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Atoms and Atomic Structure. Law of Conservation of Mass Lavoisier (1743-1794). In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. P. 57. Click on picture for movie. CuCO 3 (s)  CuO(s) + CO 2 (g). 123.6 g. 79.6 g. ? g. CuCO 3 (s)  CuO(s) + CO 2 (g). 123.6 g. 79.6 g.

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Law of conservation of mass lavoisier 1743 1794 l.jpg
Law of Conservation of MassLavoisier (1743-1794)

In a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed.

P. 57

Click on picture for movie


Slide3 l.jpg

CuCO3(s)  CuO(s) + CO2(g)

123.6 g

79.6 g

? g


Slide4 l.jpg

CuCO3(s)  CuO(s) + CO2(g)

123.6 g

79.6 g

44.0 g


Slide5 l.jpg

CuCO3(s)  CuO(s) + CO2(g)

123.6 g

79.6 g

44.0 g

123.6 g

=

79.6 g + 44.0 g


Law of definite proportions proost 1754 1826 l.jpg
Law of Definite ProportionsProost (1754-1826)

Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass.

P. 58


Slide7 l.jpg

Mass Ratio of Cu:O:C in copper carbonate

Cu:O:C = 53:40:10 = 5.3 : 4: 1

Regardless of where the copper carbonate is found


Slide8 l.jpg

Mass Ratio of Cu:O:C in copper carbonate

Cu:O:C = 53:40:10 = 5.3 : 4: 1

If a sample of copper carbonate contains 20 g of carbon how many g of Cu will it contain?


Slide9 l.jpg

Mass Ratio of Cu:O:C in copper carbonate

Cu:O:C = 53:40:10 = 5.3 : 4: 1

If a sample of copper carbonate contains 20 g of carbon how many g of Cu will it contain?

Cu / C = 5.3g / 1g = x / 20g


Slide10 l.jpg

Mass Ratio of Cu:O:C in copper carbonate

Cu:O:C = 53:40:10 = 5.3 : 4: 1

If a sample of copper carbonate contains 20 g of carbon how many g of Cu will it contain?

(5.3g / 1g)20g = x


Slide11 l.jpg

Mass Ratio of Cu:O:C in copper carbonate

Cu:O:C = 53:40:10 = 5.3 : 4: 1

If a sample of copper carbonate contains 20 g of carbon how many g of Cu will it contain?

106 g = x


Law of multiple proportions john dalton l.jpg
Law of Multiple Proportions (John Dalton)

  • The masses of one element that can combine chemically with a fixed mass of another element are in a ratio of small whole numbers.

    2C + O22CO Carbon monoxide

    C + O2 CO2 Carbon dioxide

24 g

32 g

2:1

12 g

32 g

P. 59



Dalton s atomic theory l.jpg
Dalton’s Atomic Theory “individual” particle

John Dalton (1766-1844) proposed an atomic theory

  • matter is composed, indivisible particles (atoms).

  • all atoms of a particular element are identical

  • different elements have different atoms

  • atoms combine in certain whole-number ratios

  • In a chemical reaction, atoms are merely rearranged to form new compounds; they are not created, destroyed, or changed into atoms of any other elements.

P. 56-57


Ok matter is made of atoms but what are atoms what are atoms themselves made of l.jpg
OK! Matter is made of ATOMS “individual” particleBut what are ATOMS?What are ATOMS themselves made of?


Cathode ray tube l.jpg
Cathode–Ray Tube “individual” particle

P. 61


J j thompson 1856 1940 l.jpg
J.J. Thompson “individual” particle(1856-1940)


Cathode rays jj thompson l.jpg
Cathode Rays - JJ Thompson “individual” particle

P. 62


Mass of an electron l.jpg
Mass of an electron “individual” particle

  • Experiments performed by Thompson together with those of Robert Millikan were able to show that an electron has a mass of

    • 9.1 x 10-28 g

  • The mass of one atom of the lightest element, hydrogen, is 1.7 x 10-24 g

  • An electron is approx 1/2000th the mass of a H atom!


  • Slide20 l.jpg
    So the electron appears to be an insignificant part of the atom - from a mass point of view!How are electrons arranged inside an atom?


    Thompson s plum pudding model of the atom l.jpg
    Thompson’s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom atom - from a mass point of view!

    electron

    Diffuse positive

    charge


    Slide22 l.jpg

    Ernest Rutherford atom - from a mass point of view!

    (1871-1937)


    Nucleus of the atom rutherford 1871 1937 l.jpg
    Nucleus of the Atom atom - from a mass point of view!Rutherford (1871-1937)

    P. 64

    Click on picture for movie


    Nucleus of the atom continued l.jpg
    Nucleus of the Atom Continued atom - from a mass point of view!

    P. 64


    Nucleus of the atom continued rutherford l.jpg
    Nucleus of the Atom Continued (Rutherford) atom - from a mass point of view!

    • At the center of the atom is a very densenucleus that accounts for almost all the mass of the atom and contains all the positive charge.

    • He named these positive particles protons.

    • Protons have a relative mass of 1 and a charge of +1.

    P. 64


    Nucleus of the atom chadwick 1891 1974 l.jpg
    Nucleus of the Atom atom - from a mass point of view!Chadwick (1891-1974)

    • When atoms of beryllium were bombarded with alpha particles, new uncharged particles with mass identical to protons were emitted.

    • These uncharged particles were called neutrons.

    • Neutrons have a relative mass of 1 and a charge of zero.

    P. 64-65


    Characteristics of the three basic subatomic particles l.jpg
    Characteristics of the Three Basic Subatomic Particles atom - from a mass point of view!

    P. 65


    Arrangement of subatomic particles in the atom l.jpg
    Arrangement of Subatomic Particles in the Atom atom - from a mass point of view!

    P. 66


    Atoms are mainly empty space l.jpg
    Atoms are mainly EMPTY SPACE ! atom - from a mass point of view!


    Slide33 l.jpg

    And so are ALL OF US ! atom - from a mass point of view!


    Slide34 l.jpg

    Our first direct look at the atomic world atom - from a mass point of view!

    Get me out of here!


    Slide35 l.jpg

    View of Atoms from STM atom - from a mass point of view!


    Slide36 l.jpg

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy atom - from a mass point of view!


    Isotopes l.jpg
    Isotopes atom - from a mass point of view!

    • Atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.

      AXX = symbol of element

      ZA = mass number

      Z = atomic number

    • The isotopes of sulfur are written:

      32 S33S34 S36 S

      16 16 16 16


    Isotopes continued l.jpg
    Isotopes Continued atom - from a mass point of view!

    Which of the following represent isotopes of the same element? Which element?

    234X234 X235X238 X

    92939292


    Answer l.jpg
    Answer: atom - from a mass point of view!

    234 U234 Np235 U238U

    92939292

    234 Np is not an isotope of Uranium.

    93


    Isotopes of carbon l.jpg
    Isotopes of Carbon atom - from a mass point of view!

    12C13 C14C

    666


    Slide42 l.jpg

    Isotopes of Carbon atom - from a mass point of view!

    12C13 C14C

    666

    12 - 6 = 6

    neutrons

    13 - 6 = 7

    neutrons

    14 - 6 = 8

    neutrons

    Radioactive


    Carbon 14 dating l.jpg
    Carbon-14 Dating atom - from a mass point of view!

    • Used to date archeological artifacts up to 60000 years old

    • measures amount of radioactive 14C left in a sample

    • Amount of 14C decreases with time

    • will be discussed in detail in Ch 5


    Isotopic fingerprinting l.jpg
    Isotopic Fingerprinting atom - from a mass point of view!

    • The ratio of stable isotopes (e.g. 13C/12C) in a substance will vary slightly depending on the origin of the substance

    • for example, petroleum samples from different parts of the world will have different 13C/12C ratios

    • How could such information be useful?


    Time for some nuclear chemistry let s begin ch 5 l.jpg
    Time for some nuclear chemistry atom - from a mass point of view!…let’s begin Ch 5


    Periodic table mendeleev 1834 1907 l.jpg
    Periodic Table atom - from a mass point of view!Mendeleev (1834-1907)

    • Atoms arranged by ascending atomic number

    • Horizontal rows called periods

    • Vertical columns called groups

    • Elements within a group have similar chemical properties


    The periodic table l.jpg
    The Periodic Table atom - from a mass point of view!


    Properties of alkali metals and halogens l.jpg
    Properties of Alkali Metals and Halogens atom - from a mass point of view!


    Metals l.jpg
    Metals atom - from a mass point of view!

    Metals have distinctive properties

    • Good conductors of heat and electricity

    • Shiny appearance

    • Ductile and malleable

    • Are light purple in periodic table that is on the inside cover of the book


    Nonmetals l.jpg
    Nonmetals atom - from a mass point of view!

    • Do not conduct heat or electricity

    • Not ductile or malleable

    • Many exist as gases

    • Are green in periodic table that is on the inside cover of the book


    Semimetals l.jpg
    Semimetals atom - from a mass point of view!

    • Have properties that lie between those of metals and nonmetals

    • Are gold yellow in the periodic table that is on the inside cover of the book


    Reference l.jpg
    REFERENCE atom - from a mass point of view!

    • www.langara.bc.ca/chemistry/A_Mosi/C1117_Ch3.ppt


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