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Video. Would you fly this airline?. Courtesy AOPA. 2. Fuel Starvation

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1. Fuel Management The presentation covers the types of fuel management problems that exist, why they occur and why fuel exhaustion can happen to anybody, including airline pilots. The presentation provides information for where pilots can learn about past accidents and incidents to learn from the mistakes of others. It presents the different ways for measuring fuel quantities, the different kinds of fuel systems that exist in light GA aircraft, minimum safe fuel reserves and discusses why too much fuel can be as dangerous as too little. It presents AOPA recommendations for fuel management, some personal experiences with fuel problems, lists notable fuel based accidents and discusses one accident case study in depth. At the end, references are provided for further reading.The presentation covers the types of fuel management problems that exist, why they occur and why fuel exhaustion can happen to anybody, including airline pilots. The presentation provides information for where pilots can learn about past accidents and incidents to learn from the mistakes of others. It presents the different ways for measuring fuel quantities, the different kinds of fuel systems that exist in light GA aircraft, minimum safe fuel reserves and discusses why too much fuel can be as dangerous as too little. It presents AOPA recommendations for fuel management, some personal experiences with fuel problems, lists notable fuel based accidents and discusses one accident case study in depth. At the end, references are provided for further reading.

2. Show AOPA fuel awareness video: http://www.aopa.org/asf/psa/fuelAwareness.htmlShow AOPA fuel awareness video: http://www.aopa.org/asf/psa/fuelAwareness.html

3. Fuel Starvation & Exhaustion Clarify usable and unusable fuel. Bonanza 6g unusable (Possible to unport a tank in a hard slip, thus 37 usable of 40 total. Pelican’s Perch article demonstrated getting 41.2g to tank dry stage.). Mooney 231 8g. Describe left/right fuel selector systems (e.g. Bonanza/Piper) vs. left/right/both selectors (Cessna) vs. on/off (Citabria). Pilots transitioning between different types of fuel systems can fall into the fuel starvation trap. Classic examples are: Failing to switch tanks in flight, switching to a dry tank close to the ground or selecting a dry or untested tank just prior to takeoff. Point out that running one tank dry is generally not bad (There are limitations – turbos, turbines etc). FAR 23.955(e) requires a restart within 10 seconds. Prop will not stop. Requires a near stall. Refer Pelican’s Perch #7 article.Clarify usable and unusable fuel. Bonanza 6g unusable (Possible to unport a tank in a hard slip, thus 37 usable of 40 total. Pelican’s Perch article demonstrated getting 41.2g to tank dry stage.). Mooney 231 8g. Describe left/right fuel selector systems (e.g. Bonanza/Piper) vs. left/right/both selectors (Cessna) vs. on/off (Citabria). Pilots transitioning between different types of fuel systems can fall into the fuel starvation trap. Classic examples are: Failing to switch tanks in flight, switching to a dry tank close to the ground or selecting a dry or untested tank just prior to takeoff. Point out that running one tank dry is generally not bad (There are limitations – turbos, turbines etc). FAR 23.955(e) requires a restart within 10 seconds. Prop will not stop. Requires a near stall. Refer Pelican’s Perch #7 article.

4. Do pilots just “Forget”? Stress that of the three accidents every week caused by fuel mismanagement, every one of those pilots probably departed without any concern over fuel.Stress that of the three accidents every week caused by fuel mismanagement, every one of those pilots probably departed without any concern over fuel.

5. Invulnerable Attitudes Invulnerability plays a big part in fuel related accidents. The frequency with which fuel related accidents happen and the broad range of pilots, aircraft and conditions under which fuel related accidents has occurred proves that it can happen to anyone. If a full crew of 3 on an American Airliner can forget (United 173), so can you. Like many types of aviation accidents, often it is not a single event but a chain of events or poor decisions leading up to the accident.Invulnerability plays a big part in fuel related accidents. The frequency with which fuel related accidents happen and the broad range of pilots, aircraft and conditions under which fuel related accidents has occurred proves that it can happen to anyone. If a full crew of 3 on an American Airliner can forget (United 173), so can you. Like many types of aviation accidents, often it is not a single event but a chain of events or poor decisions leading up to the accident.

6. Three Accidents per Week… Show NTSB, AIDS and AOPA sites.Show NTSB, AIDS and AOPA sites.

7. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Bring up ASRS example and read pertinent points.Bring up ASRS example and read pertinent points.

8. Determining Fuel Levels The G1000 Cessna 182T allows for accurate fuel measurement and monitoring down to low fuel levels using a combination of the traditional dipstick, digital gauges, the fuel totalizer, range rings and annunciations. Point out that thus far there have been no G1000 forced landings due to fuel mismanagement. Discuss totalizers.The G1000 Cessna 182T allows for accurate fuel measurement and monitoring down to low fuel levels using a combination of the traditional dipstick, digital gauges, the fuel totalizer, range rings and annunciations. Point out that thus far there have been no G1000 forced landings due to fuel mismanagement. Discuss totalizers.

9. “Know Thy Airplane” Discuss left tank venting issues on pre-F model 35 Bonanzas. Aux tank limitations on takeoff. CG Group question: “Is it unwise to take off in a plane that you know well, that has an accurate fuel measurement system, where you are the last person to fuel and fly it, where your instruments show that 50 gallons remain but where you cannot see visible fuel in the tanks? E.g. A Bonanza with 50g usable remaining."Discuss left tank venting issues on pre-F model 35 Bonanzas. Aux tank limitations on takeoff. CG Group question: “Is it unwise to take off in a plane that you know well, that has an accurate fuel measurement system, where you are the last person to fuel and fly it, where your instruments show that 50 gallons remain but where you cannot see visible fuel in the tanks? E.g. A Bonanza with 50g usable remaining."

10. How Much Fuel Do You Need?

11. Can You Carry Too Much Fuel? Aside from increasing the payload, factors to consider in not fueling to MGTW are density altitude and terrain in the airport vicinity. Aeronautical engineers have known for a long time that the most practical way to make an aircraft takeoff and climb faster is by reducing weight or increasing horsepower but the most efficient way to make an aircraft cruise faster is to reduce drag. Example: A relatively ‘draggy’ aircraft like the Cessna 182 does not increase its cruising speed much with additional power, but it will climb significantly faster.Aside from increasing the payload, factors to consider in not fueling to MGTW are density altitude and terrain in the airport vicinity. Aeronautical engineers have known for a long time that the most practical way to make an aircraft takeoff and climb faster is by reducing weight or increasing horsepower but the most efficient way to make an aircraft cruise faster is to reduce drag. Example: A relatively ‘draggy’ aircraft like the Cessna 182 does not increase its cruising speed much with additional power, but it will climb significantly faster.

12. AOPA Recommendations Flight Planning Know your airplane Give yourself an hour's reserve Be realistic with routing Check fuel availability Remember aircraft performance Note color and smell Let water settle Sump early, sump often Dispose of fuel properly Check for leaks Verify quantity Read through the AOPA reference at: http://www.aopa.org/asf/hotspot/fuel_check.htmlRead through the AOPA reference at: http://www.aopa.org/asf/hotspot/fuel_check.html

13. Personal Experiences

14. Notable Fuel Related Accidents United 173 is notable for the subsequent introduction of the first CRM program in the airlines. Tuniter 1153 is notable due to the incorrect fuel measurement equipment installed in the aircraft the night before the flight. Pel-Air is notable for a successful ditching without injuries during a medical flight, in the ocean in darkness and bad weather in a jet after 4 unsuccessful approaches. N1857H. Use of cell phone to dial 911 to declare out of fuel. N2805E. Lucky to be rescued 9 miles out to sea in cold water. N9547D. Water. N5479A. No injuries landing in a tree. N7589S. Departing with only 8 gallons of total fuel, not accounting for 4 gallons unusable. Passing 2 airports with fuel before exhaustion.United 173 is notable for the subsequent introduction of the first CRM program in the airlines. Tuniter 1153 is notable due to the incorrect fuel measurement equipment installed in the aircraft the night before the flight. Pel-Air is notable for a successful ditching without injuries during a medical flight, in the ocean in darkness and bad weather in a jet after 4 unsuccessful approaches. N1857H. Use of cell phone to dial 911 to declare out of fuel. N2805E. Lucky to be rescued 9 miles out to sea in cold water. N9547D. Water. N5479A. No injuries landing in a tree. N7589S. Departing with only 8 gallons of total fuel, not accounting for 4 gallons unusable. Passing 2 airports with fuel before exhaustion.

15. Case Study: N16EJ

16. Other Suggestions

17. Additional Insight

18. Summary When it comes to fuel, “Getting it wrong” has consequences ranging from embarrassing to fatal. Be methodical. Remain aware. Land if uncertain.

19. End of Presentation 19

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