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Solanaceous Vegetables. Objective: Give a general overview of growing tips, variation in types, and characteristics of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant. Varieties and Types of Fruit. Hundreds of varieties are available to the home gardener that range in terms of: Size From Currant to Goliath

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Solanaceous Vegetables

Objective: Give a general overview of growing tips, variation in types, and characteristics of tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant.


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Varieties and Types of Fruit

  • Hundreds of varieties are available to the home gardener that range in terms of:

  • Size

    • From Currant to Goliath

  • Shape

    • Grape, Pear, Plum, Tangerine, Peach

  • Color

    • Red, Yellow, Orange, Pink, Purple, Black, Green


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Types continued…

  • Vining Habit

    • _____________________ - Plants grow vegetatively up to a point, then they enter the reproductive phase of growth

    • _____________________ - Plants continue to grow vegetatively after reaching the reproductive phase

      • Requires support with cages or stakes

  • Days to maturity

    • From 65-90 days


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Growing Tips

  • Plant transplants out after the last chance for frost

  • _________________is popular and easy way to support

    • Supported plants will produce more and healthier fruit

    • Remove low-lying ________________ (suckers)

  • Fertilize at transplanting and then again at fruit set

    • High amounts of N and K are required

    • Too much fertilizer before fruit set will deter fruiting


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Common Problems

  • Fruit _____________

    • Caused by fluctuations in soil moisture

  • Blossom End Rot

    • Calcium deficiency

  • Sun Scald

    • Lack of protective foliage exposes fruit to intense sunlight causing a burn

  • Tomato _________________

Soil moisture fluctuations = Cracked tomatoes

Blossom end rot 


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Characteristics

  • Tomatoes are a climacteric fruit

    • Fruit will continue to _______________after harvest

    • Factor that allows for unripened fruit to be shipped from long distances

  • Tomatoes contain lycopene

    • A non-nutritive phytochemical (carotenoid) that contains disease-preventing compounds

  • Storing tomatoes in the refrigerator will _____________ affect the texture and taste

    • Only store in refrigerator when decomposition is imminent!


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Capsaicin Oil

  • ______________ soluble alkaloid compound that concentrates in seeds and placenta of the fruit

    • Only foods that absorb fat will relieve the intensity of hot peppers

    • Bread, cheese, rice, milk

  • Oil content increases and becomes concentrated with hot and dry weather conditions

  • Level of heat also depends on pepper variety and level of _________________


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Scoville Units

  • Method of measuring heat of capsaicin oil by diluting oil from a pepper variety with drops of water

  • The number of drops of water it takes to dilute the heat to an ___________________ level


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Growing Tips

  • Similar cultural guidelines as tomatoes

  • Harvest by ______________ off stems or carefully bending stems toward the direction they curve

  • Greater production will result if peppers are harvested as they ___________


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Characteristics

  • Capsaicin is an _________________ and anti-_______________

    • Thought to be beneficial for blood circulation and the curing of diseases

  • Peppers are very high in vitamin C and vitamin A

    • Some hot types have more vitamin C than citrus fruits

  • Fruit should be ___________, firm, and brightly colored

  • Store fruit in the refrigerator for best preservation

  • Peppers change color and intensify their taste characteristics as they ripen

    • Bells sweeten and turn from green to red, orange, yellow

    • Hot peppers get hotter and turn from green to red


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Eggplant (Aubergine)

  • Originated from ______________

  • Large, dark purple to white fruit that require very hot temperatures, well-drained soil, and high fertility

  • Unlike tomatoes and peppers, effective in taking up organic form of N (NH4)

  • Fruit continuously produced throughout growing season

    • If plants are _____________ back and season is long enough, can obtain a second crop


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Tomatillo (Husk Tomatoes)

  • Originated in ____________

  • Small tomato-like fruit born in a husk

  • Harvested immature

  • Have a tart, citric taste and an apple-like texture

  • Used in

    • Salsa Verde

    • Cevíche


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