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CONTACT INFORMATION. 2902 North Leonard Road 64506 Office Phone: 232-6706 Social Science Office: 271-4340 Continuing Education: 271-4100 Office Fax: 232-6480 E-Mail: [email protected] academic.mwsc.edu/albright. Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida Links to excellent archaeology web

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Contact information l.jpg
CONTACT INFORMATION

  • 2902 North Leonard Road 64506

  • Office Phone: 232-6706

  • Social Science Office: 271-4340

  • Continuing Education: 271-4100

  • Office Fax: 232-6480

  • E-Mail: [email protected]


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academic.mwsc.edu/albright

  • Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida

  • Links to excellent archaeology web

    sites

  • Biographical data

  • Syllabus and handouts

  • Archaeology trip information

  • Tel Bethsaida web site


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Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie

……”Who are you, sir?” to him I said,

“For what is it you look?”

His answer trickled through my head

Like bloodstains in a book…..


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“His accents mild were full of wit”……..

“Five thousand years ago

Is really, when I think of it,

The choicest age I know.

And once you learn to scorn A.D.

And you have got the knack,

Then you could come and dig with

me,

And never wander back.”


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Continued the author:

But I was thinking how to thrust

Some arsenic into tea,

And could not all at once adjust

My mind so far B.C.

I looked at him and softly sighed,

His face was pleasant too…..

“Come tell me how you live?” I cried,

And what it is you do?”


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EARLY ATTEMPTS AT ARCHAEOLOGY:

  • Antiquarians

  • Collectors

  • Classifiers

  • Looters and Robbers


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Pseudo-archaeology

  • Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken)

  • King Tut’s tomb

  • The Pyramids


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ARCHAEOLOGY

  • The scientific study of the material

    remains of man’s past…..

  • Scientific study (Techniques, Methods,

  • Theoretical Frameworks)

  • Material remains

  • Man’s past


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THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE:

  • 1. Excavation

  • 2. Recording

  • 3. Decipherment, explanation and interpretation



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THE FORMS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA

  • Artifacts

  • Features

  • Structures

  • Ecofacts


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Classifier: Christian Thomsen

  • Early 1800’s

  • Danish museum curator

  • Stone Age

    Bronze Age

    Iron Age


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STONE AGES

  • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 700,000-15,000 B.C.

  • Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 15,000-8300 B.C.

  • Neolithic (New Stone Age): 8300-4200 B.C.

  • Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.


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Prehistorical and Historical

  • Writing invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia

  • 3,000 B.C.

  • B.C. and A.D.

  • B.C.E. and A.C.E.

  • B.P. and A.P.


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THE GREAT RIFT

  • Louis and Mary Leakey; Richard Leakey

  • Olduvai Gorge

  • Lake Victoria: Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya


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James Breasted

  • The Fertile Crescent

  • Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley

  • Southeast end (Mesopotamia): Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys

  • Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey

  • Jordan River Valley of Israel


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TEL MEGIDDO

  • 120-180 feet high; 16 acres

  • 22 strata

  • Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian (600-350 B.C.)


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THE TOMB OF KING TUT

  • Howard Carter

  • 1907-1922

  • Valley of the Kings

  • Lord Carnarvon


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DATING THE PAST

  • 1. Historical records (present day to 3,000 B.C.)

  • 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC)

  • 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago)

  • 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to origins of early life)


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Two Sources of Information

  • Written: (Historical or Text-aided

    Archaeology ) stone, clay tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, parchment

  • Unwritten (Prehistoric Archaeology)

    buildings, sculptures, ceramics, tools,

    weaponry, jewelry, coins, food, bones


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THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY

1. It provides the color for the black-and-

white sketch of history

2. Historical records are by no means complete

3. Helps in the translation and

explanation of languages

4. Validates some literature that was thought to be inaccurate


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THE FERTILE CRESCENT

  • James Breasted

  • The Great Rift

  • Olduvai Gorge


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ARCHAEOLOGY

  • “Archaios” and “logos”

  • Zoology

  • Psychology

  • Anthropology

  • Sociology


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The Scientific Study of Humanity

  • Cultural Anthropology

  • Physical Anthropology

  • Archaeology

  • Linguistics


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HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN

  • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey

  • Troy and Mycenae, 1869

  • “The Greek Treasure”

  • Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans,

    1899


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CERAMIC INDEX

  • Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800’s

  • Egyptian Predynastic tombs

  • Diospolis Parva

  • Based on ceramic attributes

  • Egyptian chronology the basis for most chronological schemes


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ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA: STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR

  • 1. Acquisition

  • 2. Manufacture

  • 3. Use

  • 4. Deposition


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GOALS OF ARCHAEOLOGY

  • 1. Studying sites and their contents

  • 2. Reconstructing past lifeways and history

  • 3. Studying cultural process

  • 4. Understanding the archaeological record which is a part of our contemporary world


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TEL AND HORVAT

  • Tel: a man-made hill ruin

  • Tel: Arabic

  • Horvat: Hebrew


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Debitage at Chaco Canyon

  • Flint Flakes

  • Evidence of trading

  • Lookout point


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DATING THE PAST

  • Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.)

  • Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.)

  • Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago)

  • Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years ago to the origins of life)


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CIVILIZATION

A level of cultural attainment marked by:

  • Presence of writing

  • Monumental architecture

  • Stratified social system


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ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION

  • Ecology

  • Population growth

  • Technology

  • Irrigation

  • Growth of trade

  • Warfare

  • Religion


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NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION

  • 1st ground stone technology

  • 1st domestication of plants and animals

  • 1st agricultural projects

  • 1st population explosion

  • 1st architecture

  • 1st weaving from domestication

  • 1st pottery


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JERICHO

  • Tel: 6 acres in area and 70 ft. high

  • Oldest continually inhabited city

  • Ideal environment

  • Evidence of domesticated grains

  • Trade network

  • Defensive fortifications


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MESOPOTAMIA

  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers

  • Greek meaning “land between the rivers”

  • 600 miles long; 250 miles wide

  • Long, intensely hot summers

  • Harsh, cold winters

  • Rainfall: minimal and varied


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MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS

  • Wheel

  • Chariot

  • Writing

  • Metallurgy

  • Mathematical functions of mulitiplication and division

  • Lunar Calender


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MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS

  • Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C.

  • Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C.

  • Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC

  • Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C.

  • Assyrian 1300-612 B.C.

  • Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.


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URUK: The World’s 1st City

  • Two innovations: writing and metallurgy

  • 4500 B.C.

  • 617 acres with villages extending as extensive as 6 miles

  • Dominated by a ziggurat (temple mound)


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Sumer: The World of the First Cities

  • 3500-3200 B.C.: lst civilized territory on the globe

  • 3200-2000 B.C.: Sumerian Era

  • lst 900 years had no unified government

  • City states: Uruk, Ur, Lagash

  • 2320 B.C. all Sumer conquered by a mighty warrior from Akkad (Sargon the Great)


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SARGON

  • Ruler of Akkadian Civilization

  • Conquered Sumerian Civilization

  • Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north)

  • Ur of the Chaldees: excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley (Royal cemetery; series of kings/queens and retinue; one had 59 servants buried)


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Sumerian Civilization

  • 3100-2334 B.C.

  • No metal, timber, semiprecious stones

  • Imported copper, gold and other ores

  • Widespread use of bronze

  • Metal plows; increased agricultural yields

  • Region-wide trade network

  • 1st use of clay tablets for extensive record keeping; Gilgamesh Epic


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CUNEIFORM

  • Mesopotamia

  • “Wedge-shaped”

  • Ideogram

  • Stone inscriptions and clay tablets

  • Mari: 20,000 tablets


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Cuneiform Deciphered

  • Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895)

  • Worked two years copying inscription; using ladders, ropes and slings

  • Behistun Stone

  • Persian King Darius battling Gaumata with the help of god Ahuramazda

  • Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)


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Hammurabi

  • Ur gave way to Babylon and its Semitic rulers

  • Old Babylonian Empire

  • 2334-1650 B.C.

  • “Code of Hammurabi”: 1792-1750 B.C.

  • 282 laws


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HITTITE INTERLUDE

  • From Anatolia (eastern Turkey)

  • 1600 B.C.

  • Capital: Hattusas

  • Control of 3 continents and seas

  • Created light-chariot warfare; horses

  • Excavated in 1907

  • Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European language


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Uluburun Ship

  • Coast of southern Turkey; 1310 B.C.

  • 350 copper ingots each weighing 60 lbs.

  • Ton of resin in two-handles jars from Syria

  • Ingots of blue glass; hardwood; amber; turtle shells; elephant tusks; hippo teeth; ostrich eggs; jars of olives; large jars filled with Cannaanite and Mycenean pottery


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Assyrian and Babylonian

  • 900-539 B.C.

  • Assyrian capital: Nineveh

  • King Assurnasirpal’s party

  • Tiglath Pileser III destroyed Bethsaida in 732 B.C.

  • Last great Assyrian king Assurbanipal died in 630 B.C.

  • Babylonians take over in 612 B.C.


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Sennacherib

  • Assyrian

  • 705-681 B.C.

  • Capital: Nineveh

  • Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C.

  • Ten Lost Tribes


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Nebuchadnezzar

  • 604-562 B.C.

  • City of Babylon

  • Walls of glazed brick

  • Hanging gardens: one of the ancient seven wonders of the world

  • Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C.

  • State taken over by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.


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ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Several skills used long before excavation begins in the field:

Theoretical skills

Methodological skills

Technical skills

Administrative/managerial skills

Writing and analytical skills


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FORMULATION

  • Problem/hypothesis definition

  • Background research

  • Feasibility studies


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IMPLEMENTATION

  • Permits

  • Funding

  • Logistics


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DATA ACQUISITION

  • Reconnaissance

  • Survey

  • Excavation


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DATA PROCESSING

  • Cleaning and conservation

  • Cataloging

  • Initial classifications


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ANALYSIS

  • Analytical classifications

  • Temporal frameworks

  • Spatial frameworks


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INTERPRETATION

  • Application of theories

  • Cultural historical and/or

  • Cultural processual theory


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PUBLICATION AND RESTORATION

  • Final reports

  • Research results used as a foundation for new research


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Hymn to Aton----Pharaoh Akhenation

  • Thou makes the Nile in the Nether world Thou bringest it as thou desirest,

    To preserve alive the people of Egypt. For Thou hast made them for thyself, Thou lord of them all….


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ANCIENT EGYPT

  • The Greek writers said the land of Egypt was the gift of the Nile River

  • Starts in equatorial Africa as the White Nile and flows 2100 miles north to join the Blue Nile for the last 1900 miles

  • Egyptians called their country the “Two Lands”: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt

  • Travel either khed (downstream) or khent (upstream)


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Different from Mesopotamia

  • Egypt: stability and serenity

  • Mesopotamia: harsh environment, sporadic flooding, open plain allowed foreign incursions

  • Egypt: rich, fertile black soil; annual flooding; surrounded by deserts and Red Sea; abundant mineral resources; rich in granite, limestone, basalt


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Importance of Egyptian Chronology

  • All of the chronological dates in the Mediterranean area for ancient civilizations are based on Egyptian chronology



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Egyptian History

  • “Pharaoh” is a biblical term; never used by the Egyptians themselves

  • Greek: pharaohs divided into 30 dynasties (3000 BC to Alexander)

  • Ptolemaic Egypt (332-30 BC)

  • Roman occupation (30 BC became an imperial province of Rome)


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ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS

  • Unification of Egypt 3100 B.C

  • Archaic Period 3100-2770 B.C.

  • Old Kingdom 2770-2200 B.C.

  • First Intermediate Period 2200-2050 B.C.

  • Middle Kingdom 2050-1786 B.C.

  • Second Intermediate 1786-1560 B.C.


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ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS

  • New Kingdom 1560-1087 B.C.

  • Late Period 1087-332 B.C.

  • Ptolemaic Period 332-30 B.C.

  • Roman Occupation 30 B.C.


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Unification of Egypt

  • 1st Pharaoh-----Narmer-----3100 B.C.

  • Unified Upper and Lower Egypt

  • Heirankapolis

  • 1st heiroglyphics

  • Narmer’s Pallette


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Old Kingdom: IIIrd Dynasty

2770 B.C.

  • Zoser (Djoser)

  • Great state power system;absolutism

  • Founder of the Old Kingdom

  • Builder of 1st Pyramid

  • Step Pyramid

  • Saqqarah


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Fourth Dynasty

  • Parallels Early Bronze Age III (2650-

    2350 B.C.)

  • Cheops (Khufu)

  • Chephren (Khafre)

  • Menkaure (Mycerinus)

  • Giza Pyramids and Sphinx

  • 2613-2494 B.C.


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Pyramid Complex

  • Temenos Wall

  • Mortuary Temple

  • Causeway

  • Funerary Temple

  • Pyramid

  • Family pyramids


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HEIROGLYPHICS

  • Egyptian

  • “Priestly carving”

  • Pictogram

  • Stone inscriptions and papyrus writings

  • Jean Francois Champollion (1778- 1867)

  • Rosetta Stone

  • Heiroglyphic, Demotic, Greek


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The 1st Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 BC)

  • Despotic, ruthless rulers

  • Conspicuous, costly monuments

  • Pepi I…..last pharaoh of Old Kingdom…94 years

  • Decline caused by drouth

  • Repeated famines for over 300 yrs.

  • Political chaos; disunity; rulers of small kingdoms


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Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 BC) BC)

  • Restored by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II operating out of Thebes

  • Middle Kingdom pharaohs (no outstanding names)

  • Less despotic

  • Concern for the common welfare

  • Classic period of Egyptian civilization

  • Extensive trade relations extended


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Middle Kingdom BC)

  • Trade relations with entire eastern Mediterranean

  • Mined copper and gold in Sinai

  • Imported cedar from Lebanon

  • Inscriptions in Byblos and Ugarit

  • Objects from Aegean Islands and Minoan towns on Crete

  • Increased agricultural production


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Second Intermediate Period BC)1640-1530 B.C.

  • Hidau khasut (Hyksos)….”Princes of desert uplands”

  • Joseph story

  • Capital: Avaris in the Delta

  • Changed Egyptian civilization

  • Brought stronger bows, new forms of swords and daggers, and horse-drawn chariots (strength of New Kingdom)


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New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC):18th-19th-20th Dynasties BC)

  • Pharaoh Ahmose I: the Liberator

  • Turned Egypt into an efficiently run military state

  • This era the greatest in Egyptian history

  • Pharaohs become imperial rulers, skilled generals, and strong military leaders


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New Kingdom BC)

  • Main wars with Mitanni and Hittites

  • Financed with Nubian gold; lands upstream of the First Cataract

  • Centers primarily on the Late Bronze Period

  • This was the 1st true “International Period”


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Thebes: the “Estate of Amun” BC)

  • Amun-Ra: the “king of the gods”

  • Karnak and Luxor Temples

  • Built mainly during 18th dynasty

  • Ramasseum of Ramses II

  • “Estate of Amun” extended across west of the Nile; Valley of the Kings (62 royal burials)


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The Temples BC)

  • Deir el-Bahri (local cult of Hathor; mortuary temples; 11th dynasty Mentuhotep; 18th dynasty Hatshepsut; Tutmosis III temple complex for God Amun

  • Medinet Habu (Hatshepsut and Tutmosis III; Ramses III mortuary)


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Akhenaten and Amarna BC)

  • Rejects Amun for Aten

  • Ruled 1353-1336 BC (17 years)

  • Builds new city at El-amarna

  • Succeeded by Smenkhare, son of Amenhotep III (3 years)

  • Succeeded by Tutankhamun (1333-1323 BC)


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Tel El Amarna BC)

  • Single stratum

  • Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaten)

  • 1375-1325 B.C.

  • Amarna Tablets

  • Political and cultural interactions between Egypt and the ancient Near East


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19th Dynasty (1307-1196 BC) BC)

  • Dominated by the Rameside pharaohs

  • Most powerful pharaoh: Ramses II (1290-1224 BC)

  • His tomb in Valley of Kings: recent find of his sons tombs under his

  • Ramses III: Dies in 1070 BC; last powerful pharaoh

  • Assyria: 725 BC


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Archaeology and Language BC)

  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu

  • “PRST”

  • Cypriot-Minoans

  • “PLST”


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PALESTINE BC)

  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu

  • PRST: “Sea Peoples”

  • Cypriot-Minoan

  • PLST


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EARLY BRONZE AGE (3100-2000 BC) BC)

  • EB I, II, III, IV

  • EBI (3100-2900): Sumeria, Egypt

  • Increasingly shorter periods

  • Faster transition

  • Larger populations

  • Increased technology and inventions

  • Two main bronze tools: axeheads and tanged daggers


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EARLY BRONZE AGE BC)

  • Broad Houses

  • Totally new pottery styles

  • Wide use of sickle blades

  • Canaanite culture in Israel: protohistorical

  • Most large Israeli cities established

  • “Family” burials: caves


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“Urban Period”: Large Cities for Four Reasons BC)

  • Hills convenient for fortification

  • Located on major water sources

  • In the center of agricultural areas

  • Beside major road junctions

  • Public buildings: palaces, temples, central granaries

  • Fortified urban centers for protection and agricultural districts


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An Interlude: The EBIV/MBI) BC)

  • 300 years Palestine sparsely populated by pastoralists and village dwellers

  • Parallels Egypt’s 1st Intermediate era

  • Revived urbanization at beginning of MBII parallels Egypt’s Middle Kingdom

  • Only a few tels show occupation: Hazor, Megiddo, Bethshan, Jericho


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MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000-1500 BC) BC)

  • W.F. Albright said MBI was period of the Hebrew patriarchs

  • MBII and III (1800-1550 BC)

  • Large fortified cities; many found on virgin soil or places not occupied for centuries

  • Use of glacis, guard towers, massive wall fortification


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Middle Bronze Age BC)

  • Total revolution in all aspects of material culture

  • Settlement pattern

  • Urbanism

  • Architecture

  • Pottery

  • Metallurgy

  • Burial customs


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Middle Bronze Age BC)

  • Numerous new types of metal weapons and tools

  • Sinuhe

  • Execration texts

  • Hyksos scarabs found in Israel

  • Invention of potter’s wheel with resulting finer ceramics


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STRUCTURE STYLES BC)

  • Early Bronze Broad House

  • Iron Age II Four-Room House (1200-586 B.C.)

  • Solomonic (965-928 B.C.) Six-chambered Gate

  • Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.) Margin Stones


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PSEUDO-ARCHAEOLOGY BC)

  • “Chariot Of The Gods”

  • Indiana Jones

  • Pyramid Power


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ARCHAEOLOGY AS A SCIENCE BC)

  • Theoretical framework

  • Techniques

  • Methods


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Antiquarians: Three Museums BC)

  • British Museum

  • Louvre Museum

  • Berlin Museum


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THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY BC)

  • 1. It provides the general background of past cultures

  • 2. Historical records are by no means complete

  • 3. Helps in the translation and explanation of languages

  • 4. Validates some literature


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Artifacts: Lewis Binford’s Functional Approach BC)

  • Technofacts

  • Sociofacts

  • Ideofacts


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Methods of Expressing Dates: BC)

  • B.C. and A.D.

  • B.C.E and A.C. E.

  • B.P and A.P.


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JOSEPHUS BC)

  • Jewish General

  • Turncoat

  • Antiquities and Wars of the Jews

  • Masada


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SITE FORMATION PROCESSES: BC)

  • Behavioral processes

    Cultural

    What in our modern societies would leave no remains?


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SITE FORMATION PROCESSES: BC)

  • Transformational processes

    Organic decay

    Lava flow from volcanic eruptions

    Plowing

    Destruction

    Erosion

    Construction

    Later occupants: “Philistine garbage pits”

    Animal activity


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THE SETTING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BC)

  • Matrix

  • Provenience

  • Association


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ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT BC)

Derived from the careful recording of the

matrix, provenience, and association

More than just a spot, a position in time and space…..involves assessing how

the find got to its position and what

happened since its deposition


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THE DETERMINANTS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BC)

  • Primary Context

  • Secondary Context


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CLASSIFYING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES BC)

  • By archaeological content

  • By artifact content

  • By geographical location

  • By artifact content related to site function


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Marcus Aurelius BC)

“TIME IS LIKE A RIVER MADE UP OF THE EVENTS WHICH HAPPEN, AND A VIOLENT STREAM; FOR AS SOON AS A THING HAS BEEN SEEN, IT IS CARRIED AWAY, AND ANOTHER COMES IN ITS PLACE, AND THIS WILL BE CARRIED AWAY, TOO.”


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FIRST QUESTION ALWAYS: BC)

HOW OLD IS IT?


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CHRONOLOGY BC)

The temporal ordering of data


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CHRONOLOGY BC)

The measurement of time and the ordering of prehistoric cultures in chronological sequence has been of the archaeologist’s major preoccupations since the very beginning of scientific research


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AGE DETERMINATIONS BC)

  • Relative

  • Absolute


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RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY BC)

  • The law of stratigraphy

  • The law of superposition

  • The law of association

  • The law of typology


Classification l.jpg
CLASSIFICATION BC)

A means for ordering data


Objectives of classification l.jpg
OBJECTIVES OF CLASSIFICATION BC)

  • Organizing data into manageable units

  • Describing types

  • Identifying relationships between types

  • Studying assemblage variation in the archaeological record


Archaeological types l.jpg
ARCHAEOLOGICAL TYPES BC)

  • Descriptive types

  • Chronological types

  • Functional types

  • Stylistic types


Attribute analysis l.jpg
ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS BC)

Formal attributes

Stylistic attributes

Technological attributes


Age determination by archaeological classifications l.jpg
Age Determination by Archaeological Classifications BC)

  • Changes in……

  • Manufacturing methods

  • Function

  • Style

  • Decoration


Sir flinders petrie l.jpg
Sir Flinders Petrie BC)

  • Diospolis Parva

  • Stylistic seriation

  • Predynastic Egyptian tombs

  • Storage Jars


Attributes in typology l.jpg
ATTRIBUTES IN TYPOLOGY BC)

  • Formal attributes

  • Stylistic attributes

  • Technological attributes


Absolute chronometric dating l.jpg

ABSOLUTE/CHRONOMETRIC DATING BC)

More effort has been devoted to inventing methods of chronometric dating in archaeology than to almost any other aspect of the subject.


Calendars l.jpg

CALENDARS BC)

Greece

Rome

Egypt

Carthage

Mesopotamia

Maya


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