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FIRST AID TRAINING. KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE HEALTH SCIENCE. FIRST AID TRAINING. Power Point #1. LEARNING OUTCOME . the student should be able to identify their role in providing first aid. PURPOSE OF FIRST AID.

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First aid training

FIRST AID TRAINING

KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

HEALTH SCIENCE


First aid training1

FIRSTAID TRAINING

Power Point #1


Learning outcome
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • the student should be able to identify their role in providing first aid


Purpose of first aid
PURPOSE OF FIRST AID

  • provide temporary assistance in medical emergency situations until professional rescuers arrive and assumes responsibility for the victim


Legal aspects
LEGAL ASPECTS

  • Good Samaritan Lawminimizes the fear of legal consequences, but protects only those acting in good faith & without gross negligence or willful misconduct


Legal aspects1
LEGAL ASPECTS

  • Do no further harm to the victim


Legal responsibility
LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • Legal responsibility varies from state to state as to who stops and renders first aid. Know your state law


What is the state law of iowa
What is the state law of Iowa?

  • How would you find this information out?

  • Who can you call in you local community?

  • What is Iowa’s law?

  • * No legal responsibility in Iowa unless it is part of your job description


Legal responsibility1
LEGAL RESPONSIBILITY

  • once you render first aid to a victim, you have a “legal obligation” to continue until professional rescuers arrive

  • to discontinue would be considered abandonment


Moral obligation to render first aid
MORAL OBLIGATION TO RENDER FIRST AID

  • When designated by employment

  • When a pre-existingresponsibility exists, examples:

    • parent/child

    • driver/passenger

    • student/teacher


Consent for first aid
CONSENT FOR FIRST AID

  • Permission from a conscious victim is required to avoid assault charges and termed “consent”

  • Permission from an unconscious victim is not obtainable from the victim. Therefore, we assume the victim would want first aid. This action is termed “implied consent”


Triage
TRIAGE

  • is the action of sorting victims of disaster in order to determine who needs immediate care and transportation to the hospital, or could be delayed

  • disaster: any situation that taxes emergency resources


Get help
GET HELP!!!!

  • call 9-1-1 for professional rescuers

  • give your location

  • describe nature of emergency (fire, explosion, drowning, fall, motor vehicle accident, etc.)

  • tell them number of victims involved

  • describe seriousness of injuries

  • advise of hazardous material involvement


Two components of victim assessment
TWO COMPONENTS OF VICTIM ASSESSMENT

  • Primary Observation: designed to identify any life threatening problems and stabilize them immediately

  • Secondary Observation: designed to detect obvious injuries or clues to illness and injury through a head-to-toe observation, gather history from victim or bystanders & inspectsurroundings


Key components of primary observation
KEY COMPONENTS OF PRIMARY OBSERVATION

  • A * AIRWAY

  • B * BREATHING

  • C * CIRCULATION

  • LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS


Airway
AIRWAY

  • is it open & functional? If not, correct. Consider cause or mechanism of injury. (Use head-tilt, chin-lift if no injury; jaw-thrust maneuver if there is head/neck injury)

  • airway may be obstructed


Breathing
BREATHING

  • can victim speak?

  • look, is the chest rising and falling?

  • listen, do you hear air going in and out of airway?

  • feel, do you feel air touching your cheek?


Circulation
CIRCULATION

  • to determine a heartbeat. Is breathing, coughing or movement present? If NOT, assume no heartbeat and start CPR

  • control severe bleeds with pressure dressing immediately


Level of consciousness
LEVEL OF CONSCIOUSNESS

  • is the victim oriented to person, place and time?

    • the brain requires a constant supply of oxygen from the heart to remain oriented

    • blood losses will affect oxygen supply and interfere with orientation

    • breathing disorders will decrease oxygen supply also interfering with orientation


History of event
HISTORY OF EVENT

  • chief complaint. What hurts?

  • obtain history about the condition of the victim from victim, family, friends or bystanders. What happened?

  • find out events that lead to chief complaint. What were they doing?

  • note the ENVIRONMENT (drugs, alcohol, weapons, falls, motor vehicle accidents, surrounding temperature,etc.)


Vital signs heartbeat
VITAL SIGNSHEARTBEAT

  • is there breathing, coughing and movement? This would indicate the heart is beating when present

  • when absent, compressions of heart must begin to circulate blood to vital organs


Vital signs breathing
VITAL SIGNSBREATHING

  • is victim breathing or NOT?

  • is the breathing pattern fast, slow, deep, shallow, labored, noisy?

  • if NOT breathing, artificial breathing must be administered

lungs


Artificial breathing
ARTIFICIAL BREATHING

  • mouth to mouth ventilation or use other artificialbreathing assistive devices

  • artificial breathing for an adult should take place once every 5 seconds (20/minute)


Vital signs temperature
VITAL SIGNSTEMPERATURE

  • is skin hot, cold, warm?

  • a “hot” to the touch or “cold” to the touch body indicates abnormality


Vital signs skin mucous membrane color
VITAL SIGNSSkin/mucous membrane color

  • Pink? Adequate oxygen levels

  • White (pale)? Peripheral blood shunted to core of body to self protect major organs

  • Gray (ashen)? Indicates decreasing oxygenlevel in blood, body systems begin suffering

  • Blue (cyanotic)? Indicates excessive amount of blood not carrying oxygen, body systems in critical state

  • Red (flushed)? Harmful levels of carbon monoxide or increased carbon dioxide levels


Head to toe observation
HEAD-TO-TOE OBSERVATION

  • must be consistent and deliberate each time performed

  • should be done for each victim when condition allows to make sure nothing is missed

  • may be omitted if the primary observation components airway, breathing and heartbeat are compromised


Head neck
HEAD & NECK

  • Observefor:

    • bleeding (open wounds)

    • deformities of facial structures (fractures)

    • c/o pain/numbness/tingling of extremities (possible neck injury)

    • pupil size and response to light (changes could indicate head injury)

    • mouth for missing/broken teeth or bleeding


Chest
CHEST

  • Observe for:

    • equal rising and falling on both sides of chest during breathing

    • deformity of chest wall (indicating possible rib fractures)

    • bleeding, indicating open chest wound

    • complaint of chest pain from injury/disease

    • abnormal breathing patterns

    • coughing/bloody sputum


Abdomen
ABDOMEN

  • Observe for:

    • hardness of abdomen indicates problem

    • bleeding, indicating open wound

    • complaints of pain

    • bruising, a SERIOUS indicator of injury

    • vomiting (save for professional personnel to observe for content & possible blood)

    • Abdominal cavity has body organs suspended within. There is great potential for blood loss if connecting tissue is torn


Pelvis
PELVIS

  • Observe for:

    • obvious swelling (pelvic trauma has a potential to bleed profusely due to “big” blood vessels in the pelvic cavity)

    • obvious deformity, rotation, shortening of lower leg(s) may indicate hip fracture

    • complaints of pain

    • signs & symptoms of shock

    • bleeding, indicating open wound


Extremities
EXTREMITIES

  • Observe (arms & legs) for:

    • obvious deformity or visible bone, indicates possible fracture

    • shortening of one extremity to another, indicates possible fracture/dislocation

    • obvious bleeding indicates open wounds

    • complaint of marked tenderness/pain over injury site or falsemovement indicates possible fracture

    • complaint of loss of feeling below injury site, indicates nerve damage


Extremities1
EXTREMITIES

  • Observe for “P-M-S”:

    • pink skin color and warm temperature below injury?

    • movement, is it present or absent below injury site?

    • sensation to touch, is it present or absent below injury site?

    • “PMS” checks must be done before & after splinting and bandaging extremity injuries


Spine
SPINE

  • Observe for:

    • complaint of pain over spine strong indicator of spine injury

    • complaint of numbness, tingling, and/or inability to move strong indicator of spine injury

    • DO NOT MOVE VICTIM UNLESS IMMINENT DANGER IS PRESENT


Medical alert identification
MEDICAL ALERT IDENTIFICATION

  • Check for:

    • bracelets, necklaces & other forms of medical alert ID’s that could provide valuable information for professional team about pre-existing health conditions


Head to toe observation1
HEAD-TO-TOE OBSERVATION

  • OMIT SECONDARY OBSERVATION WHEN:

  • patient is unable to maintain an open airway

  • patient is not breathing on their own

  • there is no heartbeat

  • your hands will be “full” doing CPR, and the secondary is not essential until later or never, depending on the circumstances


Quizlet 1
Quizlet 1

  • You neighbor is painting his house from a ladder. You hear him cry out and hear the ladder hit the cement. When you arrive you find him on his back, his right arm is deformed and he is not moving.

  • What is your assessment of the situation?

    • In what order would you manage this victim?

      • ABC

      • Airway

        • How do you determine he is breathing?

      • Breathing

        • Jaw thrust or chin thrust and why

      • Circulation

        • Where do you check for a pulse on an adult?

      • Call 911

  • What should you do with his arm?

    • Straighten it out?

    • Leave it alone?

  • When can you leave the victim?


First aid training2

FIRST AID TRAINING

KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

HEALTH SCIENCE


First aid training3

FIRST AID TRAINING

Power Point #2


Learning outcome1
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify types of bleeding wounds and shock, and the appropriate first aid interventions


Wounds shock
WOUNDS & SHOCK

  • Average adult body contains 6 liters of blood (approximately 6 quarts)

    • rapid loss of 1 quart blood (1000cc) from adult can lead to shock and death

    • rapid loss of 1-cup blood (250 cc) from child can be deadly

    • rapid loss of 2-Tablespoons blood (30 cc) from infant can be deadly


Shock
SHOCK

  • Definition:

  • inadequate tissue/cell perfusion causing body cells and systems to begin deathdue to a loss of body fluids and oxygen within the blood vessels


Tissue perfusion
TISSUE PERFUSION

  • Definition:

  • is the process of providing all living cells with a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, and removing waste products from the cells

  • this process is essential for a healthy life


Causes of shock
CAUSES OF SHOCK

  • trauma - blood loss

  • illness - body fluid losses of vomit, diarrhea, fever (perspiration)

  • heart disease - causing blood flow disruptions & rhythm disturbances

  • gastrointestinal diseases - disrupt electrolyte balance and destroy cells, organs, & systems

continued


Causes of shock1
CAUSES OF SHOCK

  • respiratory disease - causing disruption of the oxygen supply to cells

  • allergic reactions - causing serious breathing spasms & vasodilatation

  • head injury - causing central nervoussystem inability to command properly

  • spine injury - may result in loss of ability for blood vessels to constrict causing (vasodilatation)


Major types of shock
MAJOR TYPES OF SHOCK

  • Hypovolemic (hemorrhagic)

  • Cardiogenic

  • Anaphylactic

  • Fainting


Hypovolemic shock
HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK

Circulatory System

  • Causes:

  • blood loss

  • dehydration, other body fluid lossesdue to fever (sweating), vomiting, major burns, serious respiratory crises

  • diarrhea

Full

Fluid loss


Hypovolemic shock signs symptoms
HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCKSigns & Symptoms

  • restlessness/irritability

  • altered level of consciousness

  • weak/rapid pulse

  • pale/moist skin

  • rapid breathing

  • nausea & vomiting

  • dull, sunken appearing eyes

  • big pupils

  • obvious injuries (bruising/bleeding)


Treatment for hypovolemic shock
TREATMENT FORHYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK

  • manage A-B-C’s & call 9-1-1

  • apply direct pressure to bleeds (barriers)

  • elevate part if bleeding continues

  • consider pulse pressure points if bleeding continues

  • add dressings don’t remove soaked ones

  • prevent body heat loss & chills

  • if not contraindicated, elevate legs 12”


Do not elevate legs when
DO NOT ELEVATE LEGS WHEN:

  • the victim is unconscious or may have had a stroke (will increase pressure in the brain)

  • chest pain is present (will increase workload to heart)

  • there is a spine injury (may cause further injury)

  • breathing problems are present (will make this condition worse)


Cardiogenic shock
CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

  • Causes:

    • heart pump failure that in turn reduces or starves the cells of oxygenated blood


Cardiogenic shock1
CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • severe cyanosis (blue-purple coloring of skin)

    • one or more signs & symptoms of heart attack : (shortness of breath, anxiety, chest pressure/tightness, jaw pain, upper extremity pain, nausea, indigestion, light headed/dizzy, wet & cool skin,etc.)


Treatment for cardiogenic shock
TREATMENT FORCARDIOGENIC SHOCK

  • manage A-B-C’s first

  • recognize the emergency & call 9 -1-1 immediately

  • keep patient in sitting position while conscious with legs dangling over the edge until they become unconscious

  • be prepared to perform CPR


Anaphylactic shock
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

  • Causes:

    • exposure to allergens such as:

      • insect/bee stings

      • certain medications (penicillin & tetanus frequent offenders)

      • certain foods (shellfish, berries, nuts)

      • pollens/dust/molds

      • (Vary per individual)


Anaphylactic shock1
ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

Bronchial tubes

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • redness, swelling at site of a bite or sting

    • severe hives/itching

    • swelling of face, throat, eyes & hands

    • coughing, wheezing, breathing difficulties

    • POSSIBLE DEATH IN 30 SECONDS TO 30 MINUTES


Treatment for anaphylactic shock
TREATMENT FORANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • recognize emergency & call 9-1-1 immediately

  • if victim carries a bee sting kit or allergy kit, assist victim in the administration of injectable epinephrine

  • be prepared to do CPR


Fainting
FAINTING

  • Causes:

    • interruption of blood flow to the brain

    • blood pools in lower extremities when standing for long periods of time

    • psychological disturbance

    • fainting is often the only sign of heart problems in the elderly, therefore an elderly victim should always be seen by a physician to rule out heart problems after fainting


Fainting1
FAINTING

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • dizziness

    • skin color is pale

    • skin cool and moist to the touch

    • may complain of nausea

    • “black out”spell


Treatment for fainting
TREATMENT FOR FAINTING

  • break fall if possible to prevent injuries

  • if there are no obvious injuries, place victim on back with legs elevated 12”

  • loosen tight clothing around neck

  • wipe forehead with cool/wet cloth

  • turn vomiting victim onto side

  • after a long rest, assist victim to a slow upright position if there are no injuries after regaining consciousness


Quizlet 2
Quizlet 2

  • You are watching your daughter perform at her first junior high chorus concert. She suddenly starts to weave back and forth and then collapses to the ground.

    • What is your assessment of the situation

      • What type of shock has occurred?

      • Why did it occur?

      • What is the treatment ?


Causes of bleeding
CAUSES OF BLEEDING

  • Injuries/Trauma: penetrating injury that breaks through skin with sharp objects

  • blunt injury that does not break through the skin

  • Diseases: ulcers, aneurysms, cancers


Classification of bleeding wounds
CLASSIFICATION OF BLEEDING WOUNDS

  • Open Wounds: skin is broken

  • Closed Wounds: skin is intact


Open wounds
OPEN WOUNDS

  • (external) visibleblood outside of the body; skin is broken


Arterial bleed
ARTERIAL BLEED

  • spurting bright red blood. Most dangerous, must be stopped. Could be life threatening


Venous bleed
VENOUS BLEED

  • flowing blue/red blood that responds to direct pressure to stop. Pressure may be necessary 6-10 minutes before clotting takes place


Capillary bleed
CAPILLARY BLEED

  • oozing dark red blood. May clot spontaneously or rapidly with pressure. MOSTCOMMON type of bleed


Types of wounds
TYPES OF WOUNDS

  • abrasion

  • incision

  • laceration

  • puncture

  • avulsion

  • amputation


Abrasion
ABRASION

  • skin scrape, floorburn, road rash often embedded with dirt. This wound is typically a capillary bleed & prone to infections


Incision
INCISION

  • smooth edged cut made by a sharp object (knife, scissors) and bleeds easily


Laceration
LACERATION

  • a jagged, irregular break in skin edgecreated by a sharp object through trauma, and bleeds freely


Puncture
PUNCTURE

  • piercing through theskin (knife, nail, pen, etc.) Minimal bleeding until removed

  • DO NOT REMOVE

  • angle & depth of instrument determines what organ(s) are affected


Avulsion
AVULSION

  • flap type skin injury that bleeds freely and has small portion of the skin still attached to the body

degloved


Amputation
AMPUTATION

  • detachment of a body part or portion of the part (finger, toe, arm, leg, ear, etc.)

Partial

amputation

Complete

amputation


Treatment of open wound injuries
TREATMENT OF OPEN WOUND INJURIES

  • Minor wounds:

    • wash hands with 3-5ml soap for 10-15 sec.

    • use protective barrier gloves, plastic wrap or bag

    • cleanse wound gently with soap & water, rinse thoroughly and dry

    • cover wound with clean dressing & apply direct pressure

    • apply bandage to secure dressing. Avoid it being too tight (P-M-S checks)


Treatment of open wound injuries1
TREATMENT OF OPEN WOUND INJURIES

  • Major wounds:

    • manage A-B-C’s first

    • apply clean dressing to wound & apply direct pressure. Don’t remove soakeddressings, add more dressings so clots are not disturbed

    • elevate part if bleeding continues

    • may need to apply pressure to a pulsepoint above the bleed site


Arterial pulse pressure points
ARTERIAL PULSE PRESSURE POINTS

Pressure Points

  • if direct pressure and elevation of a part has not stopped a bleed, find the pulsepoint between the wound and heart closest to the wound and apply pressure at that point


Treatment of open wound injuries2
TREATMENT OF OPEN WOUND INJURIES

  • Major wounds:

    • seek medical attention for all major wounds (may need a tetanus update, may need to have the wound closed, there could be bone injury also) Sutures must be done within 6-8 hours after injury

    • all bites from animal or human should be seen by a physician. Identify the animal and it’s owner whenever possible, and notify the authorities so animal can be contained


Managing amputated parts
MANAGING AMPUTATED PARTS

  • manage A-B-C’s & call 9-1-1

  • apply direct pressure to stump

  • wrap body part in a dry, clean cloth

  • place wrapped part into a plastic bag and seal

  • place sealed bag into icy cold water

  • DO NOT PUT AMPUTATED PART DIRECTLY INTO WATER OR ON ICE


Closed wounds
CLOSED WOUNDS

  • Blunt injuries: (internal) blood not visible, but bleeding is active inside of the body; skin is intact. This type of bleeding is often most serious

tire tracks on abdomen


Contusion
CONTUSION

  • bruising caused by blunt injury


Hematoma
HEMATOMA

  • blood pooling under the skin resulting in blue colored mass hematoma (blood tumor)


Treatment of closed wound injuries
TREATMENT OF CLOSED WOUND INJURIES

  • manage A-B-C’s and call 9-1-1

  • note how injury happened and be concerned when things “look bad”

  • treat for shock

  • treat problems appropriately when identified in observation

  • apply ice to closed wounds with a barrier between ice & skin to prevent frostbite


Wounds requiring immediate attention
WOUNDS REQUIRING IMMEDIATE ATTENTION

  • arterial bleeding

  • deepwounds into muscle, bone & joints or open & gaping

  • all puncture wounds, dirty wounds or wounds with embedded objects

  • blunt injuries that produce a large bruise, or swelling

  • bites, human or animal


Complications of wound injuries
COMPLICATIONS OF WOUND INJURIES

  • infection - invasion of disease-producing organisms into the body

  • tetanus - an infectious disease caused by bacteria found in the soil, air, skin or feces producing a powerful toxin affecting the brain and spinal cord


Signs symptoms of wound infection
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF WOUND INFECTION

  • redness, swelling, pain of affected area

  • affected area “hot to the touch”

  • drainage (pus) from wound “foul smell”

  • possible fever, chills

  • possible red streaks from affected area towards heart (SERIOUS SIGN, requires immediate medical attention)


Signs symptoms of tetanus
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF TETANUS

  • Muscle spasms following a dirty wound

  • Extreme body rigidity (“Lock Jaw”)

    • No known antidote available

    • Prevented by vaccination


Quizlet 3
Quizlet 3

  • You and a friend are hiking in the woods. You friend slips off of the trail and falls down a hill, landing along side a tree. When you reach your friend, she is awake and complaining of chest pain and finds it hard to breathe. Her skin is cool and damp and she appears pale.

    • What is your assessment of the situation?

      • Identify the type of trauma that occurred

        • Blunt force-no evident bleeding

      • Why does it hurt to breathe?

        • Possible broken ribs/internal bleeding

      • Why is the skin pale and damp?

        • Going into shock

      • What steps are taken to treat a patient in shock?

    • Your friend complains of being thirsty. Is this a concern?


Bandaging
BANDAGING

  • bandages hold dressings in place

  • dressings are placed directly over wounds to control bleeding and/or prevent further contamination. Whenever possible, dressings should be sterile. When sterile is not available, dressings should be clean


Roller bandages
ROLLER BANDAGES

  • long strips of material or prepared gauze rolls in varying widths & lengths used in wrapping extremity and head wounds

  • may be used to secure splints


Triangular bandages
TRIANGULAR BANDAGES

  • “cravat”, triangular in shape

  • can be used as an arm sling with second wrapped around chest wall keeping arm close to chest

  • ideal for splinting simple rib fractures


Principles of bandaging
PRINCIPLES OFBANDAGING

  • P-M-S checks below injury site before & after bandaging

  • apply secure enough to hold dressing in place, but not too tight to disrupt circulation

  • do not include fingers & toes unless they are the wounded parts. You want to see their color & feel their temperature

  • wrap towards heart during application

  • use figure 8 techniques with roller bandages


First aid training4

FIRST AID TRAINING

KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

HEALTH SCIENCE


First aid training5

FIRST AID TRAINING

Power Point #3


Learning outcome2
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify injuries to specific body areas, fractures, joint and muscle injuries and the appropriate first aid interventions


Skull fractures
SKULL FRACTURES

  • open fractures indicate that the bone has broken through the skin & may or may not be visible


Skull fractures1
SKULL FRACTURES

  • closed fractures indicate the bone has been broken, but the skin is intact

Closed fracture


Causes of skull fractures
CAUSES OF SKULL FRACTURES

  • trauma to the head from:

  • motor vehicle accidents

  • falls

  • blows to the head


Head injuries
HEAD INJURIES

  • Signs & Symptoms of Skull Fractures

    • pain at site of injury

    • deformity “soft spot”

    • drainage from ears & nose (CSF)

    • unequal pupil size

    • CONSIDER the mechanism of injury to assess seriousness


Concussion
CONCUSSION

  • a temporary impairment of brain function due to injury to the skull


Causes of concussions
CAUSES OF CONCUSSIONS

  • blow to the head due to a fall, motor vehicle accident, industrial accident, weapon, etc.

  • shaking the head causes severe bruising of the brain and tearing of the blood vessels creating the“Shaken Baby Syndrome”. This condition is often the cause of death for infants


Concussion1
CONCUSSION

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • loss of consciousness

    • severe headache

    • short term memory loss

    • “seeing stars” sensation

    • dizziness

    • double or blurred vision

    • projectile vomiting


Degree of concussion
DEGREE OF CONCUSSION

  • Mild - no loss of consciousness

  • Moderate - unconscious less than 5 minutes

  • Severe - unconscious more than 5 minutes


Brain contusion
BRAIN CONTUSION

  • bruisingon or inthe brain

  • very serious


Brain contusion epidural bleed
BRAIN CONTUSIONEPIDURAL BLEED

  • on top of brain, just below skull. The space between skull & brain is minimal. Any bleeding in this space is serious, causing pressure on the brain

b

l

o

o

d

brain


Brain contusion subdural bleed
BRAIN CONTUSIONSUBDURAL BLEED

  • takes place within the brain & often results in neurological disabilities or death

brain

B

l

o

o

d


Signs symptoms brain contusion
SIGNS & SYMPTOMSBRAIN CONTUSION

  • Epidural Bleeds:

    • initial blow to the head & possible brief period of unconsciousness

    • “seeing stars” sensation, headache, dizziness, projectile vomiting, visual disturbances initially

    • hours or days later, the patient suddenly becomes unconscious

    • unequal pupil size


Treatment head injuries
TREATMENTHEAD INJURIES

  • A-B-C’s (jaw thrust maneuver)

  • cover bleeding wounds (don’t plug-up nose or ear bleeding/drainage)

  • Call 9-1-1 for prolonged unconsciousness

  • Always assume a neck/spine injury with any head or face injury until ruled out by x-ray


Complications of head contusions
COMPLICATIONS OF HEAD CONTUSIONS

  • Need immediate medical attention:

    • headache lasting more than 48 hours

    • nausea & vomiting more than 2 episodes back to back, or projectile vomiting

    • drowsiness (victim should be awakened frequently & assess their level of orientation)

    • visual disturbances (blurred/double)

    • unsteady gait

    • speech problems

    • seizures


Eye injuries
EYE INJURIES

  • Blunt Trauma

  • Penetrating Injuries

  • Foreign Objects


Eye injuries1
EYE INJURIES

  • CAUSES OF BLUNT EYE TRAUMA:

    • fists (altercations)

    • snowballs

    • baseballs/softballs

    • doors, etc.


Treatment blunt eye truama
TREATMENTBLUNT EYE TRUAMA

  • have victim sit semi-upright

  • close both eyes

  • seek medical attention immediately

    • DONOT place any weight onto globe of eye

    • DONOT place ice on the eye


Penetrating eye injuries
PENETRATING EYE INJURIES

  • CAUSES :

    • pens

    • ice picks

    • knives

    • bullets

    • roofing staples

    • pool sticks, etc.

staple


Treatment penetrating eye
TREATMENTPENETRATING EYE

  • place victim in semi-sitting position

  • close both eyes of victim

  • NO pressure on the eye

  • dry gauze pads over both eyes

  • seek medical attention immediately

  • victim can’tsee when both eyes are covered, keep them informed


Foreign objects
FOREIGN OBJECTS

  • dust

  • dirt

  • metal

  • splinter

  • rust

  • pens/pencils

  • glass, etc.


Treatment foreign objects
TREATMENTFOREIGN OBJECTS

  • DO NOT rub the eye

  • flush eye with tepid water from inner corner to outer corner of eye until object is free (use gentle water flow)

  • may invert eyelid onto Q-tip, and gently flush object

  • if still in, close both eyes & seek medical attention

  • keep patient informed as they can’t see


Treatment embedded object
TREATMENTEMBEDDED OBJECT

  • DO NOT remove the embedded object

  • place paper cup over short object to protect object from being bumped and moved

  • have patient close unaffected eye

  • cover both eyes to reduce eye movement

  • seek medical attention immediately

  • keep patient informed about happenings


Chemical burns

Acid

destroys eye within 30 min. & appears “beefy red”

flush immediately with tepid, gentle flow water, from inner to outer corner of eye 20 minutes minimum

Call 9-1-1

Alkali

destroys eye in 30 seconds & appears “milky white”

flush immediately with tepid, gentle flow water, from inner to outer corner of eye 20 minutes minimum

Call 9-1-1

CHEMICAL BURNS


Chemical burn to the eye
CHEMICAL BURN TOTHE EYE

acid

alkali


Nosebleeds
NOSEBLEEDS

  • Two Types:

    • anterior - involving the superficial vessels in front portion of nose

    • posterior - involving larger vessels in back portion of nose (could be life threatening bleed)


Causes of nosebleeds
CAUSES OF NOSEBLEEDS

  • trauma

  • sinus infections/allergies

  • hypertension (high blood pressure)

  • dry air conditions

Patient applies squeezing pressure


Treatment nose bleeds
TREATMENT NOSE BLEEDS

  • keep patient quiet

  • sit upright/lean slightly forward to avoid swallowing of blood

  • pinch nostrils for minimum of 5 minutes

  • apply iceto forehead above nose

  • seek medical attention if bleeding after 6-10 minutes

  • question patient about anticoagulant drugs (drugs that affect clotting time)

  • treat for shock


Dental injuries
DENTAL INJURIES

  • a tooth completely knocked out of socket:

    • place in whole milk

    • take patient & tooth to dentist immediately

    • DONOTtouch the root of the tooth

missing

If no dentist is available, rinse

tooth with water and replace

in socket and align with

adjacent teeth


Dental injuries1
DENTAL INJURIES

  • partially extracted teeth:

    • get to dentist immediately, if not:

      • rinse with water and align tooth to adjacent teeth and push back into place


Chest injuries
CHEST INJURIES

  • Types of chest injuries:

    • open- chest wall is open - skin broken

      • penetrating (could be ribs breaking through or foreign object such as bullet, knives, etc.)

      • sucking wounds

    • closed - chest wall is closed

      • no obvious bleeding noted

      • major injuries can be involved though. The largest blood vessels are in the middle of the chest


Blunt trauma to chest
BLUNT TRAUMATO CHEST

  • may cause serious injuries to the organs beneath the impact

  • examples: (steering wheel to chest on impact, fists to face or chest, kicked by someone or other weapons, etc.)


Penetrating trauma to chest
PENETRATING TRAUMATO CHEST

  • may cause serious injuries beneath site of penetration

    • consider length of instrument penetrating & movement within body

    • examples: (bullets, knives, picks, pens, etc.


Crushing injury to chest
CRUSHING INJURYTO CHEST

  • squeezes body, bones or organs to the point of bursting or prevents the body system the ability to function

    • Example: (any heavy weight on chest impairs the action of breathing)


Signs symptons of chest injuries
SIGNS & SYMPTONSOF CHEST INJURIES

  • chest pain -shortness of breath

  • open wounds -chest deformity

  • pale/ashen color -paradoxical movement

  • sucking sounds -signs of shock

  • asymmetrical chest wall movement

  • coughing up of blood


Treatment closed chest injuries
TREATMENT CLOSED CHEST INJURIES

  • ABC’s - stabilize any vital sign problems

  • Call 9-1-1 immediately

  • allow sittingposition unless there are accompanying injuries that prevent it

  • to immobilize major rib injuries, consider the use of pillowover the affected area

  • to immobilize simple rib fractures, use a sling & swathe

  • NEVER bind the chest to inhibit breathing


Treatment open chest injuries
TREATMENT OPENCHEST INJURIES

  • open wounds should be sealed quickly with cellophane wrap or plastic baggie, etc. large enough not to get sucked into wound & secured with tape on 3 sides only

  • any chest wound has potential to become a life threatening problem

  • Call 9-1-1 immediately


Treatment embedded objects in chest
TREATMENT EMBEDDED OBJECTS IN CHEST

  • stabilize any embedded foreign objects to minimize movement of the object and further injuries

  • DO NOT remove the embedded object


Abdominal injuries
ABDOMINAL INJURIES

  • open injuries: there is an entry from outside the body into the abdominal cavity

  • closed injuries: blunt injury to abdominal cavity that may result in serious abdominal organ contusions & lacerations, large & small blood vessel tears that result in major blood losses


Causes of abdominal injuries
CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL INJURIES

  • impaled objects

    objects that enter the abdomen by accident or assault & remain in the abdomen (knives, bullets, pens, ice picks, etc.)

  • penetrating injuries

    objects that enter the abdomen causing injury, and if pulled out, suffer major bleeding (bullets, knives, pens, ice picks, motor vehicle parts, etc.)


Closed abdominal injuries blunt injury
CLOSED ABDOMINALINJURIES (BLUNT INJURY)

  • Causes:

    • blows with fists or other instruments during altercations

    • falls onto blunt objects

    • motor vehicle accidents


Signs symptoms
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

  • history of injury

  • pain, cramping , nausea, & possible vomiting

  • guarded positioning/hardened abdomen

  • evidence of blood in urine &/or stool

  • evisceration (abdominal organs exposed)

  • signsofshock: pale/ashen color, cool skin, moist skin, rapid breathing


Treatment abdominal injuries
TREATMENTABDOMINAL INJURIES

  • check & correct A-B-C problems, call 9-1-1

  • keep victim quiet, warm and in position of comfort

  • give patient nothing to eat or drink

  • patient may vomit, save emesis

  • cover eviscerated organs with sterile, moist, non-clinging dressing & bulky dry dressing

  • do not remove or allow movement of impaled objects


Fractures
FRACTURES

  • defined as:

  • break in the bone cortex

  • closed fractures have no break in the skin

  • open fractures have a break in the skin

fracture

fracture


Dislocation
DISLOCATION

  • defined as:

  • displacement of bones at a joint

Elbow photo

Elbow x-ray


Sprain strain
SPRAIN/STRAIN

  • sprain defined as:

  • temporary dislocation of joint usually involving ligament injury

  • strain defined as:

  • pulled muscle

Sprained right ankle

swollen


Causes of bones joint injuries
CAUSES OF BONES & JOINT INJURIES

  • sporting injuries

  • motor vehicle accidents

  • falls

  • altercations, etc.


Signs symptoms of bone injuries
SIGNS & SYMPTOMSOF BONE INJURIES

  • pain &/or swelling over site of injury

  • obvious deformity &/or false motion

  • joint deformity with dislocations

  • crepitus (grating sensation as fractured bones ends rub together)

  • possible open wound with bone protrusion

  • history of injury


Treatment fracture dislocations
TREATMENTFRACTURE/DISLOCATIONS

  • manage A-B-C’s before fractures

  • remove clothing around injury site

  • control bleeds with pressure dressings

  • do not push protruding bone(s) under skin

  • P-M-S, check skin color, temperature & movement below injury

  • splint as found, include joint above & below

  • recheck P-M-S, skin color, temperature & movement below injury


Treatment muscles injuries
TREATMENTMUSCLES INJURIES

  • Ice to injury site 24-48 hours after injury (place barrier between ice & skin)

  • Compress injury site with ace wrap for support (not too tight) P-M-S checks

  • Elevate affected part to reduce swelling

  • Apply heat to site 48 hours after injury

  • Seek medical attention if pain/swelling persists


Spine injuries
SPINE INJURIES

  • Causes of spine injuries:

    • motor vehicle accidents

    • falls

    • diving accidents

    • rodeo stunts

    • gymnastic, etc.


Signs symptoms spine injury
SIGNS & SYMPTOMSSPINE INJURY

  • mechanism of injury suggestive of spine injury

  • complaints of numbness, tingling, weakness or burning sensation in arms/legs

  • loss of bowel or bladder control

  • complaint of pain directly over a section of the spine

  • not breathing


Treatment spine injuries
TREATMENTSPINE INJURIES

  • A-B-C’s (jaw-thrust maneuver to open airway with spine injuries)

  • Call 9-1-1

  • allow no patient movement (move patient only if imminent danger is present)

  • keep patient warm


Treatment spine injuries1
TREATMENTSPINE INJURIES

  • assign someone to keep head aligned with body (a blanket rolled & shaped like a horseshoe around head & secured to a backboard works well) Do not use any weightson sides of head


Splinting
SPLINTING

  • a splint is a supportive device applied to immobilize a fracture or restrict movement of an injured part

  • splinting minimizes further surrounding tissue, vessel and nerve damage that the broken bone ends could do when not stable


Types of splints
TYPES OF SPLINTS

  • pillow

  • rigid; boards, rolled newspaper/magazine

  • professional; padded, vacuum, ladder, and traction

vacuum

padded

rigid

traction


Creative splints
CREATIVE SPLINTS

  • when professional splints are not available, consider using:

    • rolled up magazine or newspaper

    • a board or other flat firm object

    • a pillow

    • “buddy tape” affected extremity to an adjacent one with padding between. The unaffected finger, toe, or leg becomes the splint for the injured buddy body part


Principles of splinting
PRINCIPLES OF SPLINTING

  • apply splints before moving victim

  • P-M-S checks (pink/warm skin, movement, sense of touch below fracture)before splint

  • include joints above & below injury site

  • secure splint with cravats or roller bandages

  • keep fingers & toes exposed for assessment

  • splint injury as found, do not straighten

  • cover open fractures with sterile or clean dressings

continued


Principles of splinting1
PRINCIPLES OF SPLINTING

  • hand &/or finger fractures should be placed in position of function (cupped around roller bandage or something similar)

  • remove jewelry, clothing, shoes, or socks when part of the injury site

  • recheck P-M-S

  • elevate fracture extremities after splinting

  • apply iceto closed fracture site, with cloth barrier between ice & skin


Learning outcome3
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify skills in moving and rescuing victims


Moving victims
MOVING VICTIMS

  • do not move a victim until you have provided appropriate first aid for the injuries identified


Moving victims1
MOVING VICTIMS

  • exceptions of moving before treatment of injuries:

    • existing fire or imminent danger of fire

    • when it is impossible to gain access to othervictims in a vehicle in need of life-saving care

    • DO NOT enter an area of explosives or hazardous materials regardless of situation to avoid injury to self


One person
ONE PERSON

  • Emergency moves

  • Drags: pull direction of long axis of body

    • shoulder/clothing drag tug clothing at neck/shoulder area, stabilize head in forearms; used for short/rough surfaces

    • blanket drag - pull blanket from behind the victim’s head


One person1
ONE PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

    • ankle drag - pull victim by ankles; the fastest method for short distances on smooth surface

    • one person assist - assist victim to walk if able


One person2
ONE PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

  • Carries:

    • fireman’s carry - victim carried over your shoulder if injuries permit


One person3
ONE PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

  • Carries:

    • pack-strap carry - for longer distances when fireman’s carry might be unsafe


Two person
TWO PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

  • two person assist-help person to walk


Two person1
TWO PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

    • two handed seat carry


Two three person
TWO-THREE PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

    • four handed grip -easiest when no equipment


Two three person1
TWO-THREE PERSON

  • Emergency move:

  • chair carry


Two three person2
TWO-THREE PERSON

  • Emergency moves:

    • two handed grip extremity carry

    • hammock carry - 3 - 6 people on alternate sides of victim linking hands together beneath victim


Moving victims2
MOVING VICTIMS

  • Principles of Moving Victims:

    • immobilize & protect injuries before moving

    • maintain firm footing with feet, shoulder’swidth apart, one foot slightly in front of the other, knees bent slightly, & your arms close to your body, avoid twisting, & keep back straight with hips below shoulders. Let the leg muscles work, not your back

    • keep motion(s) smooth

    • know physical capabilities. Need help? Get it, for safety of all!


Water rescue
WATER RESCUE

  • drowning is 3rd leading cause of accidental death

  • your goal will include not becoming the next victim and doing what you can do safely to help the victim


Water rescue1
WATER RESCUE

  • Principles of attempting water rescue:

  • Reach

    • long stick, lightweight pole, or any object that will extend to victim

    • secure yourself before reaching out to victim

    • if bystander is nearby, have them hold onto you will you reach out to victim


Water rescue2
WATER RESCUE

  • Principles of attempting water rescue:

  • Throw

    • attach a rope to anything that floats (ring buoy, life jacket, floating cushions, short pieces of wood, empty plastic jugs, etc.)

    • throw object beyond victim so wind/current allows floating object to come back to victim

    • lean backwards as you pull victim to safety to avoid getting pulled into water yourself


Water rescue3
WATER RESCUE

  • Principles of attempting water rescue:

  • Row

    • if victim is beyond reach & rowboat/sailboat are available, you may attempt this type of rescue if you have the skill (a paddle/oar craft is slower & safer than a motor driven craft

    • consider elements of danger

    • victim should be pulled into boat over the back, NOT the side


Water rescue4
WATER RESCUE

  • Principles of attempting water rescue:

  • Go

    • an assessment must be made by rescuer weighing the risk vs. reward to the victim

    • this should be last resort, not first

    • know your capabilities


Water rescue5
WATER RESCUE

  • After a water rescue:

    • protect victim & yourself against cold

    • be prepared to start mouth to mouth resuscitation and/or CPR

    • seek medical attention for victim and yourself


Ice rescue
ICE RESCUE

  • attempt to reach victim with an object

  • form a human chain, lying flat to distribute weight on the ice

  • seek medical attention for victim immediately after rescue

  • remove cold/wet clothing & cover with dry warm blankets after rescue

  • DON’T become the next victim


Learning outcome4
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify poisoning, alcohol, and drug emergencies and first aid interventions


Poisons alcohol drugs
Poisons, Alcohol & Drugs

  • poison defined as:

  • any substance that will cause a reaction that damages tissue, alters organ and system functions or may even cause death

Recreational Drugs/Alcohol


Ingested poisons
INGESTED POISONS

  • swallowed (accidental or intentional)

Drano


Inhaled poisons
INHALED POISONS

  • the act of breathing subjects the respiratory system to inhaled poisons

Carbon monoxide


Absorbed poisons
ABSORBED POISONS

  • through the skin by coming in contact with a poison

Poison ivy


Injected poisons
INJECTED POISONS

  • through skin puncture that could be a bite from an animal or reptile, a sting from an insect or recreational drug injection

Ouch!


Ingested poisons1
INGESTED POISONS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping

    • obvious mouth burns, stains, odors

    • obvious containers/evidence of poisons


Treatment ingested poisons
TREATMENT INGESTED POISONS

  • manage A-B-C’s and call 9-1-1

  • determine what, amount & time ingested

  • contact Poison Control Center

    • Mercy Medical Center: (319)398-6770

    • St. Luke’s: (319)369-7105

    • University of Iowa: 1-800-272-6477

  • follow directions of poison center that may include inducing vomiting using Syrup of Ipecac


Ingested poisons2
INGESTED POISONS

  • When NOT to induce vomiting:

    • seizure activity

    • unconsciousness or drowsiness

    • pregnancy

    • heart problems

    • when corrosives, petroleum or strychnine products have been ingested


Inhaled poisons1
INHALED POISONS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • headache

    • dizziness/weakness

    • visual disturbances

    • hoarseness, tightness in throat,difficulty swallowing, coughing, wheezing

    • cardiac & respiratory failure

    • INHALED POISONS OFTEN ODORLESS, BEWARE!!


Treatment inhaled poisons
TREATMENTINHALED POISONS

  • don’tbecome the next victim

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • remove patient from environment if possible

  • call 9-1-1, 100% oxygen is needed for victim


Absorbed poisons1
ABSORBED POISONS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • redness of skin

    • blisters/rashes

    • swelling

    • itching

    • known contact with poison ivy/oak or other poisonous substance


Treatment absorbed poisons
TREATMENTABSORBED POISONS

  • wash exposed area immediately with mild soap & tepid water (avoid strong water pressure)

  • baking soda compresses to affected areas or poison ivy or oak 4 times/day

  • hot baths (releases natural antihistamines)

  • seek medical attention in severe cases


Injected poisons1
INJECTED POISONS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • obvious markings (insect bites, bees, ticks, snake bites, etc. or “needle tracks” anywhere on the body) DO THOROUGH EXAM

    • localized pain/burning

    • swelling/redness

    • possible nausea, vomiting, weakness

    • tightness in throat, difficulty breathing

    • possible respiratory/cardiac arrest


Treatment injected poisons
TREATMENTINJECTED POISONS

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • identify poison

  • pull off ticks with tweezers or fingers grasping close to skin (don’t twist it)

  • call 9-1-1 for drug injected poisons or snake bites

tick

This bite resulted in

Lyme disease


Mood altering substances
MOOD ALTERING SUBSTANCES

  • alcohol:a depressant, even though there is an initial “up feeling”. Abuse of alcohol causes physical & psychological disorders that affect personal & professional relationships


Mood altering substances1
MOOD ALTERING SUBSTANCES

  • drugs: may be stimulants (“uppers”) or they may be depressants (“downers”)


Upper s
“UPPER’S”

  • stimulate central nervous system

  • gives feeling of well being/reduce fatigue

  • may cause hyperactivity, restlessness and belligerence when high dosages are used

  • frequently abused “uppers”:

    • caffeine, cocaine, amphetamines, anti-asthmatic drugs, vasoconstrictors, etc.


Downer s
“DOWNER’S”

  • depress central nervous system

  • cause drowsiness

  • relieve anxiety

  • relaxing

  • frequently abused “downers”:

    • marijuana, barbiturates, tranquilizers, narcotics, anticonvulsants, etc.


Mood altering drugs
MOOD ALTERING DRUGS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • possible alcohol odor on breath

    • possible lack of coordination

    • possible drowsiness

    • possible slurred speech

    • possible hyperactivity or combativeness

    • possible nausea/vomiting

    • possible flushed face (red)


Treatment drug abuse
TREATMENTDRUG ABUSE

  • manage A-B-C’s/call 9-1-1

  • manage injuries/shock resulting from abuse (victims abusing drugs/alcohol are frequent ER patients)

  • be prepared for vomiting & save for hospital

  • observe environment for pills, alcohol, drug paraphernalia, etc.


First aid training6

FIRST AID TRAINING

KIRKWOOD COMMUNITY COLLEGE

HEALTH SCIENCE


First aid training7

FIRST AID TRAINING

Power Point #4


Learning outcome5
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify burns, cold, and heat related emergencies and first aid interventions


Heat burns
HEAT BURNS

  • Causes:

  • hot liquids, vapor or steam

  • hot flames

  • contact with hot coals, pipes, utensils, stoves, etc.

  • radiant heat

  • solar heat

    • The hotter the source, the more serious the burn injury


Superficial burns
SUPERFICIAL BURNS

  • epidermis or outer layer of skin involved

  • once referred to as a first degree burn

  • skin will appear very red. A good example of this is the typical sunburn


Partial thickness burns
PARTIAL THICKNESS BURNS

  • includes entire outer skin layer & below

  • once referred to as second degree burns

  • in addition to redness, the skin will blister, swell and be very painful


Full thickness burns
FULL THICKNESS BURNS

  • includes all layers of skin & underlying fat, muscle & bone

continued


Full thickness burns1
FULL THICKNESS BURNS

  • once called third degree

  • skin will be charred(black), white, or red

  • nopain in full thickness burns, nerves destroyed, areas adjacent very painful (2nd degree)


Burn assessment
BURN ASSESSMENT

  • Factors influencing seriousness of burn

    • size & depth of burn

    • age of victim

    • body parts involved in burn

    • previous medical history

    • temperature of burning agent


Size depth of burn
SIZE & DEPTH OF BURN

  • the greater the size of the involved burn and the deeper the burn penetrates, the more serious the situation


Sizing up the burn
SIZING UP THE BURN

  • call 9-1-1 when burn involves:

    • face (possible inhalation)

    • hands & feet (may result in muscle contractures)

    • genitalia area (may result in serious infections)


Age influence on burn recovery
AGE INFLUENCE ON BURN RECOVERY

  • a victim less than 5 years old will not tolerate serious burns because they will not have developed body systems mature enough to battle serious burns

  • a victim older than 60 years of age will not tolerate serious burns, because the advanced maturity of the body systems may not be able to cope with the injury


Previous medical history
PREVIOUS MEDICAL HISTORY

  • history of cardiac problems may compromise cardiovascular circulation

  • history of respiratory problems may reduce adequate oxygen supply to affected areas

  • history of diabetes will complicate recovery from burns


Treatment heat burns
TREATMENT/HEAT BURNS

  • put out fire (wrap body in blanket if flames)

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • remove clothing unless stuck, cut around this area to avoid pulling off body tissue

  • remove all jewelry

  • cool superficial & partial thickness burns with tepid water

continued


Treatment full thickness burns
TREATMENT/FULL THICKNESS BURNS

  • cover full thickness burns with sterile dressing or clean cloth

  • call 9-1-1

  • no ointments, butter or other home remedies

  • do not break blisters

  • do not wrap snug bandages over dressings

  • maintain body temperature, do not allow the victim to get cold


Chemical burns1
CHEMICAL BURNS

  • most serious are the caustic or corrosive actions of chemicals that include:

    • alkali-(examples:Drano - ammonia) alkali burns faster and deeper than acid. Most alkali burns can penetrate and burn within 30 seconds of contact

Drano


Chemical burns2
CHEMICAL BURNS

  • most serious are the caustic or corrosive actions of chemicals that include:

    • acid-(examples: bleach, vinegar) acid burns are a little slower to penetrate and are noticed at approximately 30 minutes after contact


Treatment caustic or corrosives
TREATMENTCAUSTIC OR CORROSIVES

  • Caustic or Corrosive:

    • flush area with gentle flow water15 minutes minimum. Do not use pressure water source (forces chemical into body)

    • Call 9-1-1 & manage A-B-C’s

    • remove clothing and jewelry

    • note name of chemical for professionals

    • remove contact lenses from eyes

    • DO NOT TOUCH chemical yourself


Treatment dry chemical burns
TREATMENTDRY CHEMICAL BURNS

  • Dry Chemicals:

    • do not wet (this will activate action of chemical)

    • sweep chemical from clothing, body - do not touch with bare hands

    • remove victim’s clothing

    • manage A-B-C’s and call 9-1-1

    • note the name of the chemical


Electrical burns
ELECTRICAL BURNS

  • industrial, bathroom & flooded basementsare frequent sites of electrical burns


Electrical burn action
ELECTRICAL BURN ACTION

  • electrical current enters,crosses, and exits body causing an electrical heart rhythm disturbance

PVC’s


Electrical burn action1
ELECTRICAL BURN ACTION

  • after 24 hours, severe swelling develops around affected area causing “compartment syndrome”a condition that disrupts circulation that deprives cells of oxygenated blood


Treatment electrical burns
TREATMENTELECTRICAL BURNS

  • consider your ownsafety first

  • disconnect power or call power company

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • Call 9-1-1 DONOT drive victim to hospital

  • any electrical shock can lead to life threatening problems

continued


Treatment electrical burns1
TREATMENTELECTRICAL BURNS

  • cover both wounds (entrance & exit) with sterile dry bandage or clean dry cloth

  • be prepared to do CPR, patient may experience a cardiac arrest

burn


Lightning strike
LIGHTNING STRIKE

  • victim will be at risk for cardiac or respiratory arrest

  • manage A-B-C’s and Call 9-1-1

  • victim is not electrically charged

  • if the area is a high risk area of being struck again with lightening, get to safety


Dangerous lightning sites to avoid
DANGEROUS LIGHTNING SITES TO AVOID

  • open fields

  • under trees

  • on or near water

  • on the golf course

  • on a telephone

BOOM


Cold emergencies frostbite
COLD EMERGENCIES FROSTBITE

  • occurs when temperature is below freezing

  • affects feet, hands, ears & nose initially

  • severe consequences, gangrene and amputation

  • freezes tissues, causing ice crystals that damage nerves, blood vessels, etc.


Frostbite
FROSTBITE

  • Superficial

  • skin white, grayish-yellow or flushed

  • painful initially

  • possible numbness, tingling or stinging sensation

  • late sign, outer skin layer will be hard to touch


Frostbite1
FROSTBITE

  • Partial & Full Thickness

  • part very hard to the touch

  • blisters appear 12-36 hours after freezing begins

  • skin pale and waxy

  • usually no pain after part is frozen

full

Partial


Treatment frostbite frostnip
TREATMENT FROSTBITE/FROSTNIP

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • move victim to a warm environment & remove any wet clothing

  • cover with warm/dry blankets

  • handle involved part gently (no rubbing)

  • seek medical attention immediately


Hypothermia
HYPOTHERMIA

  • anytime the body’s core temperature goes below 95 degrees Fahrenheit, the body is too cool for normal body systems to function


Mild hypothermia
MILD HYPOTHERMIA

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • shivering

    • slurred speech

    • memory lapses

    • poor coordination


Severe hypothermia
SEVERE HYPOTHERMIA

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • not shivering

    • stiff muscles

    • cyanosis (blue)

    • pupils dilated

    • decreased pulse/respirations (or absent)

    • appears dead (80% will die)


Treatment hypothermia
TREATMENTHYPOTHERMIA

  • manage A-B-C’s and Call 9-1-1

  • remove from cold environment gently

  • remove wet clothing & cover with blanket

  • heat packs to: head, neck, armpits & groin

  • ventilate with mouth to mouth when necessary (98.6 degrees F) starts warming process

  • be prepared to do CPR


Heat emergencies
HEAT EMERGENCIES

  • Heat Stroke:

    • most dangerous heat emergency

    • sweating ceases

    • body has more heat than it can handle

100 degrees

98% humidity

Often enclosed in turnout

gear or something similar


Heat stroke
HEAT STROKE

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • skin” hot” to touch, “flushed” in color & “dry” to the touch

    • body temperature in excess of 104 degrees

    • decreased level of consciousness

    • “bounding” pulse


Treatment heat stroke
TREATMENTHEAT STROKE

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • call 9-1-1

  • move victim to cool environment

  • ice packs to head, neck, armpits & groin

  • keep head &

  • shoulders slightly elevated

  • a true life threatening emergency - - -

may Air Lift


Heat exhaustion
HEAT EXHAUSTION

  • “most common” heat emergency

  • not as serious as heat stroke

  • excessive perspiration

  • common when hot weather emerges rapidly & the body has not had time to adjust

  • common during hot weather sporting events & outdoor occupational activities due to inadequate fluid intake


Heat exhaustion1
HEAT EXHAUSTION

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • profuse sweating

    • weakness, dizziness, headache

    • rapid, weak pulse

    • nausea/vomiting & diarrhea

    • pale/ashen skin color

    • normal body temp


Treatment heat exhaustion
TREATMENTHEAT EXHAUSTION

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • remove victim from hot environment

  • cool victim with cold packs/wet towels and a fan

  • if conscious, may give cool liquids to drink (absolutely no alcoholic beverages should be given)

  • seek medical attention


Heat cramps
HEAT CRAMPS

  • Heat Cramps

    • painful muscle cramps in arms/legs due to profuse sweating


Heat cramps1
HEAT CRAMPS

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • recent profuse sweating

    • muscles cramping in extremities

    • abdominal cramping


Treatment heat cramps
TREATMENTHEAT CRAMPS

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • remove from hot environment

  • replenish fluid loss with “water”

  • do not massage cramping muscle(s)


Learning outcome6
LEARNING OUTCOME

  • identify common disease emergencies


Heart attack
HEART ATTACK

  • death of a portion of the heart muscle due to an inadequate supply of oxygenated blood

pain


Heart attack1
HEART ATTACK

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • chest pressure, tightness, pain

    • jaw, neck & arm(s) ache/pain

    • nausea/vomiting or indigestion

    • skin white, gray or bluish in color

    • skin cool & wet to touch

    • shortness of breath

    • pulse changes (rapid, weak, slow, irregular)

    • possible fainting spell


Treatment heart attack
TREATMENTHEART ATTACK

  • recognize problem & call 9-1-1

  • seat patient and provide calm atmosphere

  • reassure patient that help is on the way

  • if Nitroglycerin is being carried by the patient, help them use the drug

  • be prepared to do CPR


Stroke
STROKE

  • “brain attack” a disruption of blood flow to, or through the brain

  • causes:

    • possible burst of a blood vessel in the brain

    • blood clot that traveled to the brain & became lodged

attack


Stroke1
STROKE

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • sudden weakness/numbness of face, arm, &/or leg on one side of the body

    • speech disturbances

    • visual disturbances

    • unexplained dizziness,unsteady gait or falls without cause

    • sudden severe headache

    • loss of bladder &/or bowel control


Treatment stroke
TREATMENT/STROKE

  • manage A-B-C’s

  • Call 9-1-1

  • determine time of onset of symptoms

  • if no injuries, turn patient onto affected side

  • keep head/shoulder slightly elevated if there are no head/neck injuries that prevent it

  • give nothing to eat or drink

  • keep atmosphere calm, avoid creating greater anxiety to the patient


Treatment stroke1
TREATMENT/STROKE

  • this patient needs clot-busting drugs in a timely manner. Do not delay definitive care


Diabetes
DIABETES

  • an inability of the body to properly metabolize carbohydrates

  • created by a failure of the pancreas to produce insulin

  • insulin carries sugar to body cells

  • lack of insulin causes starving cells in need of fuel (sugar) creating “crises” for diabetics


Diabetic ketoacidosis
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS

  • (High Blood Sugar)

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • slow onset

    • warm, dry, flushed skin

    • decreased level of consciousness

    • “sweet, fruity, acetone” breath odor

    • vomiting

    • intense thirst (due to dehydration)

    • frequent urination


Treatment ketoacidosis
TREATMENTKETOACIDOSIS

  • (High Blood Sugar)

    • manage A-B-C’s & call 9-1-1

    • if victim is conscious, & you are unable to determine if victim is in ketoacidosis or insulin shock, give them a sugar drink or food to eat (NO DIET soft drinks)

    • if unconscious or level of consciousness isdiminished, give nothing by mouth. Manage airway until professional rescuers arrive


Insulin shock
INSULIN SHOCK

  • (Low Blood Sugar)

  • Signs & Symptoms:

    • sudden onset

    • behavior similar to intoxication

    • skin pale, moist and cool to touch

    • weak, disoriented or unconscious

    • intense hunger


Treatment insulin shock
TREATMENTINSULIN SHOCK

  • manage A-B-C’s & call 9-1-1 immediately

  • if conscious, give sugar drink/food (NODIETdrinks) orange juice with extra sugar

  • question about last insulin & last meal

  • other illnesses? flu, diarrhea, vomiting, etc.

  • extra physical activities?

  • this is a life threatening emergency

  • give nothing to eat or drink if unconscious


Epilepsy
EPILEPSY

  • a malfunction of the brain due to interruption of the brain wave signals, often a result of trauma or earlier illness that creates an uncontrollable muscle spasm activity


Seizures
SEIZURES

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • often an aura is experienced prior to seizure

    • sudden rigidity & generalized muscle jerking activity begins

    • skin color is blue during seizure

    • eyes appear to roll back into head during seizure

    • often drooling tinged with blood from mouth

    • loss of bladder and/or bowel control

    • deep drowsiness after seizure activity


Treatment epileptic seizures
TREATMENTEPILEPTIC SEIZURES

  • manage A-B-C’s (secretions)

  • protect patient from injury (move nearby furniture & objects)

  • DO NOT apply force to flailing patient

  • place something soft under head

  • turn on side for secretions to drain freely

  • maintain privacy for patient

continued


Treatment epileptic seizures1
TREATMENTEPILEPTIC SEIZURES

  • DO NOT place anything in patient’s mouth

  • call 9-1-1 if condition is new or lasts long than a few minutes

  • Most common cause of a seizure in patient’s already diagnosed with the condition, is their failure to take their seizure medications as directed


Asthma
ASTHMA

  • an allergic reaction that causes spasms within the bronchial airways of the respiratory system causing serious breathing problems


Asthma crises
ASTHMA CRISES

  • Signs & Symptoms

    • recent exposure to allergen

    • difficulty breathing, often wheezing noise is heard (whistling noise) with breathing

    • victim sitting in upright position & leaning slightly forward (tripod position)

    • frightened patient

    • history of asthma, may have an inhaler


Treatment
TREATMENT

  • Asthma Crisis

    • manage A-B-C’s

    • allow patient to maintain sitting (tripod) position

    • remain calm, dim lights, & keep atmosphere quiet

    • assist patient with their asthma medications

    • encourage patient to drink water

continued


Treatment1
TREATMENT

  • Asthma Crisis

    • CALL 9-1-1 IMMEDIATELY IF:

    • if crisis is caused by a bee sting

    • if no improvement with 30 minutes of initial medications

    • skin color begins to turn gray/blue

    • when breathing is barely heard

    • when evidence of dehydration is present (dry mouth, dry skin, sunken eyes, decreasing level of consciousness is observed, etc.)



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