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Plant Anatomy. MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004. Definitions. Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function. Life Cycle. Juvenile Adult Reproductive. Vegetative. Plant Structure.

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Plant Anatomy

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Plant Anatomy

MUPGRET Workshop

March 27, 2004


Definitions

  • Anatomy

    • Study of form and basic organization.

  • Morphology

    • Study of tissue organization.

  • Physiology

    • Study of normal organism function.


Life Cycle

  • Juvenile

  • Adult

  • Reproductive

Vegetative


Plant Structure

  • Two main organ systems: shoot and root

  • Shoot

    • Above ground

    • Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits

  • Root

    • Below ground

    • roots, tubers, rhizomes


Plant Cells

  • Formed at meristems.

    • Mitosis in meristem produces new cells.

  • Two types of meristems.

    • Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot.

    • Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.


Apical Meristem


Lateral Meristem


Cells are grouped into tissues.

  • Dermal

  • Ground

  • Vascular


Cell Types

Epidermal

Ground

Vascular

Zea mays L. leaf cross section


Dermal Tissue

  • Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants.

  • Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle.

  • Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.


Ground Tissue

  • Bulk of the primary plant body.

  • Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.


Parenchyma


Parenchyma

pineapple


Collenchyma

Celery


Schlerenchyma

hau – used to make rope


Vascular Tissue

  • Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals.

  • Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.


Vascular tissue


Xylem

Dutchmens pipe

Dicot stem


Vegetative Structures

  • Roots

  • Stem

  • Leaf


Roots

  • Tap root

  • Fibrous root

  • Adventitious root

  • Tuberous root

  • Aerial root


Roots

Fiberous

Tuberous

Taproot

Taproots


Stem Anatomy

  • Bud – undeveloped shoot.

  • Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem.

  • Internode – Space between nodes.

  • Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem.

  • Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.


Stem


Stem Modifications

  • Tuber – underground stem with nodes

  • Rhizome – underground stem with buds

  • Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds

  • Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves

  • Corm – underground stem with papery leaves


Modified Stem

Tendril

Thorn

Onion set

Rhizome


Modified Stem II

Corm

Asparagus

Stolon


Growth Form

  • Herb

  • Shrub

  • Tree

  • Vine


Growth Cycle

  • Annual – single season

  • Biennial – two seasons

  • Perennial – multiple seasons

  • Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons

  • Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry


Leaf Parts

  • Petiole

  • Blade

  • Stipule

  • Axillary bud


Leaf Structure

Blade

Stipule

Petiole

Axillary Bud


Leaf Arrangement

  • Alternate

  • Opposite

  • Whorled


Leaf form

  • Simple

  • Compound

    • Pinnate

    • Palmate


Vein Arrangement

  • Pinnate

  • Palmate

  • Parallel

  • Dichotomous

Dichotomous


Ovate

Elliptic

Oblong

Lanceolate

Linear

Orbicular

Cordate

Hastate

Sagittate

Peltate

Perfoliate

Terete

Leaf Shape


Entire

Serrate

Doubly serrate

Dentate

Crenate

Undulate

Revolute

Crisped

Lobed

Leaf Margins


Misc. Vegetative Structures

  • Thorns

    • modified stems (Honey Locust)

  • Spines

    • modified leaves (Cactus)

  • Prickles

    • epidermal outgrowth (Rose)


Reproductive Structures

  • Flowers

  • Fruits


Floral Parts

  • Pedicel

  • Sepal

  • Petal

  • Perianth

  • Stamen

  • Carpel

  • Pistil


Flower


Floral Symmetry

  • Actinomorphic

    • Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it.

  • Zygomorphic

    • One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.


Inflorescence Types

Spadix

Spikelet

Solitary

Spike

Whorl

Panicle

Raceme

Compound

Umbel

Umbel


Fruit Types

  • Dry, indehiscent fruit

  • Dry, dehiscent fruit

  • Fleshy fruit

  • Other


Dry, indehiscent fruits

  • Achene (lettuce)

  • Samara (maple)

  • Caryposis (wheat)

  • Nut (almond)


Dry, Dehiscent Fruit

  • Legume (soybean)

  • Capsule (tobacco)

  • Silique (Arabidopsis)

  • Schizocarp (maple)


Fleshy Fruits

  • Drupe (peach, nectarine)

  • Berry (tomato)

  • Pepo (cucumber)

  • Hesperidium (citrus)

  • Hip (rose)

  • Pome (apple, pear)


Other Fruit Types

  • Aggregate

    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry)

  • Multiple

    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple)

  • Accessory

    • fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)


Placentation

Axile

Marginal

Parietal

Basal

Free central

Apical


Ovary Position

Hypogynous

(above calyx)

Perigynous

(within the floral cup)

Epigynous

(below calyx)


One cotyledon

Parallel leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of three

Vascular bundles scattered in stem

Two cotyledons

Netlike leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5

Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem

Monocots vs. Dicots


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