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Pressure Exchanger development history. Leif J. Hauge – November 2009. NORWAY 1985 Hitra How can I can use cold sea water for cooling my vegetable storage high up on the hill without using too much energy?

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Pressure exchanger development history
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

NORWAY 1985

Hitra

How can I can use cold sea water for cooling my vegetable storage high up on the hill without using too much energy?

This challenge put forward by my brother Ragnar late 1985 sent me off to uncharted territory dominated by unpredictable events.

Today the farm site is a popular resort for fishing and diving with guests from East and Northern Europe .

Dolmsundet Marina

located on the island of Hitra


Pressure exchanger development history1
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

NORWAY 1986

A first prototype of a none-rotary pressure exchanger is made and achieves an award at the Norwegian Inventor show in Bergen “KLEKK 86”.

Shortly after the idea of a rotary pressure exchanger emerges and a small unit with a bronze 3”rotor is used for demonstrations.

Design work on a larger 4” rotor unit in stainless steel is started.


Pressure exchanger development history2
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

NORWAY 1987

Norwegian Hydrotechnical Laboratories

During testing of the 15 m3/h rotary pressure exchanger, it is discovered that the flow will rotate the rotor, hence no need for external drive.

The first US patent # 4,887,942 “Pressure Exchanger for liquids” is filed based on self rotation through a particular end cover profile.

Design work on a new 4” rotor unit based on flow rotation and hydrostatic bearings is started. Cast end covers is introduced with improved flow profile.


Pressure exchanger development history3
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

NORWAY / KUWAIT 1988

Norwegian Hydrotechnical Laboratories

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

Testing of the new unit shows the hydrostatic bearing system is working and mixing is low.

Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) seemed to be the best application for the pressure exchanger and Kuwait Institute of Scientific Research (KISR) had already established a unique test facility Doha Reverse Osmosis Plant (DROP).

After initial contacts with KISR management, it was decided to ship the prototype to Kuwait. A test bed is prepared using reject from the 2nd stage of their SWRO plant at 40 bar.


Pressure exchanger development history4
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

KUWAIT 1989

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

A successful test using dye colored water (dark red) as LP feed becomes fully pressurized to 40 bar without sign of discoloring of the HP reject. This was quite stunning to the observing Cabinet ministers and KISR management, leading to the signing a 3 year R & D Joint-Venture agreement.

The development program focuses on developing a fundamental understanding of the flow dynamics involved through modeling and experimental verification.

US patent 5,338,158 “ Pressure Exchanger having axially inclined ducts” that need no booster pump is filed.

STATE Minister of Cabinet Affairs Rashid Abdul-Aziz Al-Rashed accompanied by Minister of Electricity and Water Dr. Hamud Al-Rguiba


Pressure exchanger development history5
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

KUWAIT 1990

Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research

The development program continues until the Iraqi invasion August 2. The inventor and his family is forced to leave Kuwait.

The prototype and associated equipment is lost along with all personal property as well. The family decides to take up residence in USA.

The KISR Joint-Venture is suspended and will not resume again

Iraqi tanks rolled into Kuwait City during Saddam Hussein's invasion


Pressure exchanger development history6
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

GERMANY 1991

Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH

A Joint-Venture for using pressure exchanger in connection with CCD (Closed Cycle Diesel) propulsion system was started with the German submarine manufacturer Thyssen Nordseeewerke GmbH. Exhaust gas need to be scrubbed into the sea while submerged, which would require a pressure exchanger.

A new 30 m3/h prototype with 6” rotor using low galling superalloys is built and tested for sound and reliability. The hydrostatic bearing system shows instability and a new principle seems required.


Pressure exchanger development history7
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

GERMANY / USA / NORWAY 1992

Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH

Newport News Shipbuilding

AGA Innovation

The new rotor positioning system operates without external restrictors and uses a step bearing and is very stable.

The unit was demonstrated for Newport News Shipbuilding ,which secures an order of a large unit.

The unit was test successfully for oxygenation of fishponds by AGA Innovation in Norway, prior to being tested further in Germany by Thyssen.


Pressure exchanger development history8
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

GERMANY/USA 1993

Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH

Newport News Shipbuilding

The Thyssen Joint-Venture comes to an end without reaching the necessary operational reliability due to high propensity for seizing (cold welding).

A large 10” rotor pressure exchanger with 75 m3/h flow capacity is built and successfully tested for Newport News Shipbuilding and US-NAVSEA. Submarine thermal desalting plants need a brine pump in order to discharge brine.


Pressure exchanger development history9
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA / DENMARK 1994

Norfolk harbor

HOH Water technology

A 1,500 GPD SWRO plant is built and operated continuous at about 33 % recovery for 1000 hours with 45-50 % energy savings.

The plant used a modified CAT 347 plunger pump using 1 plunger as a booster pump. The pressure exchanger used a 2” rotor operating at 2 GPM.

A CAT 2537 triplex pump is modified with an ejector and tested by HOH showing 45 % energy savings and leads to an exclusive marketing agreement for Scandinavia, Canary Islands and the Maldives.


Pressure exchanger development history10
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA 1995

Virginia Beach

Based on further test result from the SWRO plant, the seawater based hydrostatic rotor positioning function shows unreliable performance.

A development program to change materials from metallic superalloys to ceramic is started. Manufacturing technology for in-house machining of alumina green ware is developed for rotor, end covers and housing.

US patent 5,988,993 “ Pressure Exchanger having rotor with automatic axial alignment” was filed.

The first object grind was a coffee mug to be fitted on a rotor as an outer sleeve.


Pressure exchanger development history11
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA 1996

Tennessee

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

The High temperature Materials Laboratory

A DOE sponsored R & D ceramic manufacturing study was awarded. Initial test grinding of parts to required tolerances took place early fall.

Design optimization of ceramic parts, including CNC based machining and firing continues.

The goal is to ready a field installation in the Canary Islands, but first generation pressure vessel with the ceramic parts under high pressure has design flaws.


Pressure exchanger development history12
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA / Spain 1997

HOH Canarias SA

Canary Islands-Lanzarote

A dramatic redesign of the pressure vessel allows the use of a standard Du Pont membrane vessel. US patent # 6,659,731 “Pressure Exchanger” is filed.

A n 80 m3/D commercial SWRO plant located Costa Teguise, Lanzarote has been prepared with a booster pump and downsized CAT triplex pump. The installation of the pressure exchanger proceeds smoothly. When feed pressure rises, the rotor start accelerating with a loud noise. Now for the first time, fresh water is produced from the sea at 2.8 kW/m3 or 60 % less power – after 12 years development.

Bjørn Lyng, the late founder of Aqualyngobserves the worlds first pressure exchanger in a commercial SWRO plant November 1997.


Pressure exchanger development history13
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA / Spain 1998

HOH Water Technology

Canary Islands-Lanzarote

After less than 6 months of flawless operation, HOH decided to launch the first commercial SWRO plant with pressure exchangers. The 500 m3/D plant goes into service at Playa Blanca on Lanzarote early spring.

At this time 3 pressure exchangers is needed as flow is limited to 30 GPM due to an excessive noise level.


Pressure exchanger development history14
Pressure Exchanger development history

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009

USA / Spain 1999

Canary Islands-Lanzarote

The ceramic components of the prototype in Ficus apartments show signs of inexplicable erosion. Experimental verification determines cavitation being the cause, and a major redesign of end covers take place.

The result exceeds expectations as noise level fall from 90 to 80 dBa and flow increases 100 % to 60 GPM.

US patent # 6,540,487 “Pressure Exchanger with anti-cavitation pressure relief system in end covers “ is filed subsequently .

Finally, the pressure exchanger looks ready for unrestrained marketing and scale-up………


March 2000 a company has been born
March 2000 - A company has been born

Leif J. Hauge – November 2009


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