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Amphibians of Florida. Amphibians. Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!) Pass (aquatic) larval stage as young Amphibios – From the Greek meaning “living a double life” Toes without claws Made up of three Orders: Anura (frogs & toads) Caudata (salamanders) Gymnophiona (caecilians).

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amphibians
Amphibians
  • Moist glandular skin (NO SCALES!)
  • Pass (aquatic) larval stage as young
    • Amphibios – From the Greek meaning “living a double life”
  • Toes without claws
  • Made up of three Orders:
    • Anura (frogs & toads)
    • Caudata (salamanders)
    • Gymnophiona (caecilians)
order anura
Order Anura
  • FROGS!!!!
  • Thick head and body with long, strong legs
  • Often advertise presence (especially during the breeding season) with a wide range of calls
family bufonidae
Family Bufonidae
  • Toads!
  • Have dry, glandular (warty) skin
  • Hop
bufo marinus
Bufo marinus
  • EXOTIC! (South America)
  • Huge size
  • Skin gland secretions can be highly toxic
  • Marine Toad / Giant Toad / Cane Toad
bufo quercicus
Bufo quercicus
  • Tiny size
  • Conspicuous, light middorsal stripe
  • Oak Toad

Photo By: J. Jensen

bufo terrestris
Bufo terrestris
  • Large knobs & high cranial crests
  • Extremely abundant
  • Southern Toad

Photo By: T. Blunden

Photo By: J. Jensen

family hylidae
Family Hylidae
  • Cricket Frogs, Treefrogs & Chorus Frogs!

Acris Hyla Pseudacris

  • Many species have enlarged, round toepads
  • Mostly relatively small-sized
  • Known for their wide variety of vocalizations
acris gryllus
Acris gryllus
  • Small size with slightly warty skin
  • Often bright green Y between eyes extends down the back
  • In Florida, back of thigh has two dark stripes
  • Southern Cricket Frog

Photo By: W. Knapp

hyla avivoca
Hyla avivoca
  • Greyish overall coloration with white spot under eye
  • Inner sides of thigh with greenish-yellowish wash
  • Similar to but smaller than Hyla chrysoscelis
  • Bird-voiced Treefrog

Photos By: W. Knapp

hyla chrysoscelis
Hyla chrysoscelis
  • Greyish overall coloration with white spot under the eye
  • Inner thighs with orange – yellow wash
  • Similar to but larger than Hyla avivoca
  • Cope’s Gray Treefrog

Photo By: W. Knapp

hyla cineria
Hyla cineria
  • Long body shape
  • Well defined light lateral line
  • Many have tiny golden spots on their backs

Photo By: T. Blunden

Photo By: T. Blunden

Green Treefrog

hyla femoralis
Hyla femoralis

Photo By: W. Knapp

  • Bright yellow-orange spots on inside of thigh (femoralis….)
  • Very variable overall coloration (grey, green, brown, patterned, uniform etc)
  • Pine Woods Treefrog

Photos By: W. Kapp

hyla gratiosa
Hyla gratiosa
  • Large round spots on back
  • Rugose skin
  • Large size
  • Large toepads
  • Dependent on fishless, ephemeral ponds for breeding
  • Barking Treefrog

Photo By: T. Blunden

Photo By: T. Blunden

Photo By: T. Blunden

hyla squirrela
Hyla squirrela
  • Rule out other frogs first!
  • Extremely variable overall coloration
  • No strong inner thigh markings
  • Extremely common, even in residential areas
  • Squirrel Treefrog

Photo By: J. Jensen

osteopilus septentrionalis
Osteopilus septentrionalis
  • Introduced species
  • Large!!
  • Forehead skin fused to bone
  • Usually a yellow wash near groin
  • Often found in urban/suburban environments, but can also invades natural areas
  • Range is still expanding northward.
  • CubanTreefrog
pseudacris crucifer
Pseudacris crucifer
  • Dark imperfect “X” marking on back
  • Pinkish, yellowish, brown or grey background color
  • Early winter breeder
  • Spring Peeper

Photo By: J. Jensen

pseudacris nigrita
Pseudacris nigrita

Photo By: J. Jensen

  • Three dorsal stripes (tend to break up near groin)
  • Prominent white lip line
  • Southern Chorus Frog

Photo By: W. Kapp

slide19

Pseudacris ocularis

  • Smallest Frog in North America
  • Prominent dark line through eye (ocularis...)
  • Usually found in small grassy wetlands
  • Little Grass Frog

Photo By: T. Blunden

pseudacris ornata
Pseudacris ornata
  • Black mask-like stripe through eye
  • Ornate Chorus Frog
  • Dark spots on sides & near groin

Photo By: A. Day

family leptodactylidae
Family Leptodactylidae
  • 1,110 species including 700 in the genus Eleutherodactylus (largest vertebrate genus)
  • Usually small
  • Mostly Tropical
eleutherodactylus planirostrus
Eleutherodactylus planirostrus
  • Introduced species
  • Small terrestrial frog
  • Call is very insect like
  • Undergoes metamorphosis in the egg (there is no free swimming larvae)

• Greenhouse Frog

Photo By: T. Blunden

family microhylidae
Family Microhylidae
  • Narrow-mouthed frogs

(Also known as Sheepfrogs)

  • Characterized by skin fold across back of head
  • Specialize on beetles, ants & ant lions
gastrophryne carolinensis
Gastrophryne carolinensis
  • Tiny, pointy head, fat round body
  • Skin fold on back of head
  • Eastern Narrowmouth Toad

Photo By: W. Kapp

family pelobatidae
Family Pelobatidae
  • American Spadefoots
  • Use single, bladelike spade on back feet to burrow rapidly down in loose soil
  • Explosive breeders after heavy rains
scaphiophus holbrookii
Scaphiophus holbrookii
  • Horny black spade on hind foot
  • Vertical pupil
  • Pale lyre / hourglass shape on dark back
  • Eastern Spadefoot Toad

Photo By: W. Knapp

Photo By: W. Kapp

Photo By: A. Day

family ranidae
Family Ranidae
  • True frogs!
  • Typical frogs with long legs, narrow waists and smooth, moist skin
  • Many have dorsolateral folds
  • Leap
  • Found on all continents except Antartica
  • Source of culinary frog legs
rana capito
Rana capito
  • Short body, pointy snout
  • Light background color with large dark spots
  • Found in xeric uplands
  • Usually uses Gopher Tortoise burrows as refugia
  • Gopher Frog

Photo By: T. Blunden

rana catesbiana
Rana catesbiana
  • Mostly plain green or brown above
  • No dorsolateral ridges
  • Some mottling below
  • Webbing on 4th hind toes does not fully extend to tip
  • Bull Frog

Photo by T. Blunden

Photo By: J. Jensen

rana clamitans
Rana clamitans
  • Plain brown/bronzy back
  • Incomplete dorsolateral ridges
  • Center of tympanum elevated
  • Green / Bronze Frog

Photo By: J. Jensen

rana grylio
Rana grylio
  • Large, plain frog, very sim. to R. catesbiana
  • Webbing on 4th hind toes extends fully to tip
  • No dorsolateral ridges
  • Pig Frog

Photo By: T. Lamb

rana heckscheri
Rana heckscheri
  • Large, greenish black frog with light spots on the lips
  • No dorsolateral ridges
  • Dark below with light markings
  • River Frog

Photo By: A. Day

rana sphenocephala
Rana sphenocephala
  • Green or brown frog with darker spots
  • Strong dorsolateral ridges, often light colored
  • Light spot in center of tympanum
  • Southern / Florida Leopard Frog
  • Called Rana utricularia in Peterson’s Field Guide

Photo By: D. Stevenson

order caudata
Order Caudata
  • SALAMANDERS!!!!
  • The Americas have more salamanders than the rest of the world combined, and the southeastern US has more salamanders than anywhere else in North America.
family ambystomatidae
Family Ambystomatidae
  • Mole salamanders!
  • Fossorial
  • Tend to be stout with large heads
ambystoma cingulatum
Ambystoma cingulatum
  • Medium background color with lighter, netlike pattern
  • Rare species
  • Inhabitant of longleaf pine-wiregrass flatwoods with cypress heads
  • Dependent on fishless ponds to breed
  • Flatwoods Salamander

Photo By: J. Jensen

ambystoma talpoidium
Ambystoma talpoidium
  • Chunky body with large head
  • Dark overall coloration with bluish-grey flecks
  • Mole Salamander

Photos By: J. Jensen

family amphiumidae
Family Amphiumidae
  • Eel-like
  • Tiny front AND back legs
  • No external gills
amphiuma means
Amphiuma means
  • Eel-like, LARGE
  • Four tiny legs with two toes each
  • Almost completely aquatic, but may move overland on extremely wet nights in flooded areas
  • Two-toed Amphiuma, congo eel, conger eel, lamper eel, ditch eel

Photo By: J. Jensen

Photo By: K. Sorenson

family plethodontidae
Family Plethodontidae
  • Lungless salamanders!
  • Respire through the skin
  • Tend to be slender with long tails
  • Have a nasolabial groove
  • Found most commonly in areas with some kind of running water (streams, seeps, springs & waterfalls)
desmognathus apalachicola
Desmognathus apalachicola
  • 10-14 pairs of light, often coalescing dorsal spots w/ black fringes
  • Belly pure white
  • Apalachicola Dusky Salamander
desmognathus auriculatus
Desmognathus auriculatus
  • Dark overall
  • Series of “portholes” along sides of body and tail
  • Associated with cypress ponds and stagnant pools
  • Southern Dusky Salamander

Photo by: B. Means

eurycea cirrigera
Eurycea cirrigera
  • Two dark lines bordering yellowish middorsal stripe
  • Tail longer than body
  • Five toes on hind feet
  • Southern Two-lined Salamander

Photo By: J. Jensen

eurycea longicauda
Eurycea longicauda
  • Three dark stripes on yellow background
  • Tail longer than body
  • Five toes on hind feet
  • Three-lined Salamander

(listed as Eurycea longicauda guttolineatta in Peterson’s)

Photo By: J. Jensen

eurycea quadridigittata
Eurycea quadridigittata
  • Very tiny size
  • Four toes on hind feet
  • Three dark stripes on lighter background
  • Dwarf Salamander

Photo By: D. Stevenson

plethodon grobmani
Plethodon grobmani
  • Long, skinny, mostly black salamander with light flecks
  • Distinct costal grooves
  • Southeastern Slimy Salamander (part of P.glutinosus complex)
pseudotriton montanus
Pseudotriton montanus
  • Plain rusty brown color above
  • Pale venter with sparse dark speckles
  • Eastern / Rusty Mud Salamander (listed as P. m. floridanus in guide)

Photo By: W. Van Devender

pseudotriton ruber
Pseudotriton ruber
  • Reddish orange above with white flecking, esp. concentrated on head
  • Belly pale with many small black speckles
  • Red Salamander

(ours listed as P. r. vioscai in guide)

Photo By: J. Jensen

family salamandridae
Family Salamandridae
  • Newts!
  • Terrestrial stage with rough, glandular skin
  • Some species may have complicated life cycles:

Egg  Larva  Eft  Adult

AQUATIC AQUATIC TERRESTRIAL AQUATIC

notopthalmus perstriatus
Notopthalmus perstriatus
  • Small with rough skin
  • Light colored with dark spots
  • Red dorsolateral stripes (faint on specimen – look hard!)
  • Dependent on fishless ponds to breed – RARE
  • Striped Newt

Photos By: J. Jensen

notopthamus viridiscens
Notopthamus viridiscens

Photo By: R. Birkhead

  • Small with rough skin
  • Dusky colored with lighter orange, yellow, or red spots
  • Pale belly with many dark flecks
  • Eastern Newt

Photo By: J. Jensen

family sirenidae
Family Sirenidae
  • Highly aquatic
  • Eel-like, but with substantial front legs
  • No hind legs
  • External, bushy gills
siren intermedia
Siren intermedia
  • NO HIND LIMBS
  • Eel-like with bushy gills
  • Large front limbs
  • Medium size
  • Highly aquatic
  • Lesser Siren

Photo By: J. Jensen

siren lacertina
Siren lacertina
  • Eel-like with bushy gills
  • NO HIND LEGS
  • Large, well developed front limbs
  • Large size
  • Highly aquatic
  • Greater Siren

Photo By: J. Jensen

questions
Questions?

Photo By: T. Blunden

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