Plant Anatomy
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Plant Anatomy







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Plant Anatomy. MUPGRET Workshop March 27, 2004. Definitions. Anatomy Study of form and basic organization. Morphology Study of tissue organization. Physiology Study of normal organism function. Life Cycle. Juvenile Adult Reproductive. Vegetative. Plant Structure.
Plant Anatomy

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Slide 1

Plant Anatomy

MUPGRET Workshop

March 27, 2004

Slide 2

Definitions

  • Anatomy

    • Study of form and basic organization.

  • Morphology

    • Study of tissue organization.

  • Physiology

    • Study of normal organism function.

Slide 3

Life Cycle

  • Juvenile

  • Adult

  • Reproductive

Vegetative

Slide 4

Plant Structure

  • Two main organ systems: shoot and root

  • Shoot

    • Above ground

    • Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits

  • Root

    • Below ground

    • roots, tubers, rhizomes

Slide 5

Plant Cells

  • Formed at meristems.

    • Mitosis in meristem produces new cells.

  • Two types of meristems.

    • Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot.

    • Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.

Slide 6

Apical Meristem

Slide 7

Lateral Meristem

Slide 8

Cells are grouped into tissues.

  • Dermal

  • Ground

  • Vascular

Slide 9

Cell Types

Epidermal

Ground

Vascular

Zea mays L. leaf cross section

Slide 10

Dermal Tissue

  • Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants.

  • Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle.

  • Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.

Slide 11

Ground Tissue

  • Bulk of the primary plant body.

  • Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.

Slide 12

Parenchyma

Slide 13

Parenchyma

pineapple

Slide 14

Collenchyma

Celery

Slide 15

Schlerenchyma

hau – used to make rope

Slide 16

Vascular Tissue

  • Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals.

  • Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.

Slide 17

Vascular tissue

Slide 18

Xylem

Dutchmens pipe

Dicot stem

Slide 19

Vegetative Structures

  • Roots

  • Stem

  • Leaf

Slide 20

Roots

  • Tap root

  • Fibrous root

  • Adventitious root

  • Tuberous root

  • Aerial root

Slide 21

Roots

Fiberous

Tuberous

Taproot

Taproots

Slide 22

Stem Anatomy

  • Bud – undeveloped shoot.

  • Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem.

  • Internode – Space between nodes.

  • Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem.

  • Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.

Slide 23

Stem

Slide 24

Stem Modifications

  • Tuber – underground stem with nodes

  • Rhizome – underground stem with buds

  • Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds

  • Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves

  • Corm – underground stem with papery leaves

Slide 25

Modified Stem

Tendril

Thorn

Onion set

Rhizome

Slide 26

Modified Stem II

Corm

Asparagus

Stolon

Slide 27

Growth Form

  • Herb

  • Shrub

  • Tree

  • Vine

Slide 28

Growth Cycle

  • Annual – single season

  • Biennial – two seasons

  • Perennial – multiple seasons

  • Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons

  • Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry

Slide 29

Leaf Parts

  • Petiole

  • Blade

  • Stipule

  • Axillary bud

Slide 30

Leaf Structure

Blade

Stipule

Petiole

Axillary Bud

Slide 31

Leaf Arrangement

  • Alternate

  • Opposite

  • Whorled

Slide 32

Leaf form

  • Simple

  • Compound

    • Pinnate

    • Palmate

Slide 33

Vein Arrangement

  • Pinnate

  • Palmate

  • Parallel

  • Dichotomous

Dichotomous

Slide 34

Ovate

Elliptic

Oblong

Lanceolate

Linear

Orbicular

Cordate

Hastate

Sagittate

Peltate

Perfoliate

Terete

Leaf Shape

Slide 35

Entire

Serrate

Doubly serrate

Dentate

Crenate

Undulate

Revolute

Crisped

Lobed

Leaf Margins

Slide 36

Misc. Vegetative Structures

  • Thorns

    • modified stems (Honey Locust)

  • Spines

    • modified leaves (Cactus)

  • Prickles

    • epidermal outgrowth (Rose)

Slide 37

Reproductive Structures

  • Flowers

  • Fruits

Slide 38

Floral Parts

  • Pedicel

  • Sepal

  • Petal

  • Perianth

  • Stamen

  • Carpel

  • Pistil

Slide 39

Flower

Slide 40

Floral Symmetry

  • Actinomorphic

    • Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it.

  • Zygomorphic

    • One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.

Slide 41

Inflorescence Types

Spadix

Spikelet

Solitary

Spike

Whorl

Panicle

Raceme

Compound

Umbel

Umbel

Slide 42

Fruit Types

  • Dry, indehiscent fruit

  • Dry, dehiscent fruit

  • Fleshy fruit

  • Other

Slide 43

Dry, indehiscent fruits

  • Achene (lettuce)

  • Samara (maple)

  • Caryposis (wheat)

  • Nut (almond)

Slide 44

Dry, Dehiscent Fruit

  • Legume (soybean)

  • Capsule (tobacco)

  • Silique (Arabidopsis)

  • Schizocarp (maple)

Slide 45

Fleshy Fruits

  • Drupe (peach, nectarine)

  • Berry (tomato)

  • Pepo (cucumber)

  • Hesperidium (citrus)

  • Hip (rose)

  • Pome (apple, pear)

Slide 46

Other Fruit Types

  • Aggregate

    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry)

  • Multiple

    • mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple)

  • Accessory

    • fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)

Slide 47

Placentation

Axile

Marginal

Parietal

Basal

Free central

Apical

Slide 48

Ovary Position

Hypogynous

(above calyx)

Perigynous

(within the floral cup)

Epigynous

(below calyx)

Slide 49

One cotyledon

Parallel leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of three

Vascular bundles scattered in stem

Two cotyledons

Netlike leaf veins

Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5

Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem

Monocots vs. Dicots


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