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Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice. Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P. Am I Stoned?. A 1999 Utah anti-drug pamphlet warns:

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Health Consequences of Environmental Degradation and Social Injustice

Martin Donohoe, M.D., F.A.C.P.


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Am I Stoned?

A 1999 Utah anti-drug pamphlet warns:

“Danger signs that your child may be smoking marijuana include excessive preoccupation with social causes, race relations, and environmental issues”



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Portland, OregonMount Hood



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Causes of Environmental Degradation

  • Overpopulation

  • Pollution

  • Deforestation

  • Global Warming

  • Agricultural/Fishing Practices

  • Overconsumption / Affluenza

  • Militarization


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Causes of Environmental Degradation

  • Maldistribution of Wealth

  • National and Global Political and Economic Institutions

  • Poor education

  • Media manipulation and inaccurate reporting

  • Unbalanced political influence

  • Citizen apathy


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Consequences of Environmental Degradation

  • Increased poverty and overcrowding

  • Famine

  • Weather extremes

  • Species loss


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Consequences of Environmental Degradation

  • Medical illnesses

  • Infectious diseases

  • War

  • Malthusian chaos and disaster

  • Tragedy of the Commons


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Economic Costs of Environmental Diseases

  • Estimated at $132-165 billion/year in the U.S. alone

    • Does not count the psychological and emotional costs of the human suffering involved for the victims, their families, and their communities


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Overpopulation

  • World population - exponential growth

    • 1 billion in 1800

    • 2.5 billion in 1950

    • 6 billion in 2000

    • 6.5 billion in 2006

    • est. 8 billion by 2050

  • More people added to the planet in the last 40 years than in all previous recorded history


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Overpopulation

  • Africa, Asia, and Latin America primarily affected

  • Causes:

    • Poverty

    • Women’s rights issues


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Overpopulation

  • Urbanization

    • 20-30 million people/year leave rural for urban areas

    • 2007: first time in history that more than half the world’s population will live in urban areas

  • World migrant population = 100 million -economic, war and environmental refugees


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Urban Sprawl

  • Since the 1960’s America’s metropolitan areas have been consuming land at a rate 4x faster that population growth


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Wallace Stegner

“We simply need … wild country available to us, even if we never do more than drive to its edge and look in. For it can be a means of reassuring ourselves of our sanity as creatures, a part of the geography of hope”




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Air Pollution

  • Top ten most polluted cities in the world are in China and India

  • Most polluted areas in US:

    • 2001 – LA

    • 2002 – Houston

    • 2003 – San Joaquin Valley in Central California

    • 2004, 2006 – LA


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Health Effects of Air Pollution

  • Causes approximately 75,000 premature deaths/yr. in U.S.

  • 1.8 million worldwide


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Health Effects of Air Pollution

  • Air pollution causes asthma and impairs lung development and function

  • Deaths from cardiopulmonary diseases correlate with air pollution levels in US cities

    • Both day to day and over time


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Health Effects of Air Pollution

  • Increased admissions for CHF, asthma, COPD, PVD, and cerebrovascular disease

  • Increased lung cancer mortality

  • Decreased exercise tolerance, increased pulmonary symptoms

  • Impaired sperm production


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Effects of Ozone Destruction

  • Ozone hole over Antarctic (2½X size of Europe)

  • Increased cataracts (UV damage)

  • Increased lifetime melanoma risk

    • 1/1500 - 1930

    • 1/68 - today



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Automobiles

  • Number of autos-US: 1 car/2 people-Mexico: 1/8-China: 1/100 (increasing; leaded gasoline)

  • Global auto population to double in 25-50 years


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Automobiles

  • Average miles traveled/car/year in U.S.

    • 1965 - 4,570 mi.

    • 1975 - 6,150 mi.

    • 1985 - 7,460 mi.

    • 1995 - 9,220 mi.

    • 2006 – 12,000 mi.


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Automobiles

  • Average fuel efficiency of U.S. autos stagnant

  • Relatively low oil prices

  • Growing market for low-efficiency pickups, minivans, and sport-utility vehicles

  • Ford Model T – 25 mpg (1908); Avg. Ford vehicle – 22.6 mpg (2003)


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Automobiles: Alternatives

  • Rapid transit-industry squashed in 1930’s and 40’s (GM, Standard Oil, Firestone, etc.)-Convicted under Sherman Antitrust Act


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Automobiles: Alternatives

  • Car sharing

  • Pay-as-you-drive auto insurance

  • “Peak Pricing” and “Congestion Fees”

    • E.g., London → 30% decrease in traffic, 37% increase in bus ridership, cleaner air

  • Bicycles/walking

    • 30% of all trips by bike in Amsterdam; 2% in Portland, OR


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Alternatives to Automobiles

  • Busses

  • Trains

    • 15 x more efficient per passenger than autos

    • Amtrak receives 1/3 the amount of federal funding (adjusted for inflation) that it received 20 years ago


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Automobiles: Alternatives

  • Electric cars-killed by oil companies, automakers in early 20th century

  • Natural gas, gasohol, and biodiesel

  • Telecommuting


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Automobiles: Alternatives

  • Solar cars

  • Hydrogen-powered cars

    • Byproduct = water

    • Problem: Hydrogen production requires fossil fuels


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US Energy Consumption by Fuel

  • Oil – 40%

  • Gas – 25%

  • Coal – 25%

  • Nuclear – 9%

  • Hydroelectric – 1%

  • Other Renewables – 1.5%


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U.S. Energy Sources for Electricity

  • Coal – 52%

  • Nuclear – 20%

  • Gas – 16%

  • Hydroelectric – 7%

  • Oil – 3%

  • Renewables – 2%


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Energy Spending/Research

  • Since 1947, the U.S. has spent $145 billion on nuclear R and D vs. $5 billion on renewables R and D

  • BP invests $100 million annually in clean energy = amt. it spends annually to market its new name and environmentally-friendly image of moving “Beyond Petroleum”


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Petroleum Industry Profits

  • Mergers squelch competition, drive up prices

  • Record-breaking oil company profits in 2005 and 2006

    • Exxon: $36 billion in 2005

      • Largest in U.S. history

      • Exceeds GDP of 2/3 of world’s nations


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Oil and War

  • Countries that export oil are >40 times more likely to be engaged in civil war than those that do not

  • Gulf Wars I and II

  • The Future?


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Other Sources of Air Pollution

  • Industry - #1

  • Indoor combustion of coal and biomass (wood, charcoal, crop residues, and animal dung) for cooking, heating and food preservation

    • Used by almost 3 billion people worldwide

    • Associated with multiple pulmonary conditions



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Garbage

  • 98% of the country’s total refuse is industrial waste; 2% municipal waste

    • Making 1 lb of sellable product generates avg. 32 lbs. of waste


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Garbage

  • American produce 4.4 lbs/d garbage

  • In a lifetime, the average American will throw away 6500 times his/her adult weight in garbage


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U.S. Garbage Composition

  • Paper and Paperboard - 39%

  • Yard Waste - 13%

  • Food Waste - 10%

  • Plastics - 10%

  • Metals - 8%

  • Glass - 6%

  • Wood - 5%


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U.S. Recycling Rates

  • Tires - 22%

  • Plastic containers - 36%

  • Glass containers - 28%

  • Yard waste - 41%

  • Paper and Paperboard - 42%

  • Aluminum packaging - 54%

  • Steel cans - 60%

  • Auto batteries - 93%


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Garbage

  • Landfills

  • Incinerators

  • Garbage Exports



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Toxins

  • 6 trillion tons of over 85,000 chemicals produced annually

    • 2000-3000 new chemicals registered each year

    • more than 80% have never been screened for toxicity


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Toxic Pollutants

  • The chemical industry is a $450 billion enterprise in the U.S. alone

  • Chemical manufacturers are not required to prove safety

    • the legal burden is on the government to prove that a product is dangerous


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Pesticides

  • 4.5 billion lbs/yr pesticides (17 lbs/citizen)

  • CA and NY are the only states currently tracking pesticide sales and use


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Pesticides

  • EPA: U.S. farm workers suffer up to 300,000 pesticide-related acute illnesses and injuries per year

  • NAS: Pesticides in food could cause up to 1 million cancers in the current generation of Americans

  • WHO: 1,000,000 people killed by pesticides over the last 6 years


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Pesticides

  • Children living on or near farms score 5 points lower on IQ tests and other mental and verbal tests

    • May be due to pesticide exposure

  • Even so, the EPA and NAS have OK’d human subject testing



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Pesticides

  • $2.4 billion worth of insecticides and fungicides sold to American farmers each year

    • Evidence suggests these actually promote pests (vs. natural pesticides)

      • 30% of medieval crop harvests were destroyed by pests vs. 35-42% of current crop harvests

    • Implies organic farming more cost-effective


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Toxins

  • Body burden of industrial chemicals, pollutants and pesticides high

    • Environmental Working Group (2004)found 287 pesticides, consumer product ingredients, and wastes from burning coal, gasoline, and garbage in umbilical cord blood

      • Many other compounds not even tested; numbers undoubtedly higher

  • Fetuses and children most vulnerable


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Toxic Pollutants – Economic Costs

  • Americans pay more than $54 billion annually for direct medical expenses plus special schooling and long-term care for pediatric diseases caused by toxins in the environment

    • Lead = $43.4 billion

  • This excludes the greatest toxic pollutant - tobacco


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Lead

  • Affects brain development, associated with lower IQ

  • Elevated levels associated with violent behavior

  • Poor, African-Americans more commonly exposed


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Leaded Gasoline

  • Banned in Canada in 1990, US in 1996 (after 25-year phaseout period), EU in 2002, Africa in 2006

    • Ban fought by industry for decades

  • Many countries still sell leaded gasoline:

    • Indonesia, Venezuela, North Korea, Iraq, Afghanistan, Jordan, Syria, Yemen


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Mercury

  • Released into air by coal combustion, industrial processes, mining, and waste disposal

    • 4500 tons/yr

  • Travels throughout atmosphere and settles in oceans and waterways

  • Bacteria convert it to toxic methyl-mercury

  • Travels up food chain via fish


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Mercury

  • 16% of women of childbearing age exceed the EPA’s “safe” mercury level

    • Per EPA

  • Freshwater fish mercury levels too high for pregnant women to eat in 43 states


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    Mercury

    • New EPA ruling ineffective:

      • allows cap-and-trade of power plant emissions

      • Renmoves power plants from list of pollution sources subject to federal Clean Air Act


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    Toxic Pollutants

    • 85,000 known or suspected hazardous waste sites in the U.S.

      • Plus up to 600,000 lightly contaminated former industrial sites (“brownfields”)

    • Will cost hundreds of billions of dollars to mitigate environmental impacts


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    Toxic Pollutants

    • 1 in 4 U.S. citizens lives within 4 mile of a Superfund site (approximately 1,305 sites listed; another 2,500 sites eligible)

    • Taxpayers paying increasing share of cleanup costs


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    Environmental Racismand Toxic Imperialism

    • Environmental Racism

      • waste dumps/incinerators more common in lower SES neighborhoods

      • “Cancer Belt” (Baton Rogue to New Orleans)

    • Toxic Imperialism


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    Toxic Pollutants:The Basel Convention

    • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes (designed to control dumping of hazardous wastes from the industrialized world in developing countries)

    • Despite being the largest producer of toxic pollutants in the world, the U.S. has signed but not ratified this agreement



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    Persistent Organic Pollutants

    • Toxic, remain in environment long-term, resist degradation, can travel long distances

    • Bioaccumulate - higher concentrations as you move up the food chain

    • Most are endocrine disruptors


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    Persistent Organic Pollutants

    • UN Environmental Program organizing worldwide phaseout of top 12 through the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

    • U.S. has signed, but not ratified


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    Toxic Pollutants

    • Floriculture

    • Diamond and Gold Mining


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    Medical Waste

    • The 6,000 US hospitals generate 2 million tons of waste per year; clinics and doctors’ offices an additional 700,000 tons

      -850,000 tons incinerated

      -15% infectious waste

      -incinerated pollutants include dioxin, mercury, cadmium and lead

      -EPA regulations weak

      -segregation and alternatives to incineration would cost 93 cents/patient/day


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    Medical Waste

    • Solutions:

      • 80% of thermometers no longer contain mercury

      • Remove PVCs from medical supplies (e.g., IV tubing)


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    Medical Waste

    • Organizations:

      • Health Care Without Harm

      • Green Health Center Movement

    • NAS: Hospitals built and operated on more environmentally sosund principles save money and produce better patient outcomes


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    Electronic Waste

    • Only 5-10% of computers recycled

    • Most sent overseas

    • EU now requires electronics firms to recycle and to eliminate lead, cadmium and mercury from their products

    • Maine passed first law requiring elctronic manufacturers to pay for recycling their discarded products


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    Water

    • UN adopted water as a human right in 2002

      • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

      • US has signed but not ratified


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    Water

    • Only 2.5% of the earth’s water is fresh

    • 2/3 of this locked up in glaciers and ice caps

      • As glaciers and polar ice caps melt, this is mixed with sea water


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    Water

    • U.S. water consumption: 81% irrigation, 6% domestic use

    • Worldwide freshwater supplies dwindling

      • Drying up: Aral Sea, Great Lakes, etc.


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    Water

    • Clean Water Act of 1972 has decreased pollution in the US

      • Under threat from the Bush Administration

      • 80% of US waterways never receive any comprehensive testing for pollutants


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    Water

    • In developing countries, 90-95% of sewage and 70% of industrial wastes are dumped untreated into the local water supply

    • 13,000-15,000 deaths per day worldwide from water-related diseases


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    Water

    • Out of 191 nations in the world, 10 nations share 65% of the world’s annual water resources

    • A woman in a developing country walks an average of 6 km/day to obtain water


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    Water

    • Privatization schemes supported by the World Bank and IMF lead to price increases, worsen poverty

      • 5-10% of world’s water privatized - increasing

      • Privatization increases costs, incites social unrest (e.g., Cochabamba, Bolivia)

      • 15% of US water in private hands

    • Water expected to be the major cause of wars by 2050 or sooner


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    Water Pollution – Increased Beach Closings


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    Infamous Industrial Disasters

    • Minimata, Japan, 1920s-1970s (Chisso Corporation) - methylmercury poisoning -400 dead; 10,000 injured

    • Bhopal, India, 1984 (Union Carbide) - methyl isocyanate gas

      • 7000-10,000 dead within 3 days, 15,000-20,000 more over next 10 years; tens of thousands injured

      • persistent water and soil contamination

      • Indian government extradition request for Warren Anderson


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    Minimata DiseaseW Eugene Smith


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    Infamous Industrial Disasters

    • Chernobyl, USSR, 1986 - nuclear power plant explosion

      -25-100 dead, up to 1,000 injured acutely, NCI estimates 10-75K thyroid cancers

    • Alaska, Exxon Valdez, 1989 - oil spill-wildlife devastated, $5 billion damage

    • 2006 BP Alaskan pipeline ruptures




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    Deforestation

    • Tropical forests constitute 7% of land surface area, contain > 50% of plant and animal species

    • Majority of tropical forests destroyed

    • One acre of world’s forest cut down every second

    • 50% of global wetlands destroyed (54% in U.S.)


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    Deforestation

    • Historical-Easter Island (Polynesians), Middle East, U.S. Southwest (Anasazi Indians)

    • Contemporary-Mauritania, Ethiopia, Haiti deforested-Philippines and Thailand are now net importers of forest products, looking at Latin America

    • Next?-Amazon, B.C., Alaska, many others


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    Deforestation: Causes

    • New agricultural settlements (overpopulation, poverty, unsustainable farming practices)

    • Logging

    • Oil and gas exploration

    • Cattle ranching

    • Drug cultivation-Peru, Bolivia, Columbia





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    Global Warming

    • Greenhouse effect

      • 30% increase in atmosphere CO2 since industrialization began (6.25 billion tons/year)

      • Fossil Fuels

      • Methane, choloroflurocarbons, nitrous oxide


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    Global Warming

    • 19 of the last 20 years have been the hottest ever recorded (data go back to 1856)

      • 2005 the hottest

    • Average global surface temperature = 58.3°

      • Hottest temperature in last 10,000 years

    • Pacific Northwest warming up faster than anywhere else on the planet


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    Consequences of Global Warming

    • 150,000 deaths and 5.5 million disability-adjusted life years lost per year

      • WHO, UN Environment Program

      • Expected to double by 2030

      • ↑ weather extremes/natural disasters/insurance claims

      • Floods, cholera, rising malaria zone


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    Consequences of Global Warming

    • Polar icecaps/glaciers/Greenland ice sheet/permafrost melting, sea levels rising

      • Artic ice pack has lost 40% of its thickness compared with 1960

      • Glacier National Park’s glaciers melting

      • Snows of Kilimanjaro down 85% compared to 1912; will be gone by 2015







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    Consequences of Global Warming

    • Increased allergies/asthma/anaphylaxis

      • Rising temperatures increase smog/ground level ozone

      • Higher levels of CO2 favor growth of ragweed and other pollen-producing plants


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    Global Warming

    • The top 1/5 of the world’s largest 145 countries account for 63% of global C02 emissions (lowest 1/5 = 2%)

    • The countries likely to be most affected by global warming are those least responsible for the increases in global temperature



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    Agriculture

    • Soil erosion exceeds soil formation

      • In the past 40 years, 1/3 of U.S. topsoil has eroded

      • Takes 1,000 years to “grow” 1 inch of soil

    • Water use has tripled since 1950, up 6-fold over 20th Century

      • 70% of freshwater use in agriculture

    • Large scale irrigation projects (e.g., China’s Three Gorges Dam)



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    Wasted Food

    • Household food waste adds up to $43 billion/yr in the U.S.

    • An average American family of four tosses out $590/yr food

    • Americans discarded 3 times as much food in 2005 as in 1985


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    Decreasing crop diversity

    • 75,000 plant species are edible

    • Humans have utilized 7000 plant species for food

    • 20% of species provide 80% of the world’s food

    • Consequences: decreasing genetic diversity, vulnerability to disease, huge crop losses (e.g., Irish potato famine)


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    Factory Farming

    • Factory farms have replaced industrial factories as the # 1 polluters of American waterways

    • 1.4 billion tons animal waste generated/yr

      • 130 x human waste

      • 1 hog farm in NC generates as much sewage annualy as all of Manhattan




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    Factory Farm Waste

    • Most untreated

    • Ferments in open pools

    • Seeps into local water supply, estuaries

      • Kills fish

      • Causes human infections - e.g., Pfisteria pescii,Chesapeake Bay

    • Creates unbearable stench

    • Widely disseminated by floods/hurricanes


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    Agricultural Antibiotic Use

    • Agriculture accounts for 70% of U.S. antibiotic use

      • Use up 50% over the last 15 years


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    Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens

    • CDC: “Antibiotic use in food animals is the dominant source of antibiotic resistance among food-borne pathogens.”

    • $4billion/yr to treat antibiotic-resistant infections in humans

      • Campylobacter fluoroquinolone resistance

      • VREF (poss. due to avoparcin use in chickens)


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    Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use

    • Decrease overcrowding

    • Better diet/sanitation/living conditions

    • Control heat stress

    • Vaccination

    • Increased use of bacterial cultures and specific antibiotic treatment in animals when indicated


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    Alternatives to Agricultural Antibiotic Use: Vegetarianism

    European Union bans antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed (1/06)


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    Overfishing

    • Fisheries collapsing:

      • Newfoundland cod

      • West Coast salmon

    • 1/3 of fish species threatened with extinction

      • 90% drop in # of largest predatory ocean fish since 1950

    • Large amounts of bycatch discarded


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    Harmful Fishing Practices

    • Long-lining, large factory trawlers, drift nets

    • Cyanide fishing (400 kg/year)

    • Dynamite Reef fishing




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    The Military Harms Fish

    • Environmental destruction

    • Navy sonar harming/killing off whales

      • Japanese/Norwegian whaling compounds problem

    • Dolphins as mine detectors (in Vietnam and Iraq)

    • Weaponizing sharks, dolphins, etc. (DARPA)


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    Coral Reefs

    • 10% of world’s reefs ruined (90% In Philippines), 30% in critical condition

    • Reefs make up 2% of ocean floor, support ¼ of all marine life

    • Americans purchase 350,000 pieces of live coral broken off from reefs per year


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    Aquaculture

    • 27-33% of fish now consumed is farmed (vs. 4% in 1970)

      • almost all catfish and trout

      • 1/2 of shrimp

      • 1/3 of salmon


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    Aquaculture

    • Consequences

      • decreased diversity

      • antibiotics (incl. chloramphenicol), hormones, dyes, herbicides, pesticides, algicides → increased pollution and sewage

      • damage to local estuaries, birds of prey

      • disease


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    Aquaculture

    • Good seafood (clean water):

      • Clams

      • Mussels

      • Oysters

      • scallops

    • Bad seafood

      • Farmed salmon contains 10X as much PCBs as wild salmon


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    Maldistribution of Wealth

    • 500 billionaires worldwide

      • top 250 billionaires worth $1 trillion, the combined income of bottom 2.5 billion people (45% of world’s population)


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    Maldistribution of Wealth

    • U.S: Richest 1% of the population owns 33-50% of the country’s wealth -poorest 90% own 30%-widest gap of any industrialized nation


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    The Stock Market

    • 20% of Americans own stock; 90% of stock owned by 10% (50% by 1%)

      • “Business” news

    • As a group, U.S. Senators beat the market by an average of 12% from 1993-98 (study published 2004)

      • The best fund managers average 3%


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    Maldistribution of wealth

    • The worldwide gap between rich and poor doubled between 1960 and 1990, and grew an additional 20% between 1990 and 1998

    • This gap is higher in the U.S. than in any other industrialized nation


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    Maldistribution of wealth

    • Less than 4% of the combined wealth of the 225 riches individuals in the world would pay for ongoing access to basic education, health care (including reproductive health care), adequate food, safe water, and adequate sanitation for all humans (UNDP)


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    George Orwell

    “Some people are more equal than others”


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    Maldistribution of Wealth/Resources Threatens National Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • “The U.S. has about 50% of the world’s wealth, but only 6.3% of its population. This situation cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity withoug positive detriment to our national security.”

      • George Kennan, U.S. State Dept. Policy Planning Study, 1948


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    Voltaire Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    “The comfort of the rich rests upon an abundance of the poor”


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    Primo Levi Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    “A country is considered the more civilized the more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful one too powerful.”


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    Racial Disparities: Economic Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Income disparities

      • Median income of black U.S. families as a percent of white U.S. families = 60% in in 1968; 58% in 2002

    • Educational disparities

    • Higher levels of unemployment


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    Racial Disparities: Economic Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Criminal justice system involvement

    • Toxic waste sitings / environmental injustice / environmental racism

    • Persistent overt / subtle discrimination

      • E.g., “driving while black”


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    Racial Disparities: Health Care Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Higher maternal and infant mortality

    • Higher death rates for most diseases

    • Shorter life expectancies

    • Less health insurance

    • Fewer diagnostic tests / therapeutic procedures


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    Income Inequality Kills Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels


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    Overconsumption (Affluenza) Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • U.S. = 6.3% of world’s population

      • Own 50% of the world’s wealth

    • U.S. responsible for:-25% of world’s energy consumption-33% of paper use-72% of hazardous waste production (1 ton/person/year)


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    But are we happier? Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Workloads increasing, vacation and free time decreasing

      • Average American wastes 62 hrs/yr sitting in rush hour traffic

      • Average American working 200 more hrs/yr than in 1960

      • 8/10 Americans want a new job (CNNMoney.com, 11/03)

    • Stress up / satisfaction with life down


    Erosion of social capital l.jpg
    Erosion of social capital Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Erosion of social capital is strongest where maldistribution of wealth is largest

    • Americans have an average of 2 close friends today

      • Down from 3 in 1985

    • 1 in 4 Americans say they have no one with whom they can discuss important matters

      • Includes nuclear family

      • Was 1 in 8 in 1985


    Maldistribution of wealth147 l.jpg
    Maldistribution of Wealth Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • In countries with moderate levels of wealth, happiness is highest where income inequalities lowest

      • Major League Baseball: teams are more successful when players’ salaries are more equitably distributed


    The booming economy l.jpg
    The Booming Economy Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Inflation-adjusted net worth of the median U.S. household

      • 1989 - $54,600

      • 1997 - $49,000

      • 2004 - $44,389


    The booming economy149 l.jpg
    The Booming Economy Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Weekly wages for the avg. American worker are 12% below what they were in 1973

    • But productivity is up 33%


    Vacation time down l.jpg
    Vacation Time Down Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Americans work more than any other country: 1970 hrs/yr

      • Canada (#2): 1800 hrs/yr

      • Industrialized EU countries: 1600-1800 hrs/yr

    • Americans take less than 9/12 days of allotted leave per year

      • Japanese alloted 18, Canadians 20, Germans 27, French 39


    Minimum wage living wage l.jpg
    Minimum Wage Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy≠ Living Wage

    • Federal minimum wage = $5.15/hr (no change over last 8 years)

      • $10,300/yr for full-time job

      • Real value down 37% compared with 1968

      • Inadequate to pay rent, buy food and clothing

        • 3 million homeless (44% work)


    Minimum wage living wage152 l.jpg
    Minimum Wage Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy≠ Living Wage

    • ¼ of US jobs pay less than a poverty-level income

    • In 4 of the last 5 years, Congress granted itself a $5,000 cost of living salary increase


    Exorbitant ceo pay l.jpg
    Exorbitant CEO Pay Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • CEO salaries up 500% since 1980

    • The average CEO makes 431 X the salary of the average U.S. worker (1960 - 41X; 1980 - 42X)

      • Mexico 45:1

      • Britain 25:1

      • Germany 11:1

      • Japan 10:1


    U s debt l.jpg
    U.S. Debt Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • US national debt ceiling raised to $9 trillion for 2006

      • $30,000 for every US citizen

    • Personal savings down, annual bankruptcies up


    U s debt155 l.jpg
    U.S. Debt Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Average household debt (cars and credit cards)

      • 2001: $17,024

      • 2004: $18,619

  • Debt exacerbated by

    • Predatory lending practices

    • Payday loans

    • Rent-to-own companies


  • Total credit card debt up l.jpg
    Total Credit Card Debt Up Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    1990 - $243 billion

    1997 - $560 billion

    2002 - $1.5 trillion

    2005 – $800 billion

    Average number of credit cards per U.S. household = 12.7


    Bankruptcies pensions l.jpg
    Bankruptcies/Pensions Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Record 1.6 million bankruptcies in 2002

      • ½ bankruptcies due to health care expenses

      • exceed # of college graduates/year, # of persons diagnosed with cancer per year

      • Bankruptcy “reform” bill grossly unfair

    • Pensions in jeopardy


    The global economy l.jpg
    The “Global Economy” Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 53 of the world’s 100 largest economies are private corporations; 47 are countries

      • GM is larger than Denmark, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Turkey

      • Wal-Mart is larger than Israel and Greece

      • AT&T is larger than Malaysia and Ireland


    The global economy159 l.jpg
    The “Global Economy” Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • The combined revenues of GM and Ford exceed the combined GDP of all sub-Saharan Africa

    • Combined sales of the top 6 Japanese companies are nearly equivalent to the combined GDP of all of South America


    Corporations l.jpg
    Corporations Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Almost 6 million corporations

      • ¼ non-profits

    • 500 companies control 70% of world trade


    Corporations162 l.jpg
    Corporations Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    “The [only] social responsibility of business is to increase its profits.”

    - Milton Friedman


    Corporations163 l.jpg
    Corporations Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • “Corporations [have] no moral conscience. [They] are designed by law, to be concerned only for their stockholders, and not, say, what are sometimes called their stakeholders, like the community or the work force…”

      -Noam Chomsky


    Corporations164 l.jpg
    Corporations Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Internalize profits

    • Externalize health and environmental costs


    Corporate taxation l.jpg
    Corporate Taxation Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Nearly 1/3 of all large corporations (assets > $250 million or annual sales > $50 million) pay no annual income tax


    Corporate taxation166 l.jpg
    Corporate Taxation Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Corporations shouldered over 30% of the nation’s tax burden in 1950 vs. 8% today

    • Corporate taxes are at their lowest level since WW II


    Reasons for inadequate corporate taxation l.jpg
    Reasons for Inadequate Corporate Taxation Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Tax breaks, corporate welfare, corporation-friendly tax laws, loopholes, transferring assets overseas

    • Cheating and under-payment common

    • Offshore tax havens shelter capital


    Corporate crime l.jpg
    Corporate Crime Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Each year in America, we lose;

      • $4 billion to burglary and robbery

      • $200 billion to corporate fraud

    • Americans lose $1 million/hr. to securities fraud.

    • Fines meager, often considered a cost of doing business


    Corporate crime169 l.jpg
    Corporate Crime Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 25% decrease in federal prosecutions of white collar crime, including corporate crime, since 1999

    • Increase in non-prosecution and deferred-prosecution agreements

    • 3/5 U.S. companies settling corporate crime cases illegally deduct some or all of the settlement to the IRS


    Unemployment l.jpg
    Unemployment Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 5-6% unemployment rate (true percentage likely higher)

      • Women slightly more likely to be unemployed than men

      • Black women 2X white women

    • Under-employment rate approximately 10%


    The rise of the permatemp l.jpg
    The Rise of the Permatemp Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Temporary agency workers

      • 1989 - 1.2 million

      • 1998 2.8 million

      • 2006 - est. 4.0 million

    • Results: job insecurity, fewer benefits, no retirement savings, more uninsured, etc.


    Job loss and the decline of labor l.jpg
    Job Loss and The Decline of Labor Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 12 million quality jobs lost in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005

    • Free trade

    • Expatriation of jobs


    Job loss and the decline of labor173 l.jpg
    Job Loss and The Decline of Labor Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Labor union membership declining since 1950

      • Now 12%:

        • 8% in private sector

        • 4% in public sector

    • Employers generally anti-union


    Overseas labor markets l.jpg
    Overseas Labor Markets Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Currently made overseas:

      • 83% of all garments sold in the U.S.

      • 90% of sporting goods

      • 93% of shoes

    • Overseas factories often lack adequate occupational health and safety / pollution controls (e.g., maquiladoras)


    Worker health and safety l.jpg
    Worker Health and Safety Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • ILO: 2.2 million die of work-related injuries and diseases worldwide each year

      • Considered vast underestimate, due to poor reporting in many developing countries


    Outsourcing l.jpg
    Outsourcing Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 2 million manufacturing jobs lost between 2001 and 2003

    • Over the last few years, compared to other firms, CEO compensation has increased five times faster at the 50 U.S. firms that do the most outsourcing of jobs


    The global workforce l.jpg
    The Global Workforce Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 27 million enslaved laborers

      • Slavery occurs in every country in Africa (Unicef)

    • Over 250 million child laborers

      • 60% exposed to hazardous conditions; 25% exposed to hazardous chemicals


    The third world debt crisis l.jpg
    The Third World Debt Crisis Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Over 40 of the poorest countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia owe a total of almost $300 billion in foreign debt

      • countries borrowed when loans cheap and easy to get

      • money lent to corrupt/undemocratic governments during Cold War

      • corruption

      • world prices for main exports declined

      • new loans (at higher interest rates) required to pay interest on debt


    The third world debt crisis179 l.jpg
    The Third World Debt Crisis Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Creditors

      • US, UK, Japan, France and Germany

      • interest rates up to 20-22% in 1980’s


    The third world debt crisis180 l.jpg
    The Third World Debt Crisis Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Each African child inherits approximately $379 in debt at birth

      • debt 100-200% of GDP for Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia, and others

    • Live Aid (1985 raised $200 million)

      • Equal to the amount all African countries pay back on foreign debts each week (in 2001)


    The third world debt crisis181 l.jpg
    The Third World Debt Crisis Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Countries spend more each year repaying debt than on education and healthcare.

    • Debt will never be paid off


    Effects of the third world debt crisis l.jpg
    Effects of the Security and Requires a Permanent War EconomyThird World Debt Crisis

    • Indebted countries drastically cut wages, which slows the economy and decreases purchases of U.S. imports

      • makes U.S. jobs less secure

    • Currency is Devalued.

      • imports more expensive; exports cheaper

    • Government price controls eliminated

      • basic goods more expensive


    Effects of the third world debt crisis183 l.jpg
    Effects of the Security and Requires a Permanent War EconomyThird World Debt Crisis

    • Government spending on food, fuel and farming subsidies reduced.

    • Social service (healthcare/education) program spending cut

    • Countries strip and sell their natural resources

      • increased global pollution, etc.


    Solution to the third world debt crisis l.jpg
    Solution to the Third World Debt Crisis Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    Debt forgiveness


    Foreign aid l.jpg
    Foreign Aid Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • In total dollars: Japan #1, U.S. #2

      • Even though the U.S. economy is more than twice the size of Japan’s

    • As a % of GDP, U.S. ranks 2nd to last among the world’s 22 wealthiest nations


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    Foreign Aid Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • U.S. Aid: Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3 for food and development

    • Most U.S. aid benefits U.S. corporations, is spent on military, goes to Egypt, Israel, Turkey, Pakistan, and the Philippines


    Foreign aid187 l.jpg
    Foreign Aid Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Aid agencies often forced to buy from U.S. companies at inflated prices

      • 70% of aid effectively returned to U.S.

    • Food aid inefficient, benefits large agribusiness at expense of local farmers/economies

      • Takes $2 taxpayer money to generate $1 in food aid


    Foreign aid188 l.jpg
    Foreign Aid Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 0.9% of the total federal budget, 1.6% of the U.S. discretionary budget

    • Yet 64% of Americans believed in a 1997 poll that foreign aid was the largest federal expenditure

    • On average, Americans think that 24% of the federal budget goes toward foreign aid


    U s charitable giving l.jpg
    U.S. Charitable Giving Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Approximately $250 billion/year

      • 2.5% of income

      • 2.9% at height of Great Depression


    U s charitable giving by income bracket l.jpg
    U.S. Charitable Giving Security and Requires a Permanent War Economyby Income Bracket

    • $15K and under: 26%

    • $15K - $30K: 9%

    • $30K - $50K: 5.3%

    • $50K - $100K: 3.8%

    • $100K - $200K: 3.0%

    • $200K and over: 3.4%


    American charitable giving l.jpg
    American Charitable Giving Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Religious Groups: 35%

    • Education: 13%

    • Multipurpose Foundations: 10%

    • Social Services: 8%

    • Health: 8%

    • Arts and Culture: 6%


    American charitable giving192 l.jpg
    American Charitable Giving Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Science: 5%

    • Environment and Animals: 3%

    • International Aid: 2%

    • Other: 9%

      - Includes individual, corporate, foundation, and bequest donations

    • Less than 10% goes to groups which directly help the poor


    Distribution of one federal income tax dollar 2004 l.jpg
    Distribution of one federal income tax dollar - 2004 Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 29¢ - military and defense

    • 20¢ - interest on national debt

      • 10¢ - military debt

      • 10¢ - non-military debt

    • 20¢ - health care

    • 5¢ - income security


    Distribution of one federal income tax dollar 2004194 l.jpg
    Distribution of one federal income tax dollar - 2004 Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 4¢ - education

    • 4¢ - Veterans’ benefits

    • 3¢ - nutrition

    • 2¢ - housing

    • 2¢ - natural resources

    • 0.4¢ - job training

    • 12¢ - other


    The military and pollution l.jpg
    The Military and Pollution Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • World’s single largest polluter

    • 6-10% of global air pollution

    • 2-11% of world raw material use

    • 97% of all high level and 78% of all low level nuclear waste


    The military and pollution196 l.jpg
    The Military and Pollution Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • Pentagon generates 500,000 tons toxic waste/year

    • Numerous toxic waste sites

    • Exempt from most environmental regulations


    The military and pollution197 l.jpg
    The Military and Pollution Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • “The more birds that the [Department of Defense] kill[s], the more enjoyment [people] will get from seeing the ones that remain: ‘Bird watchers get more enjoyment spotting a rare bird than they do spotting a common one.’”

      • From a 2002 court summary of the U.S. Defense Department’s argument for exemption from the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918


    The military diversion of resources away from health care l.jpg
    The Military: Diversion of Resources Away from Health Care Security and Requires a Permanent War Economy

    • 3 hours world arms spending = annual WHO budget

    • 1/2 day of world arms spending = full childhood immunizations for all world’s children

    • 3 days of U.S. military spending = amt. spent on health, education, and welfare for U.S. children in 1 year


    The military diversion of resources away from health care and other scientific projects l.jpg
    The Military: Diversion of Resources Away from Health Care and Other Scientific Projects

    • 3 weeks of world arms spending/yr. = primary health care for all in poor countries, incl. safe water and full immunizations

    • 25% of the world’s 2.5 million research scientists and engineers work entirely on military R and D

    • Iraq/Afghanistan war creating enormous U.S. debt / federal and state budgets strapped


    Slide201 l.jpg

    “Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    ~ Dwight D. Eisenhower


    Slide202 l.jpg

    rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”The problem in defense spending is to figure out how far you should go without destroying from within what you are trying to defend from without.”

    ~Dwight D. Eisenhower


    Poverty and hunger l.jpg
    Poverty and Hunger rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • US: 13% of residents and 18% of children live in poverty

      • Rates of poverty in Blacks = 2X Whites

    • Hunger rate increasing nationally


    Poverty l.jpg
    Poverty rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • At least 1 billion people live in urban slums

    • 1.1 billion people lack access to safe, clean drinking water-1.8 million child deaths/year

    • 2 billion have no electricity

    • 2.6 billion do not have adequate sanitation services


    Poverty209 l.jpg
    Poverty rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • 2.8 billion live on less than $2/day

    • 3 billion have never made a phone call

    • 3.8 billion have no cash or credit with which to make purchases

    • 770 million unable to read


    Poverty and priorities l.jpg
    Poverty and Priorities rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Amount of money needed each year (in addition to current expenditures) to provide water and sanitation for all people in developing nations = $9 billion

    • Amount of money spent annually on cosmetics in the U.S. = $8 billion


    Poverty and priorities211 l.jpg
    Poverty and Priorities rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Amount of money needed each year ( in addition to current expenditures) to provide reproductive health care for all women in developing countries = $12 billion

    • Amount of money spent annually on perfumes in Europe and the U.S. = $12 billion


    U n declaration of human rights l.jpg
    U.N. Declaration of Human Rights rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    “Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care”


    Famine l.jpg
    Famine rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • 1.5 billion not consuming enough calories to prevent stunted growth/other health risks

    • Hunger kills 25,000 people per day, most under age 5

    • Hunger-related causes kill as many people in 2 days as the atomic bomb killed at Hiroshima


    Feast and famine l.jpg
    Feast and Famine rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • For the first time in history, there are now an equal number of people – 1.1 billion – who get too much to eat as those who don’t have enough to eat

    • One week of developed world farm subsidies = annual cost of food aid to solve world hunger


    Famine216 l.jpg
    Famine rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”


    Famine affects the old and young l.jpg
    Famine Affects the Old and Young rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”


    Medical care l.jpg
    Medical Care rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • 50% of global health care budget spent in the U.S.

    • Per capita expenditure on health care:

      • U.S. = $4,000

      • Typical poor African/Asian country = $5-10

    • Even so, U.S. has 41 million uninsured, ranks 24th worldwide in overall population health as judged by disability-adjusted life expectancy


    Infectious diseases l.jpg
    Infectious Diseases rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Increased morbidity and mortality due tochanging distributions of disease vectors, reservoirs, and agents-overpopulation and population shifts-malnutrition-drought-decreased immunity


    Infectious diseases220 l.jpg
    Infectious Diseases rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Malaria -610 min zone expands-50-80 million additional cases/year by 2100

    • TB

    • Viral encephalitis

    • Schistosomiasis

    • AIDS

    • Influenza

    • Trypanosomiasis


    Infectious diseases221 l.jpg
    Infectious Diseases rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Onchocerciasis

    • Dengre

    • Leishmanasis

    • Rabies

    • Hookworm

    • Yellow fever

    • West Nile Virus


    Species loss l.jpg
    Species Loss rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • Earth contains an estimated 5 to 10 million species

      • Only 1.5 million have been identified

    • Rate of extinction = 4,000-6,000 species/year, highest estimates = 4 species/hour- over 1000 x background rate of extinction


    Species loss223 l.jpg
    Species Loss rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed.”

    • 50,000 vertebrates- 7,100 of 10,000 bird species threatened with extinction- 1,100 of 4,400 mammalian species- 1/3 to 1/2 of 232 primate species (including man?)

      • bush meat trade contributing

        - 1/3 of 24,000 fish species- 1/4 to 1/3 of 10,300 reptile and amphibian species (may be higher, limited assessment)


    Slide224 l.jpg
    Precipitous Decline of Alpha Predators will have enormous repercussions for ecosystems/other species


    Causes of species loss l.jpg
    Causes of Species Loss repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Habitat loss (logging, overpopulation, etc.) *

    • Overhunting

    • Chemical pollution of environment

    • Exotic species invasions (e.g. rabbits/Australia)

    • HUMANS


    Extinction lost pharmacopoeia l.jpg
    Extinction: Lost Pharmacopoeia repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Drugs from plants and native peoples’ health knowledge -More than 1/2 of the top 150 prescription drugs contain an active compound derived from or patterned after natural products-e.g. digoxin, vincristine, paralytic agents, etc.

    • Of the more than 250,000 known flowering species, <0.5% have been surveyed for medicinal value


    A cure for cancer l.jpg
    A Cure for Cancer? repercussions for ecosystems/other species


    The black market in endangered animals l.jpg
    The Black Market in repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesEndangered Animals

    • $10 billion market-equal to smuggled arms market-less than contraband drug market ($30 Billion)

    • Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)


    Worrisome trends l.jpg
    Worrisome Trends repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Environmental Audit Laws

    • WTO/IMF Policies

    • MAI

    • GATT, NAFTA, CAFTA, other trade agreements

    • Food Disparagement Laws

    • SLAPP Lawsuits


    Bush administration l.jpg
    Bush Administration repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Key administrators/committee members/regulators former industry representatives and/or lobbyists

    • Corporate profit before public good

    • Unsound/distorted/suppressed science

    • Eco-harassment

      • Criminalizing activists


    Bush administration238 l.jpg
    Bush Administration repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Rollbacks of key environmental laws

    • Lax enforcement of existing laws

    • Huge tax cuts primarily benefit wealthy

    • Federal and state government deficits astronomical

      • Program and funding cuts


    Status of women in the third world l.jpg
    Status of Women in repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesthe Third World

    • Poverty

    • Impaired access to employment and education

    • Lack of reproductive health services, early childbearing, large families


    Status of women in the third world241 l.jpg
    Status of Women in repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesthe Third World

    • Political marginalization

    • Discriminatory and “cultural practices” -forced prostitution, female genital mutilation, etc.

    • Trafficking, sex slavery


    Status of women l.jpg
    Status of Women repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Economic discrimination

      • women do 67% of the world’s work

      • receive 10% of global income

      • own 1% of all property

    • Poverty

      • Women make up 45% of the global employed workforce, yet are 70% of the world’s poor


    Would you sign a petition to ban dihydrogen monoxide l.jpg
    Would You Sign a Petition to Ban Dihydrogen Monoxide? repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    1. It can cause excessive sweating and vomiting2. It is a major component in acid rain3. It can cause severe burns in its gaseous state4. It can kill you if accidentally inhaled5. It contributes to erosion6. It decreases effectiveness of automobile brakes7. It has been found in tumors of terminal cancer patients


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    Geographic Ignorance repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Percent of US teens unable to locate the following on a map:

      • United States – 11%

      • Pacific Ocean – 29%

      • Japan – 58%

      • United Kingdom – 68%


    Pseudoscientific beliefs l.jpg
    Pseudoscientific Beliefs repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    Percentage of Americans who believe “at least to some degree” in these “phenomena”

    1997 1976

    • Astrology 37% 17%

    • UFOs 30% 24%

    • Reincarnation 25% 9%

    • Fortune-Telling 14% 4%


    Greenwash l.jpg
    Greenwash repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Public relations / ad campaigns-Chevron’s “People Do” Campaign, butterflies/refinery-Dupont Freon Campaign in 1970’s-Grants to a few scientists who challenge environmental warnings-tobacco ads in 1950’s

    • Bluewash: association with UN principles/logo


    Astroturf l.jpg
    Astroturf repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Artificially-created grassroots coalitions

      • utilize specially tailored mailing lists, field officers, telephone banks, fax machines, intense lobbying

      • may be one or two individuals, or run by a PR firm, or have “volunteer” employee members


    Corporate front groups l.jpg
    Corporate Front Groups repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • The American Council on Science and Health

    • The Alliance for Responsible CFC Policy

    • The Oregon Lands Coalition

    • National Wilderness Institute

    • The Environmental Conservation Organization

    • The Foundation for Clean Air Progress

    • Similar semantics for new laws/congressional bills


    Corporate pr tactics l.jpg
    Corporate PR tactics repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Invoke poor people as beneficiaries

    • Characterize opposition as “technophobic,” anti-science,” and “against progress”

    • Portray their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of (or despite the) evidence


    Sponsored environmental educational materials l.jpg
    Sponsored Environmental repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesEducational Materials

    • Corporate-sponsored and supported by a loose coalition of antiregulatory zealots, corporate polluters, lapdog scientists and misguided parents


    Sponsored environmental education materials examples l.jpg
    Sponsored Environmental repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesEducation Materials (Examples)

    • Exxon’s “Energy Cube”

      -“Gasoline is simply solar power hidden in decayed matter”

      -“Offshore drilling creates reefs for fish”

    • Pacific Lumber Company

      -“The Great American Forest is. . . renewable forever”


    Sponsored environmental education materials examples253 l.jpg
    Sponsored Environmental repercussions for ecosystems/other speciesEducation Materials (Examples)

    • International Paper

      -“Clearcutting promotes growth of trees that require full sunlight and allows efficient site preparation for the next crop”

    • American Nuclear Society’s “Activities with the Atoms Family”

    • Dow’s “Chemipalooza”


    Worrisome trends254 l.jpg
    Worrisome Trends repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Advertising Budgets ↑↑

    • Public Education in disarray

    • Television

    • Higher Education increasingly expensive


    Academics at risk l.jpg
    Academics at Risk repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Increasing corporatization of academia

      • Private commercial funding of university research:

        • $264 million in 1980

        • $2 billion in 2001

    • Secrecy/Pseudoscience

      • AAPG Notable Achievement in Journalism prize to Michael Crichton for State of Fear (which denies global warming)

    • Brain drain

    • Lack of scientists in developing world (1/50th of developed world per capita)


    The media l.jpg
    The Media repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Most media organizations owned by multinational, multi-billion dollar corporations that are involved in a number of businesses apart from the media, such as forestry, pulp and paper mills, defense, real estate, oil wells, agriculture, steel production, railways, and water and power utilities


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    Global Warming: Controversial? repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Of 928 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, 0% were in doubt as to the existence or cause of global warming

    • Of 636 articles in the popular press (NY Times, Washington Post, LA Times, WSJ), 53% expressed doubt as to the existence (and primary cause) of global warming

      Science 2004;306:1686-7

      (Study covers 1993-2003)


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    Mass Media Sources, 2002 repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • 92% white

    • 85% male

    • Where party affiliation identifiable, 75% Republican

    • Predominantly conservative/centrist


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    Lobbying repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Lobbying groups spent just under 2.5 billion in 2006 (record)

    • All single issue ideological groups combined (e.g., pro-choice, anti-abortion, feminist and consumer organizations, senior citizens, etc.) = $76.2 million


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    Lobbying repercussions for ecosystems/other species

    • Agribusiness/oil industry lobbying dwarf environmental lobbying

    • Active lobbying (new laws, not enforce existing laws or fund existing programs)

    • “Lobbying for lethargy” (maintain status quo)


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    Corporate Influence Leads to Large Taxpayer Subsidies to Polluting Industries

    • Mining - $3.6 billion/yr

    • Nuclear power - $10.5 billion/yr

    • Coal - $8 billion/yr

    • Ranching (grazing on public lands) - $52 million/yr

    • Timber (below cost sales of national forest trees) – approx. $350 million/yr

    • Oil and gas - $550 million/yr


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    The Decline of Democracy Polluting Industries

    • True democracy demands an informed citizenry (education), freedom of the press (media), and involvement (will, time, money)

    • “Information is the currency of democracy”

      • Thomas Jefferson


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    The US: Rogue Nation Polluting Industries

    • History: Native Americans, slavery, current excesses, disparities and injustices

    • Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists

    • Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its 225+ year history


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    The US: Rogue Nation Polluting Industries

    • Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed:

      • China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo, Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq


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    The US: Rogue Nation Polluting Industries

    • Conservative estimate = 8 million killed

    • US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of corporate interests


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    The US: Rogue Nation Polluting Industries

    • In 2002, the US spent about $1,211 per US citizen on defense

      • vs. $2.27 per citizen on international peacekeeping efforts

    • The US maintains military bases in 69 “sovereign” nations around the world

    • Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation


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    International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism Polluting Industries

    • Failure to sign or approve:

      • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change

      • International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

      • Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel Land Mines

      • Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty


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    International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism Polluting Industries

    • Failure to sign or approve:

      • Convention on the Rights of the Child

      • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

      • Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons


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    International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism Polluting Industries

    • Failure to sign or approve:

      • Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions, which bans methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long-term and severe damage to the natural environment


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    International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism Polluting Industries

    • Failure to sign or approve

      • The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

      • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes

      • The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (re GM foods)


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    The US: Rogue Nation Polluting Industries

    • Death Penalty:

      • US executes more of its citizens than any other country

      • US is the only country to execute both juveniles and the mentally ill

    • Failure to follow World Court Decisions

    • Largest debtor to the UN (only 40% of dues paid)


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    Positive Trends Polluting Industries

    • Majority of U.S. citizens rate the environment as one of the most important issues facing the country, think the government is doing too little to safeguard the environment, and favor environmental protection over economic expansion

    • Power/voice of green groups increasing

    • Involvement of religious groups growing


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    Positive Trends Polluting Industries

    • Insurance industry urging reductions in global emissions

      • due to dramatic increase in weather-related claims

    • Analogy with smoking


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    The “Benefits” of Sterility-Causing Chemicals in the Workplace?

    12 September 1977

    Dr. Eula Bingham, Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health Recently we received the interesting Department of Labor news release concerning worker exposure to DBCP. While involuntary sterility, caused by a manufactured chemical may be bad, it is not necessarily so. After all, there are many people who are now paying to have themselves sterilized to assure they will no longer be able to become parents... If possible sterility is the main problem, couldn’t workers who were old enough that they no longer wanted to have children accept such positions voluntarily? They would know the situation, and it wouldn’t matter. Or could workers be advised of the situation, and some might volunteer for such workposts as an alternative to planned surgery for a vasectomy or tubal ligation, or as a means of getting around religious bans on birth control when they want no more children?

    Sincerely,

    Robert K. Phillips, National Peach Council


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    Environmental Success Story Workplace?The Montreal Protocol (1987)

    • Phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by 1996

    • Major cause of Antarctic and Arctic ozone holes

    • Current substitute, HCFCs, much less damaging to ozone layer, also to be phased out


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    REACH Workplace?

    • Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals

    • European Treaty requiring companies to test chemicals already on the market by a set timetable and test new products before putting them on the market

    • Economic analyses show large environmental and health benefits


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    Solutions Workplace?Based on the Precautionary Principle

    “When evidence points toward the potential of an activity to cause significant, widespread or irreparable harm to public health or the environment, options for avoiding that harm should be examined and pursued, even though the harm is not yet fully understood or proven”


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    The Precautionary Principle: Workplace?Practical Essentials

    • Give human and environmental health the benefit of doubt

    • Include appropriate public participation in the discussion

    • Gather unbiased, scientific, technological and socioeconomic information

    • Consider less risky alternatives


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    The Precautionary Principle Workplace?

    • Endorsed by APHA, ANA, others

    • Puerto Rico, San Francisco have adopted, among others

    • Big business, US Chamber of Commerce oppose


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Shift from a throw-away economy to a reduce/reuse/recycle economy

    • Support local economies

    • Enhance fair trade policies


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Zero waste production systems

    • Extended producer responsibility / Extended product liability

    • Recycling laws


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Restructure tax system-decrease taxes on work and savings-increase taxes on destructive activities (e.g., carbon emissions, toxic waste generation)

    • Stronger clean air and water standards


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Eliminate fossil fuel industry tax breaks and subsidies

    • Carpooling

    • Sweden plans to be world’s first oil-free economy by 2020


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Increase tax breaks, subsidies, research for renewable energy

      • Renewable energy now 1% of transportation fuel market (ethanol) and 2% of the electricity market (wind, solar, biomass)

    • Streamline EPA-25% of 14 billion superfund payouts have gone to lawyers and consultants


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Composting / Recycling organic wastes

    • Decrease light pollution ($2 billion energy wasted per year) and see the stars!

      -Czechoslovakian anti-light pollution law


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Insulation

    • Energy-efficient lighting

    • Decrease excessive packaging

      • 15¢/plastic bag tax in Ireland ↓’d use by 90%

    • Safe storage of nuclear wastes

    • Green electricity - $3/month


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Sustainable forest management

    • Plant trees

      • The average urban tree removes nearly one ton of greenhouse gas during its first 40 years of life

    • Stop receiving catalogues

      • contact Direct Marketing Association


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Prevent Congress from weakening NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act)

      • Requires federal officials to conduct environmental impact assessments; allows citizens to challenge the government’s conclusions

    • Oppose Congressional attempts to create “Sunset Commissions” with the power to review federal programs and recommend which programs live, die, or get realigned


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Punish environmental scofflaws with large fines and jail time

    • Increase enforcement budgets to combat international environmental crime

    • Establish International Court of the Environment


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Bioprospecting

    • Ecotourism

    • More equitable distribution of medical research funds and health care dollars


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Strengthen family planning programs

    • Decrease “demand” for large families

      •  education

      •  status of women

      •  child mortality


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    Solutions: Fair, Representative Elections Workplace?

    • Publicly financed campaigns and campaign finance reform

    • Open debates, free air time for candidates

    • Proportional representation

    • Instant runoff voting/cumulative voting


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    Solutions: Workplace?Living Wage

    • 130 cities and counties have adopted living wage laws

      • Including NY, LA, Chicago, and Philadelphia

    • 15 states now have minimum wages that exceed the federal requirement


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Join and contribute to environmental and social justice groups (Greenpeace, Doctors without Borders)

      • Local grassroots groups especially good

    • Land purchases

    • Litigation (e.g., EJLDF, NRDC)


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Green investing-returns as good or better than the S & P 500

    • Celebrities/Jocks for Justice


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Activism / Letter writing / Protesting / Whistleblowing

      • US Supreme court ruled in 2006 that public employees have no free-speech rights re whistleblowing and no constitutional protections against retaliation by bosses

    • Join community groups – become involved in local as well as national issues


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    G Workplace?ünter Grass

    “The first job of a citizen is to keep your mouth open.”


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    Margaret Mead Workplace?

    “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has."


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    Solutions: Vote Workplace?

    • US voter turnout low

      • Wealthy vote at twice rate of poor

      • Whites > Blacks > Hispanics

      • Old > Young

      • Property owners > Renters


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Campaign finance reform

    • Fair, representative elections

    • Publicly financed campaigns

    • Better candidates


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    Solutions Workplace?

    • Increased exposure to nature

    • Improvements in education

      • Multidisciplinary

        • Literature

        • History

        • Law

        • Photography

        • Community Service


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    The Role of Literature Workplace?

    • Vicarious experience

    • Explore diverse philosophies

    • Promotes empathy, critical thinking, flexibility, non-dogmatism, self-knowledge

    • Encourages creative thinking

    • Allows for group discussion/debate


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    Why Use Literature Workplace?

    • Encourage appreciation of non-medical literature

    • Develop reading, analytical, speaking and writing skills

    • Promote ethical thinking (narrative ethics)

    • Identification with authors who are health professionals (e.g., Keats, Chekhov, Maugham, Williams, Sanger, Nightingale, etc.)


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    Homelessness Workplace?

    Doris Lessing

    “An Old Woman and Her Cat”

    From the Doris Lessing Reader (New York: Knopf, 1988)


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    Race and Access to Care Workplace?

    Ernest J Gaines

    “The Sky is Gray”

    in Gray, Marion Secundy, ed. Trials,Tribulations, and Celebrations: African American Perspectives on Health, Illness, Aging and Loss. Yarmouth, Maine: Intercultural Press, 1992


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    Poverty Workplace?

    • Orwell, George. How the Poor Die. In Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, eds. The Collected Essays, Journalism and Letter of George Orwell, IV; In Front of Your Nose, 1945-1950. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc: pp.223-233.

    • Checkhov, Anton. Letter to AF Koni, January 26, 1891, Letter to AS Survivor, March 9, 1890. In Norman Cousins, ed. The Physician in Literature Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1982.

    • Eighner, Lars. Phlebitis: At the Public Hospital. In Travels with Lizbeth. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1993.


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    “Activist” Journals Workplace?

    • American Journal of Public Health

    • Public Citizen’s Health Letter

    • PNHP Newsletter

    • Mother Jones

    • Harpers

    • Z Magazine

    • Hightower Lowdown


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    “Activist” Journals Workplace?

    • Rachel’s Environmental Weekly

    • Sierra

    • The Amicus Journal

    • Bulletin of Atomic Scientists

    • Multinational Monitor

    • Some articles in NEJM, JAMA, JGIM, SSM, Policy, Politics, and Nurs Prac, others


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    Contact Information Workplace?

    Martin Donohoe, MD, FACP

    503/819-6979 (ph)[email protected]


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