Environmental science a global concern 5th edition
Download
1 / 184

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 733 Views
  • Updated On :

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition. William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota Barbara Woodworth Saigo Saiwood Biology Resources. CHAPTER 1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. What is Environmental Science?. Environment Environmental Science

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition' - Samuel


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Environmental science a global concern 5th edition l.jpg

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: A Global Concern, 5th edition

William P. Cunningham University of Minnesota

Barbara Woodworth Saigo

Saiwood Biology Resources


Chapter 1 environmental science and ecological principles l.jpg
CHAPTER 1ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES


What is environmental science l.jpg
What is Environmental Science?

  • Environment

  • Environmental Science

  • History of Environmental Science

    • utilitarian conservation

    • altruistic preservation


Current conditions l.jpg
CURRENT CONDITIONS

  • Planet Earth

  • Environmental Dilemmas

    • population

    • food shortages

    • energy

    • pollution


A divided world l.jpg
A DIVIDED WORLD

  • Rich vs. Poor

  • North vs. South

  • Developed countries vs. undeveloped countries

    • First, Second, Third and Fourth World Countries


Human development l.jpg
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

  • Human Development Index

  • Developmental Discrepancies

    • basic social services

      • education

      • health care

    • agrarian reform

    • employment

    • civil rights

    • sustainable resource use

  • Sustainable Development


Environmental perspectives l.jpg
ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVES

  • Neo-Malthusian

  • Technological optimists/Promethean environmentalism

  • “Cornucopian Fallacy”

  • Lessons from the Past


Chapter 2 tools for building a better world l.jpg
CHAPTER 2TOOLS FOR BUILDING A BETTER WORLD


Environmental ethics and philosophy l.jpg
Environmental Ethics and Philosophy

  • Universal Ethical Principles

    • Relativists

    • Nihilists

    • Utilitarians

  • Modernism & Postmodernism


Values rights obligations l.jpg
Values, Rights & Obligations

  • Morals

  • Animal Rights

  • Inherent Value

  • Instrumental Value


Worldviews and ethical perspectives l.jpg
Worldviews and Ethical Perspectives

  • Domination

  • Stewardship

  • Biocentrism

  • Ecofeminism


Environmental justice l.jpg
Environmental Justice

  • Environmental racism

  • Toxic colonialism

  • Is Nature fragile or resilient?


Science as a way of knowing l.jpg
Science as a Way of Knowing

  • Scientific Method

  • Hypotheses Testing

  • Indirect Scientific Evidence

  • Technology and Progress

  • Appropriate Technology


Chapter 3 matter energy and life l.jpg
CHAPTER 3MATTER, ENERGY, AND LIFE


From atoms to cells l.jpg
From Atoms to Cells

  • Atoms

    • ions

    • atomic number

  • Molecules

    • compound

  • Organic Compounds

    • carbon

  • Cells


Energy types and qualities l.jpg
Energy Types and Qualities

  • Kinetic Energy

    • heat

    • temperature

  • Potential Energy

  • Chemical Energy

  • Conservation of Matter

  • Thermodynamics

    • 1st law

    • 2nd law


Energy for life l.jpg
Energy for Life

  • Solar Energy

  • Photosynthesis

    • Chlorophyll

    • cellular respiration


From species to ecosystems l.jpg
From Species to Ecosystems

  • Population

  • Communities

    • biological community

  • Ecosystems


Food chains l.jpg
Food Chains

  • Productivity/biomass

  • Food chain/food web

  • Trophic level

    • producers

    • consumers

  • Organisms

    • herbivores

    • carnivores

    • omnivores


Material cycles and life processes l.jpg
Material Cycles and Life Processes

  • Carbon Cycle

  • Nitrogen Cycle

  • Phosphorus Cycle

  • Sulfur Cycle


Chapter 4 biological communities and species interaction l.jpg
CHAPTER 4BIOLOGICAL COMMUNITIES AND SPECIES INTERACTION


Critical factors who lives where l.jpg
Critical Factors, Who Lives Where?

  • Temperature

  • Moisture levels

  • Nutrient supply

  • Soil chemistry

  • Water chemistry


Slide23 l.jpg



Predation l.jpg
Predation

  • Predators

    • parasites

    • Pathogens

  • Prey


Competition l.jpg
Competition

  • Intraspecific competition

  • Interspecific competition

  • Territoriality


Symbiosis l.jpg
Symbiosis

  • Commensalism

  • Mutualism


Community properties l.jpg
Community Properties

  • Productivity

  • Abundance and Diversity

  • Complexity and Connectedness

  • Resilience and Stability

  • Structure

  • Edges and Boundaries


Ecological succession l.jpg
Ecological Succession

  • Primary Succession

  • Secondary Succession

  • Pioneer Species

  • Ecological Development

  • Climax Community

  • Introduced Species and Community Change


Chapter 5 biomes landscapes resotration and management l.jpg
CHAPTER 5BIOMES, LANDSCAPES, RESOTRATION AND MANAGEMENT


Terrestrial biomes l.jpg
Terrestrial Biomes

  • Deserts

  • Grasslands

    • Prairies

    • Savannas

  • Tundra

  • Conifer Forests

  • Evergreen Forests

  • Tropical Forests

  • Tropical Seasonal Forests


Aquatic ecosystems l.jpg
Aquatic Ecosystems

  • Freshwater and Saline Ecosystems

  • Estuaries and Wetlands

  • Shorelines and Barrier Islands

    • Coral reefs


Landscape ecology l.jpg
Landscape Ecology

  • Patchiness & Heterogeneity

  • Landscape Dynamics


Restoration ecology l.jpg
Restoration Ecology

  • Rehabilitation

  • Remediation

  • Reclamation

  • Re-creation

  • Nature, self-healing


Chapter 6 population dynamics l.jpg
CHAPTER 6POPULATION DYNAMICS


Population growth l.jpg
Population Growth

  • Exponential Growth

  • Geometric Growth

  • Arithmetic Growth

  • J Curve


Population oscillations and irruptive growth l.jpg
Population Oscillations and Irruptive Growth

  • Dieback

  • Overshoot

  • Irruptive or Malthusian growth


Growth to a stable population l.jpg
Growth to a Stable Population

  • Logistic growth

  • Environmental resistance


Strategies of population growth l.jpg
Strategies of Population Growth

  • Malthusian Strategies

  • Logistic Strategies


Factors affecting population l.jpg
Factors affecting Population

  • Natality, Fecundity, and Fertility

  • Immigration

  • Mortality and survivorship

  • Age Structure

  • Emigration

  • Education


Slide41 l.jpg

Factors Affecting Birth and Fertility Rates

  • Education/affluence

  • Importance of children to family labor force

  • Urbanization

  • Cost - raising and educating children

  • Education & Employment opportunity - women

  • Infant mortality rate

  • Average marriage age

  • Availability - pension

  • Birth control

  • Religious beliefs, tradition and culture


Factors affecting death rate l.jpg
Factors Affecting Death Rate

  • Nutrition

  • Fewer infant deaths and increased longevity

  • Health and technology


Slide43 l.jpg


Population age structure l.jpg
Population Age Structure

  • Ways of classifying

    • Pre-reproductive age

    • Reproductive age

    • Post-reproductive age


Slide45 l.jpg

Solutions Influencing Population

  • Controlling Migration

  • Reducing Birth Rates

    • Economic development

    • Family planning

    • Economic rewards

    • Empowering women

  • Population Control Studies

    • India

    • China


Slide46 l.jpg

Population Distribution

  • Urbanization and Growth

    • The future is urban

    • Hyper-urbanization - LDCs

    • The United States and other MDC’s

    • Spatial patterns of development


Chapter 7 human populations l.jpg
CHAPTER 7HUMAN POPULATIONS


Population growth48 l.jpg
Population Growth

  • Birth Rates

  • Over-population

  • Technology and Ingenuity


Limits to population growth l.jpg
Limits to Population Growth

  • Malthusian checks

  • Karl Marx

  • Neo-Malthusian

    • Technology solutions?

    • Can More people be Beneficial?


Human demography l.jpg
Human Demography

  • Fertility

  • Birthrate

  • Zero population growth

  • Mortality and death rates

  • Population growth rates

  • Life span and life expectancy

    • dependency ratio

  • Emigration and Immigration


Population growth opposition l.jpg
Population Growth: Opposition

  • Pronatalist/Social Pressures

  • Birth Reduction Pressures

    • Education

    • Birth control

    • Economics


Demographic transition l.jpg
Demographic Transition

  • Improved living conditions

  • Development and Population

  • Optimistic View

  • Pessimistic View

  • Social Justice View

  • Ecojustice View

  • Infant Mortality

  • Women’s Rights


Family planning fertility control l.jpg
Family Planning & Fertility Control

  • Birth Control

    • Celibacy

    • Mechanical barriers

    • Surgery

    • Chemicals

    • Implantation of physical controls

    • Abortion


Chapter 8 ecological economics l.jpg
CHAPTER 8ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS


Classical economics l.jpg
Classical Economics

  • Diminished Returns

  • Demand

  • Supply

  • Market Equilibrium

  • Marginal Costs

  • Price Elasticity


Slide56 l.jpg


Resources capital and reserves l.jpg
Resources, Capital and Reserves

  • Resource Types

    • Capital

    • Resource

    • Nonrenewable resources

    • Renewable resources

    • Intangible resources


Economic resource categories l.jpg
Economic Resource Categories

  • Proven resources

  • Known resources

  • Undiscovered resources

  • Recoverable resources


Population technology and scarcity l.jpg
Population, Technology, and Scarcity

  • Market Efficiencies

  • Increasing Environmental Carrying Capacity

  • Economic Models

  • Why Not Conserve Resources?


Natural resource accounting l.jpg
Natural Resource Accounting

  • Gross National Product (GNP)

  • Human Development Index (HDI)

  • Non-market Values

  • Cost/Benefit Ratios

  • Green Business

  • Jobs and the Environment


Sustainability sustainable development l.jpg
SustainabilitySustainable Development


Chapter 9 environmental health and toxicology l.jpg
CHAPTER 9ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AND TOXICOLOGY


Health hazards l.jpg
Health Hazards

  • Infectious Diseases

  • Respiratory diseases

    • pneumonia

    • tuberculosis

    • influenza

    • whooping cough


Slide64 l.jpg

  • Malaria

  • Parasitic Mematodes

  • Schistosomiasis

  • Onchocerciasis (river blindness)

  • Trachoma

  • STD’s


Toxic chemicals l.jpg
Toxic Chemicals

  • Irritants

  • Respiratory fibrotic agents

  • Asphyxiants

  • Allergens

  • Neurotoxins

  • Mutagens

  • Teratogens

  • Carcinogens


Slide66 l.jpg


Slide67 l.jpg

Chemical Hazards and Toxicology

  • Dose and response

    • LD5O factor

  • Acute effect

  • Chronic effect

  • Types

    • toxic substances

    • hazardous

    • carcinogens

    • mutagens

    • teratogens


Movement distribution and fate of toxins l.jpg
Movement, Distribution and Fate of Toxins

  • Solubility

  • Bioaccumulation

  • Biomagnification

  • Persistence

  • Chemical Interactions


Minimizing toxic effects l.jpg
Minimizing Toxic Effects

  • Metabolic Degradation

  • Excretion

  • Repair Mechanisms


Measuring toxicity l.jpg
Measuring Toxicity

  • Animal Testing

  • Toxicity Ratings

  • Acute vs. Chronic Doses and Effects

  • Detection Limits


Assessment l.jpg
Assessment

  • Risks

  • Acceptable risks??


Slide72 l.jpg

Risk Analysis

  • Identifying Risks

  • The Greatest Risks

  • Problems - Risk Assessment

  • Risk-Benefit Analysis

  • Managing Risks


Chapter 10 food hunger and nutrition l.jpg
CHAPTER 10FOOD, HUNGER AND NUTRITION


Human nutrition l.jpg
Human Nutrition

  • Energy Needs

    • undernourishment

    • over-nourishment

  • Nutritional Needs

    • proteins

    • carbohydrates

    • lipids and oils

    • minerals

    • vitamins


World food resoureces l.jpg
World Food Resoureces

  • Major Crops

    • wheat

    • rice

    • corn

    • potatoes

  • Meat and Milk

  • Croplands


Slide76 l.jpg

Increasing Food Production

  • Green Revolution

    • Technology

    • Genetic Engineering

    • Increased Farm Output

  • New Food Sources

  • Blue Revolution

    • Aqua-culture


Agricultural economics l.jpg
Agricultural Economics

  • Food Supplies

  • Food Subsidies

  • Agricultural Aid

  • International Food Trade

  • Cash Crops


Slide78 l.jpg


Chapter 11 soil resoureces and sustainable agriculture l.jpg
CHAPTER 11SOIL RESOURECES AND SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE


What is soil l.jpg
What is soil?

  • Soil, a renewable resource

  • Soil composition

    • humus

  • Soil organisms

  • Soil profiles

    • top soil

    • sub-soil

    • parent material

    • bedrock


Use and abuse of soil l.jpg
Use and Abuse of Soil

  • Land Resources

  • Land Degradation


Erosion l.jpg
Erosion

  • Types of erosion

    • sheet erosion

    • rill erosion

    • gully erosion

    • streambank erosion

  • Erosion in the United States

  • Erosion in other countries


Agricultural resources l.jpg
Agricultural Resources

  • Water

  • Fertilizer

  • Climate

  • Energy

  • Crop Diversity


Soil conservation l.jpg
Soil Conservation

  • Managing Topography

    • contour plowing

    • strip-farming

    • tied ridges

    • terracing

  • Providing Ground Cover

    • cover crops

    • mulch

  • Reduced Tillage Systems


Chapter 12 pest control l.jpg
CHAPTER 12 PEST CONTROL


What are pest and pesticides l.jpg
What are Pest and Pesticides?

  • Biological Pests

    • Insects

    • Large animals

  • Botanical Pests

    • Weeds

  • Pesticides

    • Insecticides

  • Herbicides

    • Fungicides


Pest controls l.jpg
Pest Controls

  • Early Controls

    • Botanical

    • Chemical

  • Modern Controls

    • Synthetic chemicals

      • DDT


Pesticide types l.jpg
Pesticide Types

  • Inorganic pesticides

  • Natural organic pesticides

    • botanicals

  • Fumigants

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons

  • Organophosphates

  • Carbamates

  • Microbial agents


Pesticide benefits l.jpg
Pesticide Benefits

  • Disease control

  • Crop protection

  • Increased crop production


Pesticide problems l.jpg
Pesticide Problems

  • Effects on Nontarget Species

  • Pesticide Resistance/Pest resurgence

  • Creation of New Pests

  • Persistence and Mobility in the Environment

  • Human Health Problems


Alternative pesticide uses l.jpg
Alternative Pesticide Uses

  • Crop rotation

  • Biological controls

    • predatory insects

    • pathogens

  • Herbivorous insects

  • Genetic and bioengineering


Reducing pesticide exposure l.jpg
Reducing Pesticide Exposure

  • Regulation

    • EPA

    • USDA

  • Personal Safety


Chapter 13 biodiversity l.jpg
CHAPTER 13BIODIVERSITY


Biodiversity and species concept l.jpg
Biodiversity and Species Concept

  • What is Biodiversity?

  • What are species?

    • Number of species


Benefits of biodiversity l.jpg
Benefits of Biodiversity

  • Food

  • Drugs

  • Medicine

  • Ecological Benefits

  • Aesthetic and Cultural Benefits


Threats to biodiversity l.jpg
Threats to Biodiversity

  • Extinction

  • Natural Causes

  • Mass Extinction


Human caused reductions in biodiversity l.jpg
Human-Caused Reductions in Biodiversity

  • Habitat Destruction

  • Hunting and Fishing

  • Commercial products and Live Specimens

  • Predator and Pest Control

  • Exotic Species Introductions

  • Disease

  • Pollution

  • Genetic Assimilation


Biodiversity protection l.jpg
Biodiversity Protection

  • Hunting and Fishing Laws

  • Endangered Species Act

  • Recovery Plans

  • Private Land and Critical Habitat

  • Minimum Viable Populations

  • Habitat Protection

  • International Wildlife Treaties

  • Zoos

  • Botanical Gardens

  • Captive Breeding Programs


Chapter 14 land use forests and rangelands l.jpg
CHAPTER 14LAND USE: FORESTS AND RANGELANDS


World land use l.jpg
World Land Use

  • Forest, 30%

  • Range and pasture, 26%

  • Cropland, 1%

  • Other, 33

    • tundra

    • desert

    • wetlands

    • urban areas


World forests l.jpg
World Forests

  • Forest Distribution

    • Closed canopy

    • Open canopy

    • Woodland


Forest products l.jpg
Forest Products

  • Industrial Timber

  • Fuelwood


Tropical forests l.jpg
Tropical Forests

  • Diminishing Forests

  • Swidden Agriculture

  • Logging and Land Invasions

  • Forest Protection

    • Reforestation

  • Debt-for-Nature Swaps


Temperate forests l.jpg
Temperate Forests

  • Ancient forest/old growth forests

  • Wilderness Protection

  • Wildlife Protection

  • Harvesting old growth forests

    • clear-cutting

    • strip-cutting

    • selective-cutting

  • Fire Management


Rangelands l.jpg
Rangelands

  • Range Management

  • Overgrazing and Land Degradation

    • desertification

  • Forage Conversion

  • Harvesting Wild Animals


Rangelands in the u s l.jpg
Rangelands in the U.S.

  • Bureau of Land Management

  • State of the Range

    • feral animals

  • Grazing Fees


Land ownership l.jpg
Land Ownership

  • Who owns what?

  • Land Reform

  • Indigenous Lands


Chapter 15 preserving nature l.jpg
CHAPTER 15PRESERVING NATURE


Parks and nature preserves l.jpg
Parks and Nature Preserves

  • Origins and History

  • Natural Landscaping


Slide110 l.jpg

North American Parks

  • Existing Systems

  • U.S. National Park System

  • Park Problems

    • Over crowding

    • Roads

    • Commercialism

    • Pollution

  • Wildlife

  • New Directions

  • New Parks


World parks and preserves l.jpg
World Parks and Preserves

  • Biosphere Reserves

  • Protecting Natural Heritage

  • Size and Design of Nature Preserves

    • recreation areas

    • historic areas

    • conservation areas

    • pristine research areas

  • Conservation and Economic Development

  • Indigenous Communities


Wilderness areas l.jpg
Wilderness Areas

  • Wildlife Refuges

    • Refuge Management

    • International Wildlife Preserves

      • poaching


Wetlands floodplains coastal regions l.jpg
Wetlands, Floodplains, & Coastal Regions

  • Wetland Values

  • Wetland Destruction

  • Floods and Flood Control

    • Floodplains

  • Beaches, barrier Islands, and Estuaries


Chapter 16 earth and its crustal resources l.jpg
CHAPTER 16EARTH AND ITS CRUSTAL RESOURCES


Earth a dynamic sphere l.jpg
Earth, A Dynamic Sphere

  • Earth’s Layers

    • Crust

    • Mantle

    • Outer Core

    • Inner Core

  • Tectonic Processes

    • Tectonic Plates

    • Magma

  • Shifting Continents


Rock types how they formed l.jpg
Rock Types & How They Formed

  • Igneous Rock

  • Weathering

  • Sedimentation

  • Sedimentary Rock

  • Biogenic Sedimentation

  • Metamorphic Rock


Mineralogy l.jpg
Mineralogy

  • Metals

  • Nonmetal Minerals

  • Strategic Minerals


Environmental effects of resource extraction l.jpg
Environmental Effects of Resource Extraction

  • Mining

    • tunneling

    • water leakage

    • strip mining

  • Processing

    • water pollution

    • chemical emissions


Conserving mineral resources l.jpg
Conserving Mineral Resources

  • Recycling

    • Aluminum & Platinum

    • Steel & Iron

  • Substituting New Materials for Old Ones


Geologic hazards l.jpg
Geologic Hazards

  • Earthquakes

    • Tsunami

  • Volcanoes

  • Floods


Chapter 17 air climate and weather l.jpg
CHAPTER 17AIR, CLIMATE, AND WEATHER


The atmosphere composition structure l.jpg
The Atmosphere,Composition & Structure

  • Gas Mixture

  • Layered Envelope

    • Troposphere

    • Stratosphere

    • Mesosphere

    • Thermosphere

    • Ionosphere


Weather engine l.jpg
Weather Engine

  • Solar Radiation/ Heat

    • Albedo (reflectivity)

    • “Greenhouse effect”

  • Convection Currents

    • Water vapor


Weather l.jpg
Weather

  • Energy Balance in the Atmosphere

  • Convection Cells

  • Prevailing Winds

  • Jet Streams

  • Frontal Weather

    • cold and warm fronts

  • Cyclonic Storms

    • hurricanes and tornadoes

  • Seasonal Winds

    • monsoon

  • Weather Modification


Climate l.jpg
Climate

  • Climatic Catastrophes

    • Ice Ages

  • Driving Forces & Patterns in Climatic Changes

    • Milankovitch Cycles

  • El Niño


Human caused global climate change l.jpg
Human-caused Global Climate Change

  • Greenhouse Gases

    • Carbon Dioxide

    • Aerosols

  • Sources

    • Burning Fossil Fuels

    • Industrial Processes

    • Deforestation

    • Agriculture


Effects of climate change l.jpg
Effects of Climate Change

  • Temperature Changes

  • Impact on Plants and Animals

  • Rising Sea Levels impacting Coastlines

  • Melting Ice Packs

  • Possible Increase of Disease


Cutting emissions l.jpg
Cutting Emissions

  • United Nations “Earth Summit”

  • Kyoto Protocol

  • Developed Nations

  • Developing Nations


Chapter 18 air pollution l.jpg
CHAPTER 18AIR POLLUTION


Natural sources of air pollution l.jpg
Natural Sources of Air Pollution

  • Volcanoes

  • Emissions from vegetation


Human caused air pollution l.jpg
Human-Caused Air Pollution

  • Primary pollutants

  • Secondary pollutants

  • Fugitive emissions


Conventional or criteria pollutants l.jpg
Conventional or “Criteria” Pollutants

  • Sulfur compounds

  • Nitrogen Compounds

  • Carbon Oxides

  • Metals and Halogens

  • Particulate Materials

  • Volatile Organic Compounds

  • Photochemical Oxidants


Unconventional pollutants l.jpg
Unconventional Pollutants

  • Emissions & emissions standards

  • Unconventional or noncriteria pollutants

  • Aesthetic degradation

  • Indoor air Pollution

    • smoke


Climate topography atmospheric processes l.jpg
Climate, Topography, & Atmospheric Processes

  • Inversions

  • Dust Domes and Heat Islands

  • Long Range Transport

  • Stratospheric Ozone

    • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)


Effects of air pollution l.jpg
Effects of Air Pollution

  • Human Health

    • bronchitis

    • emphysema

  • Plant Pathology

  • Acid Deposition

    • pH and atmospheric acidity

    • aquatic effects

    • forest damage

    • buildings and monuments

    • visibility reduction


Air pollution control l.jpg
Air Pollution Control

  • Moving Pollution to Remote Areas

  • Particulate Removal

    • filters

  • Sulfur Removal

    • fuel switching and fuel cleaning

    • limestone injection/fluidized bed combustion

    • flue gas desulfurization

    • sulfur recovery processes

  • Nitrogen Oxide Control

  • Hydrocarbon Controls


Clean air legislation l.jpg
Clean Air Legislation

  • Clean Air Act of 1963

  • Amendments of 1970

  • Amendments of 1990

    • Acid rain

    • Urban smog

    • Toxic air pollutants

    • Ozone protection

    • Marketing pollution rights

    • Toxic organic compounds

  • EPA


Chapter 19 water use and management l.jpg
CHAPTER 19WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT


Water resources l.jpg
Water Resources

  • Hydrologic Cycle

    • Evaporation/Sublimation

    • Saturation Point

    • Relative humidity

    • Condensation

    • Dew Point

  • Rainfall & Topography

    • Rain Shadow

  • Desert Belts

  • Balancing the Water Budget


Major water compartments l.jpg
Major Water Compartments

  • Oceans

  • Glaciers, Ice, & Snow

  • Ground Water

    • infiltration

    • water table

    • aquifers

  • Rivers and Streams

  • Lakes and Ponds

  • Wetlands

  • The Atmosphere


Water availability and use l.jpg
Water Availability and Use

  • Water Supplies

  • Drought Cycles

  • Types of Water Use

    • Withdrawal

    • Consumption

    • Degradation

  • Quantities of Water Use

  • Use by Sector


Freshwater shortages l.jpg
Freshwater Shortages

  • A Scarce Resource

  • Depleting Groundwater

    • subsidence

    • sinkholes


Increasing water supplies l.jpg
Increasing Water Supplies

  • Seeding Clouds &Towing Icebergs

  • Desalination

  • Dams, Reservoirs, Canals, & Aqueducts

  • Environmental Costs

    • Evaporation, Leakage, and Siltation

    • Loss of Free-Flowing Rivers


Water management conservation l.jpg
Water Management & Conservation

  • Watershed Management

  • Domestic Conservation

  • Industrial and Agricultural Conservation

  • Price Mechanisms


Chapter 20 water pollution l.jpg
CHAPTER 20WATER POLLUTION


Water pollution l.jpg
Water Pollution

  • Point Sources

  • Non-point Sources

  • Atmospheric Deposition


Types and effects of water pollution l.jpg
Types and Effects of Water Pollution

  • Infectious Agents

  • Oxygen-Demanding Wastes

  • Plant Nutrients & Cultural Eutrophication

  • Toxic Inorganic Materials

    • Heavy Metals

    • Nonmetallic Salts

    • Acids and Bases

  • Organic Chemicals

  • Sediments

  • Thermal Pollution


Water quality today l.jpg
Water Quality Today

  • Surface Water in the U.S. & Canada

  • Surface Water in other Countries

  • Groundwater and Drinking Water Supplies

  • Ocean Pollution


Water pollution control l.jpg
Water Pollution Control

  • Source Reduction

  • Non-point Sources and Land Management

    • Agriculture

    • Urban runoff

    • Construction sites

    • Land disposal


Slide150 l.jpg

  • Human Waste Disposal

    • Natural Processes

    • Municipal Sewage Treatment

      • Primary treatment

      • Secondary treatment

      • Tertiary treatment

    • Low-Cost Waste Treatment

      • effluent sewerage


Water legislation l.jpg
Water Legislation

  • Clean Water Act

  • Clean Water Act Reauthorization

  • Other Important Water Legislation

    • Safe Drinking Water Act

    • Superfund

    • Great lakes Water Quality Agreement


Chapter 21 conventional energy l.jpg
CHAPTER 21 CONVENTIONAL ENERGY


Energy l.jpg
Energy

  • A Brief History

  • Current Energy Sources

    • Fossil fuels

    • Nuclear power

    • Hydroelectric

    • Solar

  • Per Capita Consumption

  • Energy Use


Slide154 l.jpg
Coal

  • Coal Resources and Reserves

  • Mining

  • Air Pollution


Slide155 l.jpg
Oil

  • Oil Resources and Reserves

  • Oil Imports and Domestic Supplies

  • Oil Shales and Tar Sands


Natural gas l.jpg
Natural Gas

  • Natural Gas Resources and Reserves

  • Unconventional Gas Sources

    • Methane hydrate


Nuclear power l.jpg
Nuclear Power

  • Nuclear Reactors: How They Work?

  • Types of Reactors

  • Alternative Reactor Designs

  • Breeder Reactors


Radioactive waste management l.jpg
Radioactive Waste Management

  • Ocean Dumping

  • Land Disposal

    • high-level waste repository

    • monitored, retrievable storage

  • Decommissioning Old Nuclear Plants


Changing fortunes of nuclear power l.jpg
Changing Fortunes of Nuclear Power

  • Changing Public Opinion

  • Nuclear Fusion

    • Magnetic confinement

    • Inertial confinement


Chapter 22 sustainable energy l.jpg
CHAPTER 22SUSTAINABLE ENERGY


Conservation l.jpg
Conservation

  • Utilization Efficiencies

  • Energy Conversion Efficiencies

    • net energy yield

  • Negawatt programs

  • Co-generation


Tapping solar energy l.jpg
Tapping Solar Energy

  • A Vast Resource

  • Passive Solar Heat

  • Active Solar Heat

    • Eutectic Chemicals


High temperature solar energy l.jpg
High-Temperature Solar Energy

  • Solar Cookers

  • Promoting Renewable Energy

  • Photovaltaic Solar Energy

    • Photovoltaic Cells

  • Storing Electrical Energy


Energy from biomass l.jpg
Energy from Biomass

  • Burning Biomass

  • Fuelwood crisis in LDCs

  • Dung and Methane as Fuels

  • Alcohol from Biomass

    • gasohol

  • Crop Residues, Energy Crops and Peat


Energy from the earth s forces l.jpg
Energy from the Earth’s Forces

  • Hydropower

    • Dams and Hydro Generators

  • Wind Energy

    • Wind Farms

  • Geothermal Energy

  • Tidal and Wave Energy

    • Tidal Stations

  • Ocean Thermal Electric Conversion


Chapter 23 solid toxic and hazardous waste l.jpg
CHAPTER 23SOLID, TOXIC AND HAZARDOUS WASTE


Solid waste l.jpg
Solid Waste

  • Waste Stream

    • Paper, 38%

    • Yard waste, 17%

    • Metals, 8%

    • Plastics, 8%

    • Glass, 7%

    • Food, 7%

    • Miscellaneous, 14%


Waste disposal methods l.jpg
Waste Disposal Methods

  • Open Dumps

  • Ocean Dumpings

  • Landfills

  • Export Waste

  • Incineration and Resource Recovery

    • Types of incinerators

      • refuse-derived fuel

      • mass burn

    • Incinerator Cost and Safety


Reducing the waste stream l.jpg
Reducing the Waste Stream

  • Recycling

  • Composting

  • Energy from Waste

  • Reuse

  • Producing Less Waste

    • Photodegradable plastics

    • Biodegradable plastics


Hazardous and toxic wastes l.jpg
Hazardous and Toxic Wastes

  • Hazardous Waste Disposal

  • Superfund

  • Hazardous Waste Management

    • Produce Less Waste

    • Convert to Less Hazardous Substances

      • Physical treatments

      • Chemical treatments

      • Bioremediation

    • Store Permanently

      • Retrievable Storage

      • Secure Landfills


Chapter 24 urbanization and sustainable cities l.jpg
CHAPTER 24URBANIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES


Urbanization l.jpg
Urbanization

  • What is a city?

    • Rural area

    • Urban area

    • Village

    • City

    • Megacity

    • Core region

  • World Urbanization


Causes of urban growth l.jpg
Causes of Urban Growth

  • Immigration Push Factors

  • Immigration Pull Factors

  • Government Policies


Urban problems l.jpg
Urban Problems

  • The Developing World

    • Traffic and Congestion

    • Air Pollution

    • Sewer Systems and Water Pollution

    • Housing

      • Slums

      • Shantytowns

      • Squatter Towns


Slide175 l.jpg


Transportation and city growth l.jpg
Transportation and City Growth

  • Transportation methods

    • horse & buggy

    • automobiles

  • Roads/freeways


City planning l.jpg
City Planning

  • History

  • Garden Cities and New Towns

  • Cities of the Future

    • technopolis

  • Urban Redesign

  • Design for Open space

    • conservation


Slide178 l.jpg

  • Urban Redesign

    • Limit size

    • Development areas

    • Shopping malls into city centers

    • Convenience for shopping and services

    • Job location

    • Exercise areas

    • Diverse housing

    • “Superblocks”

    • Self-sustainable food and waste centers

    • Public participation


Chapter 25 what then shall we do l.jpg
CHAPTER 25WHAT THEN SHALL WE DO?


Environmental education l.jpg
Environmental Education

  • Environmental Literacy

  • Environmental Careers


Individual accountability l.jpg
Individual Accountability

  • Shopping for Green Products

    • precycling

    • Non toxic products

    • recyclable products

    • natural products

    • Environmentally friendly products

  • Blue Angels and Green Seals

  • Limits of Green Consumerism

  • Paying Attention to What’s Important


Collective actions l.jpg
Collective Actions

  • Student Environmental Groups

  • Mainline Environmental Organizations

  • Broadening the Environmental Agenda

  • Deep or Shallow Environmentalism

  • Radical Environmental Groups

  • Anti-environmental Backlash


Global issues l.jpg
Global Issues

  • Public Opinions and Environmental Protection

    • “Post materialist” values

  • Sustainable Development

  • International Nongovernmental Organizations


Green government and politics l.jpg
Green Government and Politics

  • Green Politics

    • “Green” Parties

  • Green Plans

  • National Legislation

  • Courts

  • Executive Branch

  • Environmental Impact Statements

  • International Environmental Treaties and Conventions


ad