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Animal, Plant & Soil Science. Lesson C7-9 Feeding and Managing Sheep and Goats. Objectives. List and describe the food and non-food products produced by sheep and goats. Describe the types of production systems for sheep and goats.

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Animal, Plant & Soil Science

Lesson C7-9

Feeding and Managing

Sheep and Goats


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Objectives

  • List and describe the food and non-food products produced by sheep and goats.

  • Describe the types of production systems for sheep and goats.

  • Examine production practices involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats.


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Objectives

  • Analyze production practices involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning.

  • Describe the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats and analyze the types of feedstuffs they are fed.

  • range band method


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • Sheep and goats are very versatile and offer many products for human use.

  • These animals provide both food and non-food products.

  • Many of the non-food products are used in the manufacturing of items that are used every day.

  • For example, baseballs are stuffed with wool and sewn with wool thread, the rubber lining is prepared from stearic acid, and the center cork contains processed blood.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • A. Meat that comes from a sheep under one year old (young sheep) is referred to as lamb.

    • Mutton is meat from a sheep that is over one year old.

    • Mutton has a very different taste than lamb.

    • Lamb is considered a delicacy.

    • Mutton has a strong flavor and is not as popular as lamb.

    • Meat from goats is referred to as chevon, depending on the age of the animal.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • B. The hide of sheep is used for leather.

    • The wool is used for clothing and other products, such as rugs, insulation, and artist brushes.

    • The wool also contains lanolin.

    • Lanolin is the grease found in the wool and is used in ointments and cosmetics.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • 1. The fats and fatty acids from the carcass are used in products such as floor wax, candles, crayons, brake fluid, tanning lotion, cosmetics, and glycerol that helps asphalt stick.

  • 2. The manure from sheep and goats can be used as fertilizer and contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other various minerals.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • 3. The horns, hooves, and bones are used in a wide variety of products, such as shampoos/ conditioners, bone china, marshmallows, piano keys, and gelatin desserts.

  • 4. The products manufactured from the intestines can be the casings for foods such as sausages and hot dogs.

    • The intestines also provide materials used to make instrument strings.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • C. Goat milk can be used to make a cheese known as chevre.

    • Dairy goat producers market their products primarily through direct markets, farmers’ markets, Internet sales, or direct to retail stores and restaurants.

    • Goat cheese is one of the fastest-growing cheeses in the specialty cheese market.

    • It is considered a gourmet food, and restaurants use it in dishes such as pizza, salads, and desserts.


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What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • D. Meat goats are marketed through slaughter facilities, auctions, or on-farm sites to private buyers.

  • Meat goats are sold based on their size and age.

  • 1. An easter kid is a meat goat weighing 16 to 40 pounds.

    • It should not be castrated and is usually sold seasonally to ethnic markets.

  • 2. A cabrito is the meat from a milk-raised kid that weighs 25 to 40 pounds and is not castrated.

    • Chevon is the meat from goats of any age or size.

    • Generally, chevon meat is from goats weighing over 60 pounds.

  • 3. The price of goats is typically higher before major ethnic holidays.

    • There is an increasing interest in goat meat in gourmet restaurants.

    • Goat meat is often found on the menu and usually comes with a high price tag.


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What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • Goats and sheep can be raised together.

  • They complement each other’s eating likes and dislikes.

  • There are five types of sheep production systems.

  • Goats can be raised in similar situations.


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What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • A. The farm flock method of sheep production describes the farm flocks that can have one sheep or thousands of sheep.

    • The farms are located in the midwestern, eastern, and southern United States.

    • The purpose of farm flocks is to produce market lambs and wool.

    • Many dairy goats are also raised with this type of production method and are popular throughout the country.


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What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • B. A purebred flock is one that sells rams and ewes of an ideal type.

    • The management requirements are high, and knowledge of genetics is helpful.

    • Many people starting a 4-H or FFA project will go to a purebred flock for their first purchases.

    • Many dairy and meat goat breeds are raised in a purebred flock.

    • These flocks express highly valuable genetics and are seen in the show ring.


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What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • C. The range band method of sheep production involves large bands of sheep (between 1,000 and 1,500) that are managed over a large area by a herder.

    • In high vegetation areas, sheep are used for meat.

    • In low vegetation areas, sheep are used for wool because the feed is not suitable to produce a market-quality lamb.


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What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • D. Some producers use confinement methods.

    • Confinement means raising animals completely indoors.

    • This method is popular because of the need for less land, fewer parasite problems, the increased ability to monitor animals, and the success of raising other animals in confinement.

    • Some disadvantages include increased building costs, higher feed costs, and the increased need for intense management.

  • E. Lamb feeding production involves weaning lambs and selling them to feedlots where the lambs are fed out to slaughter weight.

    • Meat goats are commonly raised in this type of situation.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • All types of producers must maintain efficient production practices to raise sheep and goats in a healthy and productive environment.

  • These production practices start with well-managed breeding management systems.

  • A. Kidding is the process of a goat giving birth.

    • Lambing is the process of a sheep giving birth.

    • The gestation period for goats is about five months.

    • The gestation period for a sheep is about 150 days.

    • The gestation period can vary in both sheep and goat breeds.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • B. Sheep and goats are both seasonal breeders.

    • They are typically bred in late summer and early winter.

    • Meat goat breeding season depends on the decreasing of daylight.

    • There are no true signs of estrus other than acceptance of a ram/buck.

    • The estrus cycle of a ewe will occur every 16 to 17 days, while that of a goat will occur every 18 to 21 days.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • C. The number of lambs or kids a female may have will vary among breeds.

    • It is common for dairy goats to have twins or triples.

    • Twins or multiples are common in some sheep breeds.

    • A good production practice in sheep is to calculate the percent lamb crop.

    • The higher the percent lamb crop the more that will be ready for market.

    • Another important production practice is to maintain the mortality rate below 25 percent.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • D. The rams and/or bucks are kept separate from ewes until breeding season.

    • Rams should have access to water, pasture, and exercise.

    • Rams will require some additional grain feed during breeding and cold temperatures.

    • It is important to maintain a ram in good condition with low body fat.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • E. A bred ewe or doe will require high-quality hay, pasture, feed, water, shelter, and exercise.

    • Supplemental grains are used to maintain health and condition during pregnancy.

    • The ewe or doe should be observed very closely as parturition time occurs.

  • 1. It is common to shear the ewe’s wool around the dock, flank, and udder.

    • The ewe is also directed to a dry, sheltered pen.

    • Once the ewe enters an individual pen, grain should be reduced.


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What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?

  • 2. There are many complications that could occur at lambing or kidding time.

    • It is very important to observe and help ewes/does during the delivery.

    • It is a good production practice to make sure the young lamb/kid is in the right position.

    • It is also a good practice to make sure the ewe/doe accepts the young animal and allows nursing to begin.


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What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?

  • Several production practices are involved in the care of newborn lambs and kids.

  • A. Newborn lambs and kids should receive colostrum.

    • Colostrum is the first milk given by the mother.

    • It contains important nutrients for the newborn.

    • Mothers that deliver multiples can show acceptance to either one or none.

    • A common practice is to put a little bit of salt on the newborn lamb, allowing the ewe to lick and accept the baby.

    • If the mother has had complications during delivery, it is important for the producer to have supplemental nursing equipment ready.


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What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?

  • B. The navel on newborn lambs and kids should be dipped with iodine as soon as possible, and the newborn should be kept in a clean stall or pen.

  • C. The newborn should be identified as soon as possible.

    • Applying ear tags is a common method of identification for sheep and goats.

    • It is important to maintain good recordkeeping practices.

  • D. Lambs and kids should enter immediately into the flock’s vaccination schedule.

    • Lambs should be wormed and vaccinated for overeating at an older age.


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What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?

  • E. Lambs should be docked as soon as possible.

    • Docking is the removal or cutting off of part of the tail.

    • Docking is important because later, as the lamb grows, it prevents manure from accumulating and parasite infestation of the tail.

    • Lambs are typically docked from 3 to 10 days old.

    • Docking can be accomplished with the use of an elastic bank or electric docker.

    • Goats are not docked.

  • F. Castration of lambs should be conducted during the first month.

    • The equipment used is similar to docking.


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What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats? and kids from birth to weaning?

  • Sheep and goats are good grazers, and some do well in a range environment.

  • These animals are known for their scavenging ability.

  • Sheep and goats are efficient eaters of forage compared to beef animals.

  • Sheep will eat short grass and some broadleaf plants.

  • Goats will eat leaves off woody and broadleaf plants.


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What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats? and kids from birth to weaning?

  • A. Sheep and goats require carbohydrates and fats that are used for energy.

    • These substances are mainly supplied through pasture and hay.

    • Grain is used before and during lambing season, as well as during drought, overgrazing, and in snow-covered pastures.

    • Grains commonly used in a sheep/goat ration are corn, oats, wheat, and grain sorghums.


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What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats? and kids from birth to weaning?

  • B. Sheep and goats also require high levels of protein.

    • Protein levels are important due to the production of wool.

    • Legume grasses and plants found in a pasture setting contain good sources of protein for sheep and goats.

    • High-quality hay, containing alfalfa and clover, is also a good source of protein during the winter months.

    • Protein supplements may be used.

    • Sheep and goats raised in a range situation may develop a protein deficiency.

    • The producer should provide supplemental protein to prevent and/or control this problem.


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What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats? and kids from birth to weaning?

  • C. Sheep and goats need minerals and vitamins in their rations.

    • Salt and mineral mixtures are common supplements given to these animals.

    • Vitamins A, D, E, and K are important and should be maintained in the diet or fed by free choice.

  • D. Water is the final component of the sheep and goat diet.

    • The average mature sheep will consume up to one gallon of water per day.

    • It is important to offer fresh, clean water to sheep and goats.

    • However, these animals can find water from other sources, such as snow, dew, and lush, green pastures.


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Review and kids from birth to weaning?

  • What food and non-food products are produced by sheep and goats?

  • What different types of production systems are used for sheep and goats?

  • What production practices are involved in the reproductive management of sheep and goats?


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Review and kids from birth to weaning?

  • What production practices are involved in the care of lambs and kids from birth to weaning?

  • What are the nutritional requirements of sheep and goats?


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