Plant Anatomy

Plant Anatomy

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Definitions. AnatomyStudy of form and basic organization.MorphologyStudy of tissue organization.PhysiologyStudy of normal organism function.. Life Cycle. JuvenileAdultReproductive. . Vegetative. Plant Structure. Two main organ systems: shoot and rootShootAbove groundLeaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruitsRootBelow groundroots, tubers, rhizomes.
Plant Anatomy

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1. Plant Anatomy MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004

2. Definitions Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function.

3. Life Cycle Juvenile Adult Reproductive

4. Plant Structure Two main organ systems: shoot and root Shoot Above ground Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits Root Below ground roots, tubers, rhizomes

5. Plant Cells Formed at meristems. Mitosis in meristem produces new cells. Two types of meristems. Apical ? produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot. Lateral ? produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.

6. Apical Meristem

7. Lateral Meristem

8. Cells are grouped into tissues. Dermal Ground Vascular

9. Cell Types

10. Dermal Tissue Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants. Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle. Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.

11. Ground Tissue Bulk of the primary plant body. Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

12. Parenchyma

13. Parenchyma

14. Collenchyma

15. Schlerenchyma

16. Vascular Tissue Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals. Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.

17. Vascular tissue

18. Xylem

19. Vegetative Structures Roots Stem Leaf

20. Roots Tap root Fibrous root Adventitious root Tuberous root Aerial root

21. Roots

22. Stem Anatomy Bud ? undeveloped shoot. Node ? Location of leaf or bud on stem. Internode ? Space between nodes. Pith ? Spongy tissue in the center of the stem. Lenticel ? Pore in the outer layer of the stem.

23. Stem

24. Stem Modifications Tuber ? underground stem with nodes Rhizome ? underground stem with buds Stolon ? aboveground stem with shoot buds Bulb ? underground stem with fleshy leaves Corm ? underground stem with papery leaves

25. Modified Stem

26. Modified Stem II

27. Growth Form Herb Shrub Tree Vine

28. Growth Cycle Annual ? single season Biennial ? two seasons Perennial ? multiple seasons Evergreen ? leaves persist > 2 seasons Decidious ? leaves die in cold or dry

29. Leaf Parts Petiole Blade Stipule Axillary bud

30. Leaf Structure

31. Leaf Arrangement Alternate Opposite Whorled

32. Leaf form Simple Compound Pinnate Palmate

33. Vein Arrangement Pinnate Palmate Parallel Dichotomous

34. Leaf Shape Ovate Elliptic Oblong Lanceolate Linear Orbicular Cordate Hastate Sagittate Peltate Perfoliate Terete

35. Leaf Margins Entire Serrate Doubly serrate Dentate Crenate Undulate Revolute Crisped Lobed

36. Misc. Vegetative Structures Thorns modified stems (Honey Locust) Spines modified leaves (Cactus) Prickles epidermal outgrowth (Rose)

37. Reproductive Structures Flowers Fruits

38. Floral Parts Pedicel Sepal Petal Perianth Stamen Carpel Pistil

39. Flower

40. Floral Symmetry Actinomorphic Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it. Zygomorphic One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.

41. Inflorescence Types

42. Fruit Types Dry, indehiscent fruit Dry, dehiscent fruit Fleshy fruit Other

43. Dry, indehiscent fruits Achene (lettuce) Samara (maple) Caryposis (wheat) Nut (almond)

44. Dry, Dehiscent Fruit Legume (soybean) Capsule (tobacco) Silique (Arabidopsis) Schizocarp (maple)

45. Fleshy Fruits Drupe (peach, nectarine) Berry (tomato) Pepo (cucumber) Hesperidium (citrus) Hip (rose) Pome (apple, pear)

46. Other Fruit Types Aggregate mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry) Multiple mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple) Accessory fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)

47. Placentation

48. Ovary Position

49. Monocots vs. Dicots One cotyledon Parallel leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of three Vascular bundles scattered in stem Two cotyledons Netlike leaf veins Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem

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