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Computer Assisted Learning/Multimedia Jeff James Educational Development Unit, PolyU X6290 [email protected] CAL CBI CBT CAI CALL CMI CAL emphasis on learning This session: Overview of computer assisted learning. more specifically: I. types of CAL software,

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Computer assisted learning multimedia l.jpg

Computer Assisted Learning/Multimedia

Jeff James

Educational Development Unit, PolyU

X6290 [email protected]


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CAL

CBI

CBT

CAI

CALL

CMI


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CAL

emphasis on learning


This session l.jpg
This session:

Overview of

computer assisted learning.


More specifically l.jpg
more specifically:

I. types of CAL software,

II. hypermedia/multimedia environments,

III. authoring languages,

IV. design considerations,

V. a critical view of CAL/multimedia.


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I. Types of CAL Software

  • drill and practice

  • games

  • simulations

  • tutorials

  • tools

  • (hypermedia)

  • (CMI software; e.g.. tests)


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categorizing is difficult:

imagine a “space travel game” in a

“hyper environment” with a

tutorial component.


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• drill and practice

Typically, drill and practice

activities are supplementary

to the “normal” teaching process.


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• drill and practice

Drill and practice is good for

fundamental mastery.


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• drill and practice

Can be thought of as a “flash card”

system of the stimulus-response

model.


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• drill and practice

Speed is important for both

presentation and feedback.


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• drill and practice

often incorporates:

  • randomness

  • record keeping


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• games

Often CAL software is presented

in game format.


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• games

May include point scoring, and

can be individual or team format.


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• games

Have the potential for a very

motivational environment.


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• simulations

Can provide microworlds (e.g.,

a world without friction or

gravity).


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• simulations

The University of Illinois has

successfully provided computer-

driven “dry” chemistry labs.


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simulations are

  • safe

  • inexpensive

  • fast

  • slow

  • clean

  • possible


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• tutorials

Self-paced, where the computer

acts as an infinitely-patient,

all-wise tutor.

Is this guy slow, or what??


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Typically a good tutorial will have a

structure(s) as follows:

. . .

give

information

give

info.

OK

test

(needs

help)

remediate


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give

information

give

info.

...

OK

test

(needs

help)

remediate

can be very

complex


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• tools

Typically, application programs

which are being used by the

student for learning.


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• examples of tools

  • spreadsheet programs

  • statistics packages

  • hypermedia software

  • desktop publishing software

  • presentation software

  • CAD software

  • etc.

q



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hyper- pref. ‘over’, ‘above’, ‘too’...

eg. hypersensitive or hypertension



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hypermedia can be thought of as “chunks” of information (nodes),

stored in a structure, and accessed by links (buttons).


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• hypertext (

Textual information, structured

by use of links and nodes.

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?


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• hypermedia (

Like hypertext, but including

sound, video, and/or animation.

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?

Here is some example

text which is going to

be shrunk down to a

size which is barely

recognisable; good too

because then my poor

spelling won’t be

recognised. Now, I

have run out of example

text. Oh well; so what?


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• multimedia (

Involves more than one medium

(>2 really, since most literature

contains graphics and text).


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• multimedia (

Involves the use of sound,

animation, and/or video

as well as text and graphics.


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• multimedia (

1

Even Ted Nelson said he didn’t

know the difference between

hypermedia and multimedia.

1

Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia Conference,

June 1994, Vancouver. [Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext

(“non-sequential writing”)].


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• multimedia (

Computer-controlled multimedia

allows the seamless integration

of media.


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• multimedia (

Multimedia can provide a

sensory-rich learning environment.


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• multimedia (

Interactive multimedia is the

incorporation of multimedia with

human-computer interaction.


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• multimedia (

Interactive multimedia provides

an obvious educational advantage

over current broadcasting &

publishing which is passive.


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Speed (

Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about

it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select

options below, some perhaps more than once..

Choose one option below:

play speed movie

take a quiz

more information

WWW

tutorial


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Metaphors abound. (

A computer screen of

information can be a

slide, a

page, a

card,

a node,

whatever...

Speed

Information regarding the concept of speed can appear as text here. I know very little about

it myself, so perhaps a multimedia tutorial about it would help me. To learn about it, select

options below, some perhaps more than once..

Choose one option below:

play speed movie

take a quiz

more information

WWW

tutorial




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Possible applications of less complex (

designs include electronic books, and

information/ training kiosks.


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Hyperdesigns give the user opportunity for: (

  • more control, but

  • require careful planning and analysis.

q


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III. Authoring Languages (

Packages exist which allow the creation of

CAL packages by non-computer programmers.


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Authoring packages exist for a (

variety of platforms.

For example:


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You can use (HyperCard on a

Macintosh to create stacks of cards.


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You can use (ToolBook on a PC

to create a book (of pages).


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You can run (Authorware on Mac,

PC, or UNIX environments (to create

flow lines).


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Examples of other software include: (

  • Icon Author (Windows, UNIX)

  • Macromedia Director (all)

  • TenCore

  • cT

q


Iv design considerations l.jpg
IV. Design Considerations (

Two important points in designing

CAL software are:

  • the design team and

  • user interface design


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Typically, the design team can (

circulate ideas on storyboards

(hard copies of screen templates).


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Storyboards circulate among (

design team members.

cognitive

scientist

content

expert

programmer

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

dfgg

dfffg

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

aaa

dfgg

dfffg

aaa

graphic

artist

aaa


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Some quick tips for User Interface Design (

  • allow the user control

  • use visual cues

  • be consistent

  • design, don’t decorate

q


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V. A Critical View (

1. CAL is an inferior teaching medium.


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a critical view: (

2. Users can become disoriented and

lost in hyper environments.


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a critical view: (

3. Too much attention is paid to

appearance (esp. graphics) and

not enough to educational issues.

q


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Summary (

1. There are many types of CAL

software other than sequential

point-and-click text.


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Summary (

2. hypermedia/multimedia

environments offer great potential

but require care in design.


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Summary (

3. Many authoring languages are

available, allowing everyone

programming potential.


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Summary (

4. Many important design issues

need to be considered.

q


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