Plant Anatomy. MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004. Definitions. Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function. Life Cycle. Juvenile Adult Reproductive. Vegetative. Plant Structure.
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March 27, 2004
- Study of form and basic organization.
- Study of tissue organization.
- Study of normal organism function.
- Two main organ systems: shoot and root
- Above ground
- Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits
- Below ground
- roots, tubers, rhizomes
- Formed at meristems.
- Mitosis in meristem produces new cells.
- Two types of meristems.
- Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot.
- Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.
Cells are grouped into tissues.
Zea mays L. leaf cross section
- Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants.
- Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle.
- Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.
- Bulk of the primary plant body.
- Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
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hau – used to make rope
- Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals.
- Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.
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- Tap root
- Fibrous root
- Adventitious root
- Tuberous root
- Aerial root
- Bud – undeveloped shoot.
- Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem.
- Internode – Space between nodes.
- Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem.
- Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.
- Tuber – underground stem with nodes
- Rhizome – underground stem with buds
- Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds
- Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves
- Corm – underground stem with papery leaves
Modified Stem II
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- Annual – single season
- Biennial – two seasons
- Perennial – multiple seasons
- Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons
- Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry
- Axillary bud
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Misc. Vegetative Structures
- modified stems (Honey Locust)
- epidermal outgrowth (Rose)
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- Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it.
- One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.
- Dry, indehiscent fruit
- Dry, dehiscent fruit
- Fleshy fruit
Dry, indehiscent fruits
- Achene (lettuce)
- Samara (maple)
- Caryposis (wheat)
- Nut (almond)
Dry, Dehiscent Fruit
- Legume (soybean)
- Capsule (tobacco)
- Silique (Arabidopsis)
- Schizocarp (maple)
- Drupe (peach, nectarine)
- Berry (tomato)
- Pepo (cucumber)
- Hesperidium (citrus)
- Hip (rose)
- Pome (apple, pear)
Other Fruit Types
- mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry)
- mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple)
- fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)
(within the floral cup)
Parallel leaf veins
Flower parts often in multiples of three
Vascular bundles scattered in stem
Netlike leaf veins
Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5
Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem
Monocots vs. Dicots