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1. Plant Anatomy MUPGRET Workshop
March 27, 2004
2. Definitions Anatomy
Study of form and basic organization.
Study of tissue organization.
Study of normal organism function.
3. Life Cycle Juvenile
4. Plant Structure Two main organ systems: shoot and root
Leaves, buds, stems, flowers, fruits
roots, tubers, rhizomes
5. Plant Cells Formed at meristems.
Mitosis in meristem produces new cells.
Two types of meristems.
Apical – produces primary growth, ex. tip of root or shoot.
Lateral – produces secondary growth, ex. cambium.
6. Apical Meristem
7. Lateral Meristem
8. Cells are grouped into tissues. Dermal
9. Cell Types
10. Dermal Tissue Covers outer surface of herbaceous plants.
Composed of epidermal cells that secrete the waxy cuticle.
Waxy cuticle protects against water loss.
11. Ground Tissue Bulk of the primary plant body.
Composed of parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma.
16. Vascular Tissue Transports food, water, hormone, and minerals.
Composed of xylem, phloem, parenchyma, and cambium.
17. Vascular tissue
19. Vegetative Structures Roots
20. Roots Tap root
22. Stem Anatomy Bud – undeveloped shoot.
Node – Location of leaf or bud on stem.
Internode – Space between nodes.
Pith – Spongy tissue in the center of the stem.
Lenticel – Pore in the outer layer of the stem.
24. Stem Modifications Tuber – underground stem with nodes
Rhizome – underground stem with buds
Stolon – aboveground stem with shoot buds
Bulb – underground stem with fleshy leaves
Corm – underground stem with papery leaves
25. Modified Stem
26. Modified Stem II
27. Growth Form Herb
28. Growth Cycle Annual – single season
Biennial – two seasons
Perennial – multiple seasons
Evergreen – leaves persist > 2 seasons
Decidious – leaves die in cold or dry
29. Leaf Parts Petiole
30. Leaf Structure
31. Leaf Arrangement Alternate
32. Leaf form Simple
33. Vein Arrangement Pinnate
34. Leaf Shape Ovate
35. Leaf Margins Entire
36. Misc. Vegetative Structures Thorns
modified stems (Honey Locust)
modified leaves (Cactus)
epidermal outgrowth (Rose)
37. Reproductive Structures Flowers
38. Floral Parts Pedicel
40. Floral Symmetry Actinomorphic
Many axes of symmetry, ie. the same wherever you cut it.
One axis of summetry, ie. can only cut one way.
41. Inflorescence Types
42. Fruit Types Dry, indehiscent fruit
Dry, dehiscent fruit
43. Dry, indehiscent fruits Achene (lettuce)
44. Dry, Dehiscent Fruit Legume (soybean)
45. Fleshy Fruits Drupe (peach, nectarine)
Pome (apple, pear)
46. Other Fruit Types Aggregate
mature ovaries from separate pistils of one flower (ex. raspberry)
mature ovaries from separate pistils of several flowers (ex. pineapple)
fruit is something other than ovary tissue (ex. strawberry is a swollen receptacle, seeds are achenes)
48. Ovary Position
49. Monocots vs. Dicots One cotyledon
Parallel leaf veins
Flower parts often in multiples of three
Vascular bundles scattered in stem Two cotyledons
Netlike leaf veins
Flower parts often in multiples of 4 or 5
Vascular bundles in a ring in the stem