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Plant Anatomy. MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004. Definitions. Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function. Life Cycle. Juvenile Adult Reproductive. Vegetative. Plant Structure.

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plant anatomy

Plant Anatomy

MUPGRET Workshop

March 27, 2004

definitions
Definitions
  • Anatomy
    • Study of form and basic organization.
  • Morphology
    • Study of tissue organization.
  • Physiology
    • Study of normal organism function.
life cycle
Life Cycle
  • Juvenile
  • Adult
  • Reproductive

Vegetative

plant structure
Plant Structure
  • Two main organ systems: shoot and root
  • Shoot
    • Above ground
    • Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits
  • Root
    • Below ground
    • roots, tubers, rhizomes
plant cells
Plant Cells
  • Formed at meristems.
    • Mitosis in meristem produces new cells.
  • Two types of meristems.
    • Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot.
    • Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.
cell types
Cell Types

Epidermal

Ground

Vascular

Zea mays L. leaf cross section

dermal tissue
Dermal Tissue
  • Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants.
  • Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle.
  • Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.
ground tissue
Ground Tissue
  • Bulk of the primary plant body.
  • Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
parenchyma13
Parenchyma

pineapple

schlerenchyma
Schlerenchyma

hau – used to make rope

vascular tissue
Vascular Tissue
  • Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals.
  • Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.
xylem
Xylem

Dutchmens pipe

Dicot stem

roots
Roots
  • Tap root
  • Fibrous root
  • Adventitious root
  • Tuberous root
  • Aerial root
roots21
Roots

Fiberous

Tuberous

Taproot

Taproots

stem anatomy
Stem Anatomy
  • Bud – undeveloped shoot.
  • Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem.
  • Internode – Space between nodes.
  • Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem.
  • Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.
stem modifications
Stem Modifications
  • Tuber – underground stem with nodes
  • Rhizome – underground stem with buds
  • Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds
  • Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves
  • Corm – underground stem with papery leaves
modified stem
Modified Stem

Tendril

Thorn

Onion set

Rhizome

modified stem ii
Modified Stem II

Corm

Asparagus

Stolon

growth form
Growth Form
  • Herb
  • Shrub
  • Tree
  • Vine
growth cycle
Growth Cycle
  • Annual – single season
  • Biennial – two seasons
  • Perennial – multiple seasons
  • Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons
  • Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry
leaf parts
Leaf Parts
  • Petiole
  • Blade
  • Stipule
  • Axillary bud
leaf structure
Leaf Structure

Blade

Stipule

Petiole

Axillary Bud

leaf arrangement
Leaf Arrangement
  • Alternate
  • Opposite
  • Whorled
leaf form
Leaf form
  • Simple
  • Compound
    • Pinnate
    • Palmate
vein arrangement
Vein Arrangement
  • Pinnate
  • Palmate
  • Parallel
  • Dichotomous

Dichotomous

leaf shape
Ovate

Elliptic

Oblong

Lanceolate

Linear

Orbicular

Cordate

Hastate

Sagittate

Peltate

Perfoliate

Terete

Leaf Shape
leaf margins
Entire

Serrate

Doubly serrate

Dentate

Crenate

Undulate

Revolute

Crisped

Lobed

Leaf Margins
misc vegetative structures
Misc. Vegetative Structures
  • Thorns
    • modified stems (Honey Locust)
  • Spines
    • modified leaves (Cactus)
  • Prickles
    • epidermal outgrowth (Rose)
floral parts
Floral Parts
  • Pedicel
  • Sepal
  • Petal
  • Perianth
  • Stamen
  • Carpel
  • Pistil
floral symmetry
Floral Symmetry
  • Actinomorphic
    • Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it.
  • Zygomorphic
    • One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.
inflorescence types
Inflorescence Types

Spadix

Spikelet

Solitary

Spike

Whorl

Panicle

Raceme

Compound

Umbel

Umbel

fruit types
Fruit Types
  • Dry, indehiscent fruit
  • Dry, dehiscent fruit
  • Fleshy fruit
  • Other
dry indehiscent fruits
Dry, indehiscent fruits
  • Achene (lettuce)
  • Samara (maple)
  • Caryposis (wheat)
  • Nut (almond)
dry dehiscent fruit
Dry, Dehiscent Fruit
  • Legume (soybean)
  • Capsule (tobacco)
  • Silique (Arabidopsis)
  • Schizocarp (maple)
fleshy fruits
Fleshy Fruits
  • Drupe (peach, nectarine)
  • Berry (tomato)
  • Pepo (cucumber)
  • Hesperidium (citrus)
  • Hip (rose)
  • Pome (apple, pear)
other fruit types
Other Fruit Types
  • Aggregate
    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry)
  • Multiple
    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple)
  • Accessory
    • fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)
placentation
Placentation

Axile

Marginal

Parietal

Basal

Free central

Apical

ovary position
Ovary Position

Hypogynous

(above calyx)

Perigynous

(within the floral cup)

Epigynous

(below calyx)

monocots vs dicots
One cotyledon

Parallel leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of three

Vascular bundles scattered in stem

Two cotyledons

Netlike leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5

Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem

Monocots vs. Dicots
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