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Evaluating the Financial and Operational Value of ADS-B Equipage A University Flight Department Perspective Frank Ayers, Ed.D. Chairman, Flight Training Department Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Daytona beach , Florida. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. “Where the Eagles Fly”.

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Evaluating the Financial and Operational Value of ADS-B Equipage A University Flight Department Perspective Frank Ayers, Ed.D.Chairman, Flight Training Department Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityDaytona beach , Florida


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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

“Where the Eagles Fly”


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Embry Riddle is:

  • 3 Campuses

    • Daytona Beach, FL

    • Prescott, AZ

    • ERAU Worldwide

  • Great Students

    • 6,500 Residence

    • 25,000 Worldwide

  • Aviation Focused

    • 1,600 flight students

    • 100 aircraft (60/40)

    • 42 Simulators

    • Over 100,000 flight hours a year

“Where the Eagles Fly”


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Embry Riddle is Committed to:

Safety!

Technology!

Learning!

People!


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ERAU Flight Business Model

  • The university is a privately funded “non-profit” institution.

    • Flight training is considered a revenues neutral “lab” for our students.

    • Safety and educational excellence are the priorities!

    • University leadership is actively involved!

  • Flight safety does not have to vigorously compete for dollars

    • Risk mitigation is a priority.

    • Residual risk acceptance levels are relatively low.

    • New equipment and technology embraced.

“Where the Eagles Fly”


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The “Safety” of our students and flight instructors is our number one priority!

  • Independent University Safety Oversight

    • Students, instructors, and staff are actively involved in all aspects of the flight safety program!

  • In- house maintenance

    • “perfect” aircraft!

  • Active 24 hour flight supervision

  • Entire Fleet is ADS-B Equipped

David Zwegers

Director, Aviation Safety


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A Little History

Accident occurred Friday, September 15, 1995 in NEW SMYRNA BEACH, FLAircraft: AEROSPATIALE TB-9, registration: N117ERInjuries: 3 Fatal, 1 Uninjured. The Aerospatiale TB-9, N117ER (Embry Riddle) , was observed on short final approach, and the Piper PA-38 (Non Embry Riddle) had turned from base to final just above and behind the TB-9. Two pilots on the ground transmitted warnings to the aircraft but no action was taken. The aircraft collided; the TB-9 sustained stabilator damage and nosed down and crashed. The Piper landed without further incident

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident as follows: the failure of the pilots of both aircraft to see and avoid each other.


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And a little more

Accident occurred Friday, December 03, 1999 in DELAND, FLAircraft: Piper PA-28-161, registration: N153ERInjuries: 4 Fatal. After the Cadet airplane departed, the flight proceeded to the DeLand airport and remained in the traffic pattern for runway 05; The Seminole (non ERAU) flight continued on the VOR approach; the last radar target of the Seminole was approximately .6 nautical mile from the approach end of runway 23. Several individuals heard the Cadet flight announce on the DeLand CTAF that the flight was departing runway 05. The airplanes collided in-flight near the departure end of runway 05; the wreckage of both airplanes came to rest within approximately 1/2 nautical mile from the departure end of runway 05.

The National Transportation Safety Board determines the probable cause(s) of this accident as follows:

The inadequate visual lookout by the pilot-in-command (PIC)/certified flight instructor (CFI) of both aircraft. Contributing factors in the accident were: 1) the frequency congestion of the CTAF 2) the poor in-flight planning decision by the PIC/CFI of the Seminole for his continuing a practice instrument approach to within approximately .6 nautical mile from the approach end of the runway with opposing airplanes departing on the upwind leg, and 3) the absence of guidance in the Aeronautical Information Manual and Advisory Circulars as to how or when to terminate a practice instrument approach to an airport that does not have an operating control tower.


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ERAU Safety Analysis

  • Identified the Hazard

    • Air traffic management at uncontrolled airports and in uncontrolled airspace.

  • Calculated the Risk

    • Frequency

    • Severity

  • Identified possible Mitigation Strategies

  • Possible Mitigation Strategies

    • Pilot Education/Involvement

    • Flight Hour Reduction

    • On Board Situational Awareness/ Collision Avoidance


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Strategy Number OnePilot Education/Involvement

  • Hazard – Mid-Air Collision

    • Severity – High

    • Probability - Moderate

  • Mitigation Strategy

    • Increased communication between schools

  • Formed Central Florida Flight School Org

    • Coordinated practice areas/ frequencies

    • Pre- Coordinated airport operations

    • Resolved conflicts

  • Risk Mitigation Effectiveness

    • Severity – None

    • Probability – Moderate

  • Cost - minimal


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Strategy Number TwoIncreased Use of Simulation

  • Hazard – Mid-Air Collision

    • Severity – High

    • Probability - Moderate

  • Mitigation Strategy (2001-2003)

    • Conversion to Part 142

    • 35% Simulation based

    • Dual Purpose

      • Increase safety

      • Increase instruction quality

  • Risk Mitigation Effectiveness

    • Severity – No effect

    • Probability – Significant effect

      • Flight hours reduced from 100,000 plus per year to approx 75,000

      • Simulation increased from 10,000 hours per year to 35,000 plus

      • Student costs and flight hours reduced.

  • Cost – Significant initial cost (nearly 10 million dollars) , reduced long term cost


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Strategy Number ThreeOn Board Situational AwarenessEnhancement / ADS-B

  • Hazard – Mid-Air Collision

    • Severity – High

    • Probability - Moderate

  • Mitigation Strategy (2001- 2003)

    • Install On Board Situational Awareness/Collision Avoidance System

  • Risk Mitigation Effectiveness

    • Severity – No effect

    • Probability – Significant effect

  • Cost – Moderate initial and recurring cost

    • 20,000 dollars per aircraft

    • Parts and labor


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ADS-B at ERAU

  • Competitive fly off (2002 - 2003)

    • ADS-B

    • Traffic Identification Systems (TIS)

  • ADS-B selected

    • Non –Radar environment at the Prescott campus

    • Real time position updates (no sweep delay)

    • Maturity of the technology (Capstone)

    • Availability of desktop management system

      • Comprehensive Real Time Analysis of Broadcast Systems (CRABS)

    • Improved low altitude capability

      • Below 1,000 feet in the practice area

      • In the pattern at remote airfields.

  • 2003 ERAU Equipped 100 aircraft

    • 2 Million dollar investment in safety

    • Changed the nature of the pilots situational awareness


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ADS- BNew Technology or Culture Change

  • Operational experience changed relationships and broadened horizons

    • Strategic and Tactical Use

      • Initially tactical NMAC prevention

      • Matured in to strategic risk avoidance use of ADS-B.

    • Air Traffic Control and ERAU pilots

    • Uncontrolled Airports

    • Non participating ADS-B traffic

    • Flight Dispatch/ Operational Analysis

    • Noise Complaints

    • Safety Investigation and Analysis


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Major Culture Shift

  • 6 years of ERAU graduates immersed in Next Gen operations and technology

  • ERAU Conducted FAA ADS-B Initial, OT & E Flight Testing , and operational follow on.

  • Nearly a generation of pilots ready for NexGen!


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ADS-B and the Conversion to Glass

  • ERAU converted to an all Glass Cockpit Fleet in 2007

    • Christmas Day 2006 Tornado

    • Diamond Twinstar

  • Worked with the aircraft/avionics manufactures to install ADS-B in the Garmin G 1000

    • Traffic !!!!!!

    • Weather products?????

  • Issues

    • Technology interface

    • Government commitment


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ADS-BGarmin G 1000


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ADS-B and ATC


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CRABSComprehensive Real Time Analysis of Broadcast Systems


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ADS-B Tactical or Strategic


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Return on investment!

The next five slides depict an actual save between two ERAU aircraft using ADS-B.

Note that 491ER is a high wing climbing from a lower altitude.

N712ER is a low wing aircraft at a higher altitude.

The incident resulted from a blocked/ misheard radio transmission.

The manuevers were begun using ADS-B and completed visually.


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Has the investment in ADS-B been worth the dollars expended?


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What’s next?

  • ADS-B cost should decrease and availability should increase.

  • General Aviation should embrace the technology as these events come to pass.

  • General aviation should have a strong voice in

  • deployment and utilization of the technology.

    • The needs of GA may be different than air carrier requirements?

    • The term “uncontrolled airport” should be examined?

    • The pilot controller relationship should be examined?

    • ADS-B can significantly improve safety below 10,000 feet.

    • GA has a strong experience base in ADS-B

      • CAPSTONE

      • ERAU

      • Others….Associations, Academia, Flight Schools………………….


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Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityFlight Training Department

“Where the Eagles Fly”


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