A Nation in Uniform. Israel’s security problems 1949-1977. The way To Suez 1949-1956. Infiltrators become Fedayeen and attack Israel’s cities and settlements. They are sponsored by Egyptian Intelligence
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Israel joins Britain and France to fight against Nasser regime by attacking the Suez Canal.
Israel drops paratroopers at the Mitla Pass, giving its allies the pretext for a call to an Egyptian and Israeli withdrawal from the canal
Egyptian refusal causes launch of British-French Attack - “Operation Musketeer”. Israeli troops succeed in destroying Fadyeen bases in the Gaza strip and take over all the Sinai Peninsula in 100 hours. France and Britain face difficulties and Nasser stays in power.
Soviet’s threat to intervene causes the Americans to force a cease fire and an immediate withdrawal. Israel freedom of navigation in Tiran Straits is guaranteed.
Nasser (end of May 1967): “The armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon are poised on the borders of Israel ... to face the challenge, while standing behind us are the armies of Iraq, Algeria, Kuwait, Sudan and the whole Arab nation. This act will astound the world. Today they will know that the Arabs are arranged for battle, the critical hour has arrived. We have reached the stage of serious action and not of more declarations."
Due to the failure of an American – British attempt to find a diplomatic solution, Israel decides to launch a pre-emptive air attack.
Arabs Air forces are destroyed on the ground, giving Israel air superiority.
Israel launches an attack on Egyptians troops in Sinai, and reached to Suez Canal in 4 days (June 5-8).
False Egyptian victory reports convince King Hussein of Jordan to attack Israel. Although IDF's strategic plan was to remain on the defensive along the Jordanian front, Israeli reserve forces strike back and take over the West Bank, including East Jerusalem (June 6-8).
After a Syrian ground attack and massive artillery bombings, Israel forces take control of the Golan Heights (June 9-10).
Khartoum Resolution (meeting between Arab leaders, 9/1967): No peace with Israel, No recognition of Israel, No negotiations with it
U.N Security Council Resolution 242 (11/1967): “Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict; Termination of all claims or states of belligerency… every State in the area [has a] right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries” Land for Peace formula.”
War of Attrition (1968-1970) – Nasser initiative to exhaust Israel ends after 17 months of bombardments with 367 Israeli casualties and about 10,000 Egyptian casualties. The borders stay the same