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Mitigation of Pollution in Nursery Runoff J.N. Kabashima, Darren Haver, Jay Gan, and L. Wu Mitigating Pollutants in Nursery Runoff Water Proactive Participate in the process Get involved individually and as part of an industry group or association. Have data before you need it.

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Mitigation of Pollution in Nursery Runoff

J.N. Kabashima, Darren Haver, Jay Gan, and L. Wu


Mitigating Pollutants in Nursery Runoff Water

  • Proactive

    • Participate in the process

      • Get involved individually and as part of an industry group or association.

    • Have data before you need it.

    • Help develop solutions and regulations.

    • Identify and seek sources of information and expertise.

  • Reactive

    • Try to figure out how to comply with regulations and or litigation.


Mitigating Pollutants in Nursery Runoff Water

  • Conduct a Self-Assessment

    Runoff and NPS Self-Assessment

    • http://cesandiego.ucdavis.edu/Clean%5FWater/

  • Identify Management options

    Management Options for NPS Pollution

    • http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/2017/10391.pdf

  • Document Efforts

    Water Quality Record Keeping

    • http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/filelibrary/2017/8453.PDF


Self-Assessment

  • Property Management

  • Road Management

  • Irrigation Practices

  • Leaching & Runoff

  • Nutrient Assessment & Fertilizer Management

  • Integrated Pest Management


Management Options for NPS Pollution Greenhouse and Container Crop Industries

  • Irrigation Management and Water Quality

  • Nutrients

  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)


Water Quality Record Keeping

  • Sites Mats and Emergency Information

  • Hazardous Materials

  • Sanitation & Waste Management

  • Pesticide Use

  • Fertilizer Use

  • Irrigation Practices & Runoff Management

  • Equipment Maintenance

  • Best Management Practices/Mgmt Options

  • Employee Training =/Education

  • Reports, Data, & Other Information


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

  • Monitor Water Quality

  • Maximize Irrigation Efficiency

  • Irrigation Scheduling

  • Select Appropriate Growing Medium

  • Consider the Use of Wetting Agents

  • Reduce Leaching

  • Publications on New Technologies

  • Continuing Education

  • Collect, Treat and Recycle Open Runoff/Tailwater Recovery

  • Collect Runoff from Outdoor Production Areas


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

  • Collect Runoff from Field Drains and Non-Concrete Floors

  • Further Aspects of Reusing Water

  • Erosion/Drainage Control & Water Conservation

  • Water Conservation

  • Management Practices

  • Excess Water Removal

  • Pathogen Detection and Control

  • Cost-sharing

  • Municipal Treatment Plants


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

  • Maximize Irrigation Efficiency

  • Irrigation Scheduling

  • Select Appropriate Growing Medium

  • Consider the Use of Wetting Agents

  • Collect, Treat and Recycle Open Runoff/Tailwater Recovery

  • Pathogen Detection and Control

  • Continuing Education


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

Maximize Irrigation Efficiency

Irrigation Scheduling


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

Select Appropriate Growing Medium

Consider the Use of Wetting Agents


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

Collect, Treat and Recycle Open Runoff/Tailwater Recovery

Pathogen Detection and Control


Irrigation Management and Water Quality

Continuing Education


Outline – El Modeno Gardens Case Study

  • How does it happen?

    • Self-Assessment

  • What type of mitigation practices can be implemented?

    • Management Practices


How Does It Happen?

  • Irrigation (carrier)

  • Planting Media (source)

    Runoff + planting media

    = pesticide runoff?


Irrigation


Planting Media


Nursery Runoff

Runoff!


Step 1: Scrap off surface soil

Step 2: Estimate potting mix

content

Step 3: Analyze pesticides

Step 4: Correlation


Bifenthrin (Talstar) in Spilled Potting Mix


Potting Mix Spills


Mitigation Practices

  • Reduce Irrigation Runoff

  • On-site solid removal:

    • PAM

    • In-line sediment trap

    • Collection pond

    • Vegetative filtration

    • Adsorptive filters

  • Capture and Recycle Runoff

    • Treat recaptured water


Adsorption

DOC

Adsorbed

DOC

DOC

DOC

DOC-complex

DOC

DOC-

DOC

DOC

DOC

Dissolved


“Muddy” Runoff


PAM Tablets

Sediment Trap

Sediment Pond

0 m

Production Area

Vegetative Filter

Adsorptive filter

104 m

145 m

166 m

187 m

210 m

Adsorptive filter

240 m

262 m (reservoir or exit)


Nursery Runoff Mitigation

PAM Delivery

Sediment Trap

Surface Runoff

Sediment Pond

Influent Sampling Point

Vegetative Filter

Baffle system

Concrete Channel

Storm Overflow

Sediment Basin

Charcoal/fiber filters


PAM (Polyacrylamides)

  • Charged (anionic) linear chain polymer with a high molecular weight.

  • Granular, liquid, or tablet.

  • Reduces the movement of soil particles as well as associated chemicals (some pesticides and nutrients).


No PAM Treatment

PAM Treatment


Sediment Trap

  • Effective in slowing flow and dropping out sediment.

  • Easy to remove deposited sediment.

  • Most effective when flow is slow and slope is less than 5%.

  • Can be utilized when space is limited.


Sediment Pond

  • Slows the movement of water entering channel.

  • Allows for the further settling of soil particles.

  • Temporary holding basin under low flow conditions.


Vegetative Filter

  • Traps sediment and reduces volume of runoff.

    • Canna x ‘Tropicanna’ – propagation

  • Removes pesticides by trapping sediment as well as providing a beneficial environment for decomposition.

  • Most effective when flow rate is slow allowing for evapotranspiration to reduce overall flow.


Suspended Solids in Runoff (mg/L)(May 2002)

Sediment

trap

Pond

Canna lilies strip

Exit


Bifenthrin in Runoff (ppb)(May 2002)

92%

Sediment

trap

Pond

Canna lilies strip

Exit


Permethrin in Runoff (ppb)(May 2002)

95%

Sediment

trap

Pond

Canna lilies strip

Exit


Suspended Solids in runoff (mg/L)(June 2002)

Sediment

trap

Pond

Canna lilies strip

Exit


Bifenthrin in Runoff (ppb)(June 2002)

91%

Sediment

trap

Canna lilies strip

Exit

Pond


Permethrin in Runoff (ppb)(June 2002)

100%

Sediment

trap

Pond

Canna lilies strip

Exit


Adsorptive Filters

  • Physical filtration

  • Adsorptive removal

  • Feasibility?


Fiber/Activated Charcoal Filters


Effectiveness of Filters (1 day after)

Trap

Pond

Filter #1

Filter #2


Effectiveness of Filters (1 week after)

Trap

Pond

Filter #1

Filter #2


Disadvantages

Behavior unknown

Concentrated use

Multiple pesticides with varying properties

Advantages

Semi-point source

“Mitigatable” (small) runoff

Growers’ support

Review

  • What else?

    • Storm runoff conditions?

    • How clean is clean?


Acknowledgement

California Department of Food & Agriculture

California Department of Pesticide Regulation

California SWRCB

Santa Ana RWQCB

El Modeno Gardens Nursery

FMC Inc.

UC Water Resources Center


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