THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER. Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power or motion), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today thermodynamics is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter.Heat transfers the science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfer..
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KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA
2. Usaha minimal, kuranglatihan
A closed system with a moving boundary.
Open system (= control volume) with one inlet and one outlet (exit) and a real boundary.
TUGAS (dikumpul Senin) : Sebuah apel dibelah dua. Buatlah daftar sifat intensif dan ekstensifnya
Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties.
1. Energi Kinetik (KE)
2. Energi Potensial (PE) PE = mgh
3. Energi dakhil atau Internal Energy (U)
E = U + KE + PE
e = u + ke + pe (per satuan massa)
The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent, intensive properties.
Siklus dengan 2 lintasan
Siklus dengan 4 lintasan
di mana W = m g = V g = A h g
= Tekanan ukur di dalam tangki
A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0.85, and the manometer column height is 55 cm, as shown in Figure. If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa, determine the absolute pressure within the tank.
Water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer (see Figure). The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.6 kPa. Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.1 m, h2 = 0.2 m, and h3 = 0.35 m. Take the densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3, 850 kg/m3, and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.
Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer:
P1+1g(a + h) - 2gh - 1ga = P2
P1- P2 = (2 - 1)gh
Untuk2>> 1 :
P1- P2 ≈2g h
Patm= g h
Rule of thumb: naik 10 m, tekanan atmosfer turun 1 mmHg
T(K) = T(oC) + 273.15
T(R) = T(oF) + 456.67
T(oC) = 1.8T(oC) + 32
T(R) = 1.8 T(K)
T(K) = T(oC)
T(R) = T(oF)