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CONTACT INFORMATION. 2902 North Leonard Road 64506 Office Phone: 232-6706 Social Science Office: 271-4340 Continuing Education: 271-4100 Office Fax: 232-6480 E-Mail: [email protected] academic.mwsc.edu/albright. Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida Links to excellent archaeology web

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contact information
CONTACT INFORMATION
  • 2902 North Leonard Road 64506
  • Office Phone: 232-6706
  • Social Science Office: 271-4340
  • Continuing Education: 271-4100
  • Office Fax: 232-6480
  • E-Mail: [email protected]
academic mwsc edu albright
academic.mwsc.edu/albright
  • Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida
  • Links to excellent archaeology web

sites

  • Biographical data
  • Syllabus and handouts
  • Archaeology trip information
  • Tel Bethsaida web site
max mallowan and agatha christie
Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie

……”Who are you, sir?” to him I said,

“For what is it you look?”

His answer trickled through my head

Like bloodstains in a book…..

his accents mild were full of wit
“His accents mild were full of wit”……..

“Five thousand years ago

Is really, when I think of it,

The choicest age I know.

And once you learn to scorn A.D.

And you have got the knack,

Then you could come and dig with

me,

And never wander back.”

continued the author
Continued the author:

But I was thinking how to thrust

Some arsenic into tea,

And could not all at once adjust

My mind so far B.C.

I looked at him and softly sighed,

His face was pleasant too…..

“Come tell me how you live?” I cried,

And what it is you do?”

early attempts at archaeology
EARLY ATTEMPTS AT ARCHAEOLOGY:
  • Antiquarians
  • Collectors
  • Classifiers
  • Looters and Robbers
pseudo archaeology
Pseudo-archaeology
  • Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken)
  • King Tut’s tomb
  • The Pyramids
archaeology
ARCHAEOLOGY
  • The scientific study of the material

remains of man’s past…..

  • Scientific study (Techniques, Methods,
  • Theoretical Frameworks)
  • Material remains
  • Man’s past
three steps to this discipline
THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE:
  • 1. Excavation
  • 2. Recording
  • 3. Decipherment, explanation and interpretation
the forms of archaeological data
THE FORMS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Artifacts
  • Features
  • Structures
  • Ecofacts
classifier christian thomsen
Classifier: Christian Thomsen
  • Early 1800’s
  • Danish museum curator
  • Stone Age

Bronze Age

Iron Age

stone ages
STONE AGES
  • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 700,000-15,000 B.C.
  • Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 15,000-8300 B.C.
  • Neolithic (New Stone Age): 8300-4200 B.C.
  • Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.
prehistorical and historical
Prehistorical and Historical
  • Writing invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia
  • 3,000 B.C.
  • B.C. and A.D.
  • B.C.E. and A.C.E.
  • B.P. and A.P.
the great rift
THE GREAT RIFT
  • Louis and Mary Leakey; Richard Leakey
  • Olduvai Gorge
  • Lake Victoria: Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya
james breasted
James Breasted
  • The Fertile Crescent
  • Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley
  • Southeast end (Mesopotamia): Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
  • Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey
  • Jordan River Valley of Israel
tel megiddo
TEL MEGIDDO
  • 120-180 feet high; 16 acres
  • 22 strata
  • Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian (600-350 B.C.)
the tomb of king tut
THE TOMB OF KING TUT
  • Howard Carter
  • 1907-1922
  • Valley of the Kings
  • Lord Carnarvon
dating the past
DATING THE PAST
  • 1. Historical records (present day to 3,000 B.C.)
  • 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC)
  • 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago)
  • 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to origins of early life)
two sources of information
Two Sources of Information
  • Written: (Historical or Text-aided

Archaeology ) stone, clay tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, parchment

  • Unwritten (Prehistoric Archaeology)

buildings, sculptures, ceramics, tools,

weaponry, jewelry, coins, food, bones

the value of archaeology
THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY

1. It provides the color for the black-and-

white sketch of history

2. Historical records are by no means complete

3. Helps in the translation and

explanation of languages

4. Validates some literature that was thought to be inaccurate

the fertile crescent
THE FERTILE CRESCENT
  • James Breasted
  • The Great Rift
  • Olduvai Gorge
archaeology23
ARCHAEOLOGY
  • “Archaios” and “logos”
  • Zoology
  • Psychology
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology
the scientific study of humanity
The Scientific Study of Humanity
  • Cultural Anthropology
  • Physical Anthropology
  • Archaeology
  • Linguistics
heinrich schliemann
HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN
  • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey
  • Troy and Mycenae, 1869
  • “The Greek Treasure”
  • Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans,

1899

ceramic index
CERAMIC INDEX
  • Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800’s
  • Egyptian Predynastic tombs
  • Diospolis Parva
  • Based on ceramic attributes
  • Egyptian chronology the basis for most chronological schemes
archaeological data stages of human behavior
ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA: STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
  • 1. Acquisition
  • 2. Manufacture
  • 3. Use
  • 4. Deposition
goals of archaeology
GOALS OF ARCHAEOLOGY
  • 1. Studying sites and their contents
  • 2. Reconstructing past lifeways and history
  • 3. Studying cultural process
  • 4. Understanding the archaeological record which is a part of our contemporary world
tel and horvat
TEL AND HORVAT
  • Tel: a man-made hill ruin
  • Tel: Arabic
  • Horvat: Hebrew
debitage at chaco canyon
Debitage at Chaco Canyon
  • Flint Flakes
  • Evidence of trading
  • Lookout point
dating the past31
DATING THE PAST
  • Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.)
  • Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.)
  • Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago)
  • Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years ago to the origins of life)
civilization
CIVILIZATION

A level of cultural attainment marked by:

  • Presence of writing
  • Monumental architecture
  • Stratified social system
origins of civilization
ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION
  • Ecology
  • Population growth
  • Technology
  • Irrigation
  • Growth of trade
  • Warfare
  • Religion
neolithic revolution
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION
  • 1st ground stone technology
  • 1st domestication of plants and animals
  • 1st agricultural projects
  • 1st population explosion
  • 1st architecture
  • 1st weaving from domestication
  • 1st pottery
jericho
JERICHO
  • Tel: 6 acres in area and 70 ft. high
  • Oldest continually inhabited city
  • Ideal environment
  • Evidence of domesticated grains
  • Trade network
  • Defensive fortifications
mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA
  • Tigris and Euphrates rivers
  • Greek meaning “land between the rivers”
  • 600 miles long; 250 miles wide
  • Long, intensely hot summers
  • Harsh, cold winters
  • Rainfall: minimal and varied
mesopotamian contributions
MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS
  • Wheel
  • Chariot
  • Writing
  • Metallurgy
  • Mathematical functions of mulitiplication and division
  • Lunar Calender
mesopotamian periods
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS
  • Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C.
  • Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C.
  • Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC
  • Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C.
  • Assyrian 1300-612 B.C.
  • Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.
uruk the world s 1st city
URUK: The World’s 1st City
  • Two innovations: writing and metallurgy
  • 4500 B.C.
  • 617 acres with villages extending as extensive as 6 miles
  • Dominated by a ziggurat (temple mound)
sumer the world of the first cities
Sumer: The World of the First Cities
  • 3500-3200 B.C.: lst civilized territory on the globe
  • 3200-2000 B.C.: Sumerian Era
  • lst 900 years had no unified government
  • City states: Uruk, Ur, Lagash
  • 2320 B.C. all Sumer conquered by a mighty warrior from Akkad (Sargon the Great)
sargon
SARGON
  • Ruler of Akkadian Civilization
  • Conquered Sumerian Civilization
  • Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north)
  • Ur of the Chaldees: excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley (Royal cemetery; series of kings/queens and retinue; one had 59 servants buried)
sumerian civilization
Sumerian Civilization
  • 3100-2334 B.C.
  • No metal, timber, semiprecious stones
  • Imported copper, gold and other ores
  • Widespread use of bronze
  • Metal plows; increased agricultural yields
  • Region-wide trade network
  • 1st use of clay tablets for extensive record keeping; Gilgamesh Epic
cuneiform
CUNEIFORM
  • Mesopotamia
  • “Wedge-shaped”
  • Ideogram
  • Stone inscriptions and clay tablets
  • Mari: 20,000 tablets
cuneiform deciphered
Cuneiform Deciphered
  • Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895)
  • Worked two years copying inscription; using ladders, ropes and slings
  • Behistun Stone
  • Persian King Darius battling Gaumata with the help of god Ahuramazda
  • Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)
hammurabi
Hammurabi
  • Ur gave way to Babylon and its Semitic rulers
  • Old Babylonian Empire
  • 2334-1650 B.C.
  • “Code of Hammurabi”: 1792-1750 B.C.
  • 282 laws
hittite interlude
HITTITE INTERLUDE
  • From Anatolia (eastern Turkey)
  • 1600 B.C.
  • Capital: Hattusas
  • Control of 3 continents and seas
  • Created light-chariot warfare; horses
  • Excavated in 1907
  • Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European language
uluburun ship
Uluburun Ship
  • Coast of southern Turkey; 1310 B.C.
  • 350 copper ingots each weighing 60 lbs.
  • Ton of resin in two-handles jars from Syria
  • Ingots of blue glass; hardwood; amber; turtle shells; elephant tusks; hippo teeth; ostrich eggs; jars of olives; large jars filled with Cannaanite and Mycenean pottery
assyrian and babylonian
Assyrian and Babylonian
  • 900-539 B.C.
  • Assyrian capital: Nineveh
  • King Assurnasirpal’s party
  • Tiglath Pileser III destroyed Bethsaida in 732 B.C.
  • Last great Assyrian king Assurbanipal died in 630 B.C.
  • Babylonians take over in 612 B.C.
sennacherib
Sennacherib
  • Assyrian
  • 705-681 B.C.
  • Capital: Nineveh
  • Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C.
  • Ten Lost Tribes
nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
  • 604-562 B.C.
  • City of Babylon
  • Walls of glazed brick
  • Hanging gardens: one of the ancient seven wonders of the world
  • Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C.
  • State taken over by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.
archaeological research
ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Several skills used long before excavation begins in the field:

Theoretical skills

Methodological skills

Technical skills

Administrative/managerial skills

Writing and analytical skills

formulation
FORMULATION
  • Problem/hypothesis definition
  • Background research
  • Feasibility studies
implementation
IMPLEMENTATION
  • Permits
  • Funding
  • Logistics
data acquisition
DATA ACQUISITION
  • Reconnaissance
  • Survey
  • Excavation
data processing
DATA PROCESSING
  • Cleaning and conservation
  • Cataloging
  • Initial classifications
analysis
ANALYSIS
  • Analytical classifications
  • Temporal frameworks
  • Spatial frameworks
interpretation
INTERPRETATION
  • Application of theories
  • Cultural historical and/or
  • Cultural processual theory
publication and restoration
PUBLICATION AND RESTORATION
  • Final reports
  • Research results used as a foundation for new research
hymn to aton pharaoh akhenation
Hymn to Aton----Pharaoh Akhenation
  • Thou makes the Nile in the Nether world Thou bringest it as thou desirest,

To preserve alive the people of Egypt. For Thou hast made them for thyself, Thou lord of them all….

ancient egypt
ANCIENT EGYPT
  • The Greek writers said the land of Egypt was the gift of the Nile River
  • Starts in equatorial Africa as the White Nile and flows 2100 miles north to join the Blue Nile for the last 1900 miles
  • Egyptians called their country the “Two Lands”: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt
  • Travel either khed (downstream) or khent (upstream)
different from mesopotamia
Different from Mesopotamia
  • Egypt: stability and serenity
  • Mesopotamia: harsh environment, sporadic flooding, open plain allowed foreign incursions
  • Egypt: rich, fertile black soil; annual flooding; surrounded by deserts and Red Sea; abundant mineral resources; rich in granite, limestone, basalt
importance of egyptian chronology
Importance of Egyptian Chronology
  • All of the chronological dates in the Mediterranean area for ancient civilizations are based on Egyptian chronology
egyptian history
Egyptian History
  • “Pharaoh” is a biblical term; never used by the Egyptians themselves
  • Greek: pharaohs divided into 30 dynasties (3000 BC to Alexander)
  • Ptolemaic Egypt (332-30 BC)
  • Roman occupation (30 BC became an imperial province of Rome)
ancient egyptian periods
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS
  • Unification of Egypt 3100 B.C
  • Archaic Period 3100-2770 B.C.
  • Old Kingdom 2770-2200 B.C.
  • First Intermediate Period 2200-2050 B.C.
  • Middle Kingdom 2050-1786 B.C.
  • Second Intermediate 1786-1560 B.C.
ancient egyptian periods66
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN PERIODS
  • New Kingdom 1560-1087 B.C.
  • Late Period 1087-332 B.C.
  • Ptolemaic Period 332-30 B.C.
  • Roman Occupation 30 B.C.
unification of egypt
Unification of Egypt
  • 1st Pharaoh-----Narmer-----3100 B.C.
  • Unified Upper and Lower Egypt
  • Heirankapolis
  • 1st heiroglyphics
  • Narmer’s Pallette
old kingdom iiird dynasty
Old Kingdom: IIIrd Dynasty

2770 B.C.

  • Zoser (Djoser)
  • Great state power system;absolutism
  • Founder of the Old Kingdom
  • Builder of 1st Pyramid
  • Step Pyramid
  • Saqqarah
fourth dynasty
Fourth Dynasty
  • Parallels Early Bronze Age III (2650-

2350 B.C.)

  • Cheops (Khufu)
  • Chephren (Khafre)
  • Menkaure (Mycerinus)
  • Giza Pyramids and Sphinx
  • 2613-2494 B.C.
pyramid complex
Pyramid Complex
  • Temenos Wall
  • Mortuary Temple
  • Causeway
  • Funerary Temple
  • Pyramid
  • Family pyramids
heiroglyphics
HEIROGLYPHICS
  • Egyptian
  • “Priestly carving”
  • Pictogram
  • Stone inscriptions and papyrus writings
  • Jean Francois Champollion (1778- 1867)
  • Rosetta Stone
  • Heiroglyphic, Demotic, Greek
the 1st intermediate period and middle kingdom 2134 1640 bc
The 1st Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 BC)
  • Despotic, ruthless rulers
  • Conspicuous, costly monuments
  • Pepi I…..last pharaoh of Old Kingdom…94 years
  • Decline caused by drouth
  • Repeated famines for over 300 yrs.
  • Political chaos; disunity; rulers of small kingdoms
middle kingdom 2134 1640 bc
Middle Kingdom (2134-1640 BC)
  • Restored by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II operating out of Thebes
  • Middle Kingdom pharaohs (no outstanding names)
  • Less despotic
  • Concern for the common welfare
  • Classic period of Egyptian civilization
  • Extensive trade relations extended
middle kingdom
Middle Kingdom
  • Trade relations with entire eastern Mediterranean
  • Mined copper and gold in Sinai
  • Imported cedar from Lebanon
  • Inscriptions in Byblos and Ugarit
  • Objects from Aegean Islands and Minoan towns on Crete
  • Increased agricultural production
second intermediate period 1640 1530 b c
Second Intermediate Period1640-1530 B.C.
  • Hidau khasut (Hyksos)….”Princes of desert uplands”
  • Joseph story
  • Capital: Avaris in the Delta
  • Changed Egyptian civilization
  • Brought stronger bows, new forms of swords and daggers, and horse-drawn chariots (strength of New Kingdom)
new kingdom 1530 1070 bc 18th 19th 20th dynasties
New Kingdom (1530-1070 BC):18th-19th-20th Dynasties
  • Pharaoh Ahmose I: the Liberator
  • Turned Egypt into an efficiently run military state
  • This era the greatest in Egyptian history
  • Pharaohs become imperial rulers, skilled generals, and strong military leaders
new kingdom
New Kingdom
  • Main wars with Mitanni and Hittites
  • Financed with Nubian gold; lands upstream of the First Cataract
  • Centers primarily on the Late Bronze Period
  • This was the 1st true “International Period”
thebes the estate of amun
Thebes: the “Estate of Amun”
  • Amun-Ra: the “king of the gods”
  • Karnak and Luxor Temples
  • Built mainly during 18th dynasty
  • Ramasseum of Ramses II
  • “Estate of Amun” extended across west of the Nile; Valley of the Kings (62 royal burials)
the temples
The Temples
  • Deir el-Bahri (local cult of Hathor; mortuary temples; 11th dynasty Mentuhotep; 18th dynasty Hatshepsut; Tutmosis III temple complex for God Amun
  • Medinet Habu (Hatshepsut and Tutmosis III; Ramses III mortuary)
akhenaten and amarna
Akhenaten and Amarna
  • Rejects Amun for Aten
  • Ruled 1353-1336 BC (17 years)
  • Builds new city at El-amarna
  • Succeeded by Smenkhare, son of Amenhotep III (3 years)
  • Succeeded by Tutankhamun (1333-1323 BC)
tel el amarna
Tel El Amarna
  • Single stratum
  • Pharaoh Amenophis IV (Akhenaten)
  • 1375-1325 B.C.
  • Amarna Tablets
  • Political and cultural interactions between Egypt and the ancient Near East
19th dynasty 1307 1196 bc
19th Dynasty (1307-1196 BC)
  • Dominated by the Rameside pharaohs
  • Most powerful pharaoh: Ramses II (1290-1224 BC)
  • His tomb in Valley of Kings: recent find of his sons tombs under his
  • Ramses III: Dies in 1070 BC; last powerful pharaoh
  • Assyria: 725 BC
archaeology and language
Archaeology and Language
  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu
  • “PRST”
  • Cypriot-Minoans
  • “PLST”
palestine
PALESTINE
  • Ramses III and Medinet Habu
  • PRST: “Sea Peoples”
  • Cypriot-Minoan
  • PLST
early bronze age 3100 2000 bc
EARLY BRONZE AGE (3100-2000 BC)
  • EB I, II, III, IV
  • EBI (3100-2900): Sumeria, Egypt
  • Increasingly shorter periods
  • Faster transition
  • Larger populations
  • Increased technology and inventions
  • Two main bronze tools: axeheads and tanged daggers
early bronze age
EARLY BRONZE AGE
  • Broad Houses
  • Totally new pottery styles
  • Wide use of sickle blades
  • Canaanite culture in Israel: protohistorical
  • Most large Israeli cities established
  • “Family” burials: caves
urban period large cities for four reasons
“Urban Period”: Large Cities for Four Reasons
  • Hills convenient for fortification
  • Located on major water sources
  • In the center of agricultural areas
  • Beside major road junctions
  • Public buildings: palaces, temples, central granaries
  • Fortified urban centers for protection and agricultural districts
an interlude the ebiv mbi
An Interlude: The EBIV/MBI)
  • 300 years Palestine sparsely populated by pastoralists and village dwellers
  • Parallels Egypt’s 1st Intermediate era
  • Revived urbanization at beginning of MBII parallels Egypt’s Middle Kingdom
  • Only a few tels show occupation: Hazor, Megiddo, Bethshan, Jericho
middle bronze age 2000 1500 bc
MIDDLE BRONZE AGE (2000-1500 BC)
  • W.F. Albright said MBI was period of the Hebrew patriarchs
  • MBII and III (1800-1550 BC)
  • Large fortified cities; many found on virgin soil or places not occupied for centuries
  • Use of glacis, guard towers, massive wall fortification
middle bronze age
Middle Bronze Age
  • Total revolution in all aspects of material culture
  • Settlement pattern
  • Urbanism
  • Architecture
  • Pottery
  • Metallurgy
  • Burial customs
middle bronze age92
Middle Bronze Age
  • Numerous new types of metal weapons and tools
  • Sinuhe
  • Execration texts
  • Hyksos scarabs found in Israel
  • Invention of potter’s wheel with resulting finer ceramics
structure styles
STRUCTURE STYLES
  • Early Bronze Broad House
  • Iron Age II Four-Room House (1200-586 B.C.)
  • Solomonic (965-928 B.C.) Six-chambered Gate
  • Herod the Great (37-4 B.C.) Margin Stones
pseudo archaeology94
PSEUDO-ARCHAEOLOGY
  • “Chariot Of The Gods”
  • Indiana Jones
  • Pyramid Power
archaeology as a science
ARCHAEOLOGY AS A SCIENCE
  • Theoretical framework
  • Techniques
  • Methods
antiquarians three museums
Antiquarians: Three Museums
  • British Museum
  • Louvre Museum
  • Berlin Museum
the value of archaeology97
THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY
  • 1. It provides the general background of past cultures
  • 2. Historical records are by no means complete
  • 3. Helps in the translation and explanation of languages
  • 4. Validates some literature
methods of expressing dates
Methods of Expressing Dates:
  • B.C. and A.D.
  • B.C.E and A.C. E.
  • B.P and A.P.
josephus
JOSEPHUS
  • Jewish General
  • Turncoat
  • Antiquities and Wars of the Jews
  • Masada
site formation processes
SITE FORMATION PROCESSES:
  • Behavioral processes

Cultural

What in our modern societies would leave no remains?

site formation processes102
SITE FORMATION PROCESSES:
  • Transformational processes

Organic decay

Lava flow from volcanic eruptions

Plowing

Destruction

Erosion

Construction

Later occupants: “Philistine garbage pits”

Animal activity

the setting of archaeological data
THE SETTING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Matrix
  • Provenience
  • Association
archaeological context
ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONTEXT

Derived from the careful recording of the

matrix, provenience, and association

More than just a spot, a position in time and space…..involves assessing how

the find got to its position and what

happened since its deposition

the determinants of archaeological data
THE DETERMINANTS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA
  • Primary Context
  • Secondary Context
classifying archaeological sites
CLASSIFYING ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
  • By archaeological content
  • By artifact content
  • By geographical location
  • By artifact content related to site function
marcus aurelius

Marcus Aurelius

“TIME IS LIKE A RIVER MADE UP OF THE EVENTS WHICH HAPPEN, AND A VIOLENT STREAM; FOR AS SOON AS A THING HAS BEEN SEEN, IT IS CARRIED AWAY, AND ANOTHER COMES IN ITS PLACE, AND THIS WILL BE CARRIED AWAY, TOO.”

first question always
FIRST QUESTION ALWAYS:

HOW OLD IS IT?

chronology
CHRONOLOGY

The temporal ordering of data

chronology110

CHRONOLOGY

The measurement of time and the ordering of prehistoric cultures in chronological sequence has been of the archaeologist’s major preoccupations since the very beginning of scientific research

age determinations
AGE DETERMINATIONS
  • Relative
  • Absolute
relative chronology
RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY
  • The law of stratigraphy
  • The law of superposition
  • The law of association
  • The law of typology
classification
CLASSIFICATION

A means for ordering data

objectives of classification
OBJECTIVES OF CLASSIFICATION
  • Organizing data into manageable units
  • Describing types
  • Identifying relationships between types
  • Studying assemblage variation in the archaeological record
archaeological types
ARCHAEOLOGICAL TYPES
  • Descriptive types
  • Chronological types
  • Functional types
  • Stylistic types
attribute analysis
ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS

Formal attributes

Stylistic attributes

Technological attributes

age determination by archaeological classifications
Age Determination by Archaeological Classifications
  • Changes in……
  • Manufacturing methods
  • Function
  • Style
  • Decoration
sir flinders petrie
Sir Flinders Petrie
  • Diospolis Parva
  • Stylistic seriation
  • Predynastic Egyptian tombs
  • Storage Jars
attributes in typology
ATTRIBUTES IN TYPOLOGY
  • Formal attributes
  • Stylistic attributes
  • Technological attributes
absolute chronometric dating

ABSOLUTE/CHRONOMETRIC DATING

More effort has been devoted to inventing methods of chronometric dating in archaeology than to almost any other aspect of the subject.

calendars

CALENDARS

Greece

Rome

Egypt

Carthage

Mesopotamia

Maya

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