congestion

  • Statewide Transportation Planning; Metropolitan Transportation Planning Final Rule

  • USDOT, FHWA 23 CFR Parts 450 and 500 (2/14/07)

  • Links Congestion Management System to planning process

  • Emphasizes operational and management strategies

  • Common performance measures and goals for CMP, LRTP and M&O

  • CMP must be a “cooperatively developed and implemented metro-wide strategy” through the use of “travel demand management strategies”

  • CMP should result in multi-modal system performance measures and strategies that can be reflected in the region-wide plan and TIP


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FEDERAL CONGESTION MANAGEMENT PROCESS Mitigate Congestion

  • Statewide Transportation Planning; Metropolitan Transportation Planning Final Rule

  • Demand management measures might include:

    • Growth Management

    • Congestion Management

    • Public Transportation Improvements

    • ITS Technologies


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Managing Travel Demand and Active Traffic Management to Mitigate Congestion

  • PRESENTATION PURPOSE

  • Present broader view of managing travel demand and traffic

  • Introduce European examples

  • Provide wide array of techniques

  • Underscore need for integration

  • Show how one state is exploring options

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MANAGING TRAVEL DEMAND Mitigate Congestion

  • International Scanning Studies:

  • 2005 = Managing Travel Demand (MTD/TDM)

  • 2006 = Active Traffic Management (ATM)

  • FHWA International, AASHTO, NCHRP

  • MTD Scan included: MTC, FHWA, Florida, Utah, Minnesota and New Jersey

  • Visited: Rome, Stockholm, Lund, Cologne,Rotterdam, Delft and London

  • FHWA sponsoring workshop series

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ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Mitigate Congestion

  • International Scanning Studies:

  • 2005 = Managing Travel Demand (MTD/TDM)

  • 2006 = Active Traffic Management (ATM)

  • ATM Scan included: FHWA, PSRC, Texas, Washington, Minnesota and Virginia

  • Visited: Athens, Copenhagen, Germany, Rotterdam, Utrecht, Birmingham and London

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MANAGING TRAVEL DEMAND Mitigate Congestion

TO MITIGATE CONGESTION

MTD Scan

donpeat.com


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DEFINITION: What is Managing Travel Demand? Mitigate Congestion

  • Managing travel demand is about providing travelers, regardless of whether they drive alone, with travel choices, such as work location, route, time of travel and mode. In the broadest sense, “demand management is defined as providing travelers with effective choices to improve travel reliability.” *

  • * FHWA, 2006


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Mode Choice Mitigate CongestionLocation Choice

- drive alone - telework

- car- and vanpool - Transit-oriented development

- shuttle buses - Location-efficient mortgages

bike/walk - proximate commute

Time ChoiceRoute Choice

traveler info - traveler info

travel time prediction - Active Traffic Mgmt

event scheduling - HOV lanes

flex-time/CWW - congestion pricing

TRAVEL DEMAND STRATEGIES: Choices


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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: Mitigate CongestionTraffic vs. Travel Demand Management

Source: AVV and FHWA


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FOUR CATEGORIES OF DEMAND STRATEGIES Mitigate Congestion

  • OPERATIONAL

  • INFRASTRUCTURE

  • PRICING/FINANCIAL

  • INSTITUTIONAL/FACILITATION

FHWA, 2006


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OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES Mitigate Congestion

  • Improving the efficiency of the transport system by:

  • Providing real-time, multi-modal information

  • Predicting travel times

  • Active traffic management

  • Traffic management centers

  • Parking management

  • Photo enforcement

  • Improved public transport

  • Managing large-scale events and emergencies

  • Highway reconstruction mitigation

Sources:ATAC, Schreffler, Hull, AVV


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OPERATIONAL EXAMPLE: EUROPE Mitigate Congestion

  • ACTIVE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT on M42 – UK

  • Use of hard shoulder

  • Break-down areas

  • Driver info panels

  • Speed control

  • Photo enforcement

  • CCTV

Source: Highways Agency


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INFRASTRUCTURE STRATEGIES Mitigate Congestion

  • Providing advantages to sustainable choices with:

  • HOV facilities

  • Special use lanes

  • Park-and-Ride facilities

  • Access control (e.g., car-free zones)

Sources: Schreffler and Highways Agency


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INFRASTRUCTURE EXAMPLE: EUROPE Mitigate Congestion

  • SPECIAL LANES IN THE NETHERLANDS

  • Rush hour lanes

    • Use of hard shoulder running

    • Peak period operations

    • Good safety record

  • Plus lanes

    • Add extra narrow lane

    • Reduced speed

  • Reversible tidal-flow lane

  • Exclusive bus and truck lanes

Rush hour lane

Plus lane

Plus lane

Bus lane

Truck and bus lane

Sources: AVV and Hull


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PRICING/FINANCIAL STRATEGIES Mitigate Congestion

  • Trigger economic incentives and disincentives with:

  • Cordon pricing in congested centers

  • Other road pricing schemes (trucks)

  • Revenue for improved transit

  • Subsidies for using alternative modes

London

Sources: Hull, stockholmsforsoket.se,

ATAC, Schreffler

Stockholm

Rome

Germany

Germany


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PRICING EXAMPLE: EUROPE Mitigate Congestion

  • STOCKHOLM TRIAL

  • Legislated 7-month pilot test

  • Cordon around city center

  • 18 charging points; photo of plates

  • 10-20 SEK per crossing ($1.44 - $2.88)

  • 16 new bus routes; 2,800 P-n-R spaces

  • Goal = 10-15% reduction in traffic

  • Result = 19% reduction in car traffic

  • 4% increase in transit ridership

  • Emissions reduced

  • Referendum passed in city

Source: stockholmsforsoket.se


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INSTITUTIONAL/FACILITATIVE STRATEGIES Mitigate Congestion

  • New ways to institutionalize demand management into planning, management, and operations via:

  • Partnerships

  • Travel Planning

  • Coordination

  • New Policies

Source: AVV


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INSTITUTIONAL EXAMPLE: EUROPE Mitigate Congestion

  • HEATHROW AREA TRANSPORT FORUM

  • Partnership of airport, towns and tenants

  • Created Surface Access Strategy

  • During planning of Heathrow Express

  • Increased transit/carpool use (10%  19%)

  • Decreased car use (78%  70%)

  • Funded with parking surcharge

  • Drive alone share decreased

  • Transit and carpool share increased

  • Consistent with “Smarter Choices”

Source: Alastair Duff and BAA


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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES Mitigate Congestion

  • PERFORMANCE MONITORING

  • Performance-based goals set

  • Performance monitoring used to maximize efficiency

  • Evaluation used to measure effectiveness in achieving objectives


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PERFORMANCE GOALS Mitigate Congestion

  • England’s Performance Monitoring Policy

    Goal: make travel times more reliable

    County divided into 98 key routes; determine 90% percentile of travel times for the system

    Public Service Agreement: reduce travel time for the worst 10% of congested trips or potentially lose highway funds for these routes

    One solution cited in HA Business Plan: manage demand (Integrated Demand Management - IDM)

Source: Highways Agency


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THE KEY - INTEGRATION Mitigate Congestion

  • Demand management should be integrated with:

    • Long-range planning

    • Land development

    • Employer/school practices

    • Planning for operations

    • Traffic management

    • System operations

    • Performance measurement

Source: City of Lund

and Trivector Traffic AB


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INTEGRATION EXAMPLE Mitigate Congestion

  • LUNDAMATS – Lund, Sweden

    Integrated, sustainable transport plan:

    • Sustainable town planning

    • Priority to bicycles

    • Extended transit (BRT)

    • Reduce car traffic

    • Employer and community transport solutions

Hull


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INTEGRATION EXAMPLE Mitigate Congestion

  • LUNDAMATS – RESULTS

    • Placed priority on sustainable travel

    • Accommodated growth in travel without increasing car use

    • Reduced VMT per capita in real terms


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MTD LESSONS LEARNED Mitigate Congestion

  • Lessons Learned from Europe

    • Transportation Management Thinking Is Evolving In Europe

    • Demand Management Differs From Traffic Management

    • Owners and Service Providers are Working Together

    • Demand Management Can Be Integrated Into Programs, Projects and Operations

    • Economic Growth and Traffic Management Can Co-Exist

Hull


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MTD LESSONS LEARNED (con’t) Mitigate Congestion

  • Road Pricing Proven Effective

  • Customized Travel Time Prediction Is Possible

  • Dynamic Signing Can Influence Safety and Operations

  • Pre-Trip and Near Trip Information Can Influence Congestion

  • Performance-based Evaluation Integrated Into Processes and Policies

    U.S. has a lot of experience with managing demand, but not as good as integrating into planning, management and operations

Hull


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DEFINITION: What is Sustainable Transport? Mitigate Congestion

  • Sustainability is the simultaneous pursuit of economic prosperity, environmental quality and social equity.

  • Sustainable transport works to meet the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.


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