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KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA


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KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA. AGUS HARYANTO FEBRUARI 2010. THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER.

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KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA

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Konsep dasar termodinamika

KONSEP DASAR TERMODINAMIKA

AGUS HARYANTO

FEBRUARI 2010


Thermo vs heat transfer

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER

  • Thermodynamics stems from the Greek words therme (heat) and dynamis (power or motion), which is most descriptive of the early efforts to convert heat into power. Today thermodynamics is broadly interpreted to include all aspects of energy and energy transformations, including power generation, refrigeration, and relationships among the properties of matter.

  • Heat transfersthe science that deals with the determination of the rates of such energy transfer.


Thermo vs heat transfer cont

THERMO vs. HEAT TRANSFER (cont)

  • Thermodynamicsmembicarakansistemkeseimbangan (equilibrium), bisadigunakanuntukmenaksirbesarnyaenergi yang diperlukanuntukmengubahsuatusistemkeseimbangan, tetapitidakdapatdipakaiuntukmenaksirseberapacepat (laju) perubahanituterjadikarenaselamaprosessistemtidakberadadalamkeseimbangan.

  • Heat Transfer tidakhanyamenerangkanbagaimanaenergiitudihantarkan, tetapijugamenaksirlajupenghantaranenergi. Inilah yang membedakan Heat Transfer denganthermodinamika.


Aplikasi

APLIKASI

  • Tubuhmanusia

  • Meniup kopi panas

  • Perkakaselektronik (sirip, heat sink)

  • Refrigerator (AC, Kulkas)

  • Mobil (siklus engine, sirip, radiator)

  • Pembangkitlistrik (turbin, boiler)

  • Industri (penyulingan, pendinginan, pengeringan, dll).


Dimensi dan satuan

DIMENSI dan SATUAN

  • Dimensi (M,L,T,θ)  homogen

  • Satuan : SI Units (m, s, kg, K)

  • Kesalahanumum:

    1. Tidakpaham

    2. Usaha minimal, kuranglatihan

    3. Tidakterampilmelakukankonversisatuan

  • Trik: perhitunganharusmenyertakansatuan


Secondary units

SECONDARY UNITS

  • Secondary units can be formed by combinations of primary units. Example:

  • F = m.a

  • P = F/A


Sistem vs lingkungan

SISTEM vs. LINGKUNGAN

  • A system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space chosen for study.

  • The mass or region outside the system is called the surroundings.

  • The real or imaginary surface that separates the system from its surroundings is called the boundary


Open vs clossed systems

OPEN vs. CLOSSED SYSTEMS

  • Closed system (= control mass): Mass can’t cross the boundary, but energy can.

  • Volume of a closed system may change.

  • Special case, if no energy cross the boundary, that system is called an isolated system.


Clossed system

CLOSSED SYSTEM

A closed system with a moving boundary.


Open vs clossed systems1

OPEN vs. CLOSSED SYSTEMS

  • Open system (= control volume) is a properly selected region in space. It usually encloses a device that involves mass flow such as a compressor, turbine, or nozzle.

  • Both mass and energy can cross the boundary of a control volume.

  • The boundaries of a control volume are called a control surface, and they can be real or imaginary.


Open system

OPEN SYSTEM


Open system1

OPEN SYSTEM

Open system (= control volume) with one inlet and one outlet (exit) and a real boundary.


Sifat sifat sistem

SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM

  • Any characteristic of a system is called a property.

  • Some familiar properties are pressure P, temperature T, volume V, and mass m. The list can be extended to include less familiar ones such as viscosity, thermal conductivity, modulus of elasticity, thermal expansion coefficient, electric resistivity, and even velocity and elevation.

  • Intensive properties are those that are independent of the mass of a system, such as temperature, pressure, and density.

  • Extensive properties are those whose values depend on the size—or extent—of the system.

  • Extensive properties per unit mass are called specific properties (specific volume (v=V/m), specific energy (e = E/m).


Sifat intensif vs ekstensif

SIFAT INTENSIF vs. EKSTENSIF

TUGAS (dikumpul Senin) : Sebuah apel dibelah dua. Buatlah daftar sifat intensif dan ekstensifnya

Criterion to differentiate intensive and extensive properties.


Sifat sifat sistem penting

SIFAT-SIFAT SISTEM PENTING

  • Densitasataumassajenis: masa per satuan volume

  • Volume spesifik, kebalikandaridensitas: volume per satuanmasa(m3/kg)

  • Densitasrelatifatauspecific gravity: nisbahdensitassuatusubstansidengandensitassubstansistandarpadasuhutertentu(biasanya air pada 4oC dimana = 1000 kg/m3)


Energy sistem termodinamika

ENERGY SISTEM TERMODINAMIKA

  • BENTUK ENERGI:

    1. Energi Kinetik (KE) 

    2. Energi Potensial (PE)  PE = mgh

    3. Energi dakhil atau Internal Energy (U)

  • ENERGI TOTAL:

    E = U + KE + PE

    e = u + ke + pe(per satuan massa)


Postulat keadaan

POSTULAT KEADAAN

  • All properties (can be measured or calculated) completely describes the condition, or the state, of the system. At a given state, all the properties of a system have fixed values. If the value of even one property changes, the state will change to a different one.

  • The number of properties required to fix the state of a system is given by the state postulate:

    The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by two independent, intensive properties.


Proses dan siklus

PROSESdan SIKLUS

  • Any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another is called a process

  • The series of states through which a system passes during a process is called the path (lintasan) of the process.


Macam macam proses

MACAM-MACAM PROSES

  • Proses isotermal: proses pada suhu T konstan.

  • Proses isobaris: proses pada tekanan P konstan.

  • Proses isokhoris (isometris): proses pada volume spesifik konstan.

  • Proses adiabatik: proses di mana tidak terjadi pertukaran kalor dengan lingkungan.

  • Proses isentropik: proses pada entropi S konstan.


Steady flow process

STEADY-FLOW PROCESS

  • The terms steady and uniform are used frequently in engineering, and thus it is important to have a clear understanding of their meanings.

  • The term steady implies no change with time.

  • The opposite of steady is unsteady, or transient.

  • The term uniform, however, implies no change with location over a specified region.


Proses dan siklus1

Siklus dengan 2 lintasan

Siklus dengan 4 lintasan

PROSES danSIKLUS

  • A system undergoes a cycle if it returns to its initial state at the end of the process.


Tekanan

TEKANAN

  • Tekanan (P) : gaya (F) per satuanluas (A).

  • Satuantekananadalahpascal (Pa) = N/m2.

  • Untukbendapadatgaya per luassatuantidakdisebuttekanan, tetapitegangan(stress).

  • Untukfluidadiam, tekananadalahsamakesegalaarah.

  • Tekanandidalamfluidameningkatsesuaidengankedalamannyaakibatberatfluida (pengaruhgravitasi) sehinggafluidapadabagianbawahmenanggungbeban yang lebihbesardaripadafluidadibagianatas.

  • Tetapitekanantidakbervariasipadaarahhorisontal.

  • Tekanan gas didalamtangkidapatdianggapseragamkarenaberat gas terlalukecildantidakmengakibatkanpengaruh yang berarti.


Tekanan ukur atm vakum

TEKANAN: UKUR, ATM, VAKUM

  • Tekananaktualpadaposisitertentudisebuttekananabsolutdandiukursecararelatifterhadaptekananvakum, yaitutekanannolmutlak.

  • Kebanyakanpengukurtekanandikalibrasiuntukmembacanoldiatmosfer (tekananatmosferlokal).

  • Perbedaantekananabsolutdantekananatmosferdisebuttekananukur (pressure gage).

  • Tekanandibawahtekananatmosferdisebuttekananvakum (vacuum pressure) dandiukurdenganpengukurvakum yang menunjukkanperbedaanantaratekananatmosferdantekananabsolut.

  • Pgage = Pabs – Patm (untukP > Patm)

  • Pvac = Patm – Pabs (untukP < Patm)


Tekanan ukur tekanan atmosfer tekanan vakum

TEKANAN UKUR, TEKANAN ATMOSFER, TEKANAN VAKUM


Pengukur tekanan

PENGUKUR TEKANAN

MANOMETER

PRESSURE GAGE

BAROMETER


Prinsip manometer

PRINSIP MANOMETER

Perhatikan gambar:

  • Seimbang F = 0

  • P1= P2

  • A P1 = A Patm + W

    di mana W = m g =  V g =  A h g

  • P1 = Patm +  h g

  • P = P1 - Patm =  h g

= Tekanan ukur di dalam tangki


Example manometer

EXAMPLE : Manometer

A manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The fluid used has a specific gravity of 0.85, and the manometer column height is 55 cm, as shown in Figure. If the local atmospheric pressure is 96 kPa, determine the absolute pressure within the tank.


Example solution

EXAMPLE: SOLUTION


Example multifluid manometer

EXAMPLE: MULTIFLUID MANOMETER

Water in a tank is pressurized by air, and the pressure is measured by a multifluid manometer (see Figure). The tank is located on a mountain at an altitude of 1400 m where the atmospheric pressure is 85.6 kPa. Determine the air pressure in the tank if h1 = 0.1 m, h2 = 0.2 m, and h3 = 0.35 m. Take the densities of water, oil, and mercury to be 1000 kg/m3, 850 kg/m3, and 13,600 kg/m3, respectively.


Solution

SOLUTION


Aplikasi manometer

APLIKASI MANOMETER

Measuring the pressure drop across a flow section or a flow device by a differential manometer:

P1+1g(a + h) - 2gh - 1ga = P2

P1- P2 = (2 - 1)gh

Untuk2>> 1 :

P1- P2 ≈2g h


Barometer torricelli

BAROMETER Torricelli

Patm= g h


Example3 barometer

EXAMPLE3: BAROMETER

  • Determine the atmospheric pressure at a location where the barometric reading is 740 mm Hg and the gravitational acceleration is g 9.81 m/s2. Assume the temperature of mercury to be 10oC, at which its density is 13,570 kg/m3.


Example3 solution

EXAMPLE3: SOLUTION


Tekanan atmosfer

TEKANAN ATMOSFER

Rule of thumb: naik 10 m, tekanan atmosfer turun 1 mmHg


Efek ketinggian

EFEK KETINGGIAN


Temperature

TEMPERATURE

  • Thermodinamika  SUHU MUTLAK

  • Satuan kelvin (K) untuk SI

  • Satuan renkine (R) untuk USCS

Konversi:

T(K) = T(oC) + 273.15

T(R) = T(oF) + 456.67

T(oC) = 1.8T(oC) + 32

T(R) = 1.8 T(K)

CAUTION:

T(K) = T(oC)

T(R) = T(oF)


Example4 temperature

EXAMPLE4: TEMPERATURE

  • During a heating process, the temperature of a system rises by 10°C. Express this rise in temperature in K, °F, and R.


Konsep dasar termodinamika

PR:

  • Soal No: 1-6C, 1-7C, 1-15C, 1-16C, 1-17C, 1-20C, 1-21C, 1-22C, 1-23C, 1-24C, 1-29, 1-31, 1-34C, 1-35C, 1-36C, 1-39C, 1-40, 1-42, 1-43, 1-44, 1-45, 1-48, 1-51, 1-53, 1-55, 1-57, 1-59, 1-61, 1-62, 1-63, 1-65, 1-66, 1-73, 1-85, 1-88, 1-101, 1-103, 1-105, 1-106, 1-108, 1-120, 1-121, 1-122, 1-123, 1-125.

  • Kelompok THERMO

  • Kelompok DYNAMICS